Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

natural rubber Related Abstracts

9 The Effect of Ingredients Mixing Sequence in Rubber Compounding on the Formation of Bound Rubber and Cross-Link Density of Natural Rubber

Authors: Hary Sulistyo, Rochmadi, Abu Hasan, Suharto Honggokusumo


This research purpose is to study the effect of Ingredients mixing sequence in rubber compounding onto the formation of bound rubber and cross link density of natural rubber and also the relationship of bound rubber and cross link density. Analysis of bound rubber formation of rubber compound and cross link density of rubber vulcanizates were carried out on a natural rubber formula having masticated and mixing, followed by curing. There were four methods of mixing and each mixing process was followed by four mixing sequence methods of carbon black into the rubber. In the first method of mixing sequence, rubber was masticated for 5 min and then rubber chemicals and carbon black N 330 were added simultaneously. In the second one, rubber was masticated for 1 min and followed by addition of rubber chemicals and carbon black N 330 simultaneously using the different method of mixing then the first one. In the third one, carbon black N 660 was used for the same mixing procedure of the second one, and in the last one, rubber was masticated for 3 min, carbon black N 330 and rubber chemicals were added subsequently. The addition of rubber chemicals and carbon black into masticated rubber was distinguished by the sequence and time allocated for each mixing process. Carbon black was added into two stages. In the first stage, 10 phr was added first and the remaining 40 phr was added later along with oil. In the second one to the fourth one, the addition of carbon black in the first and the second stage was added in the phr ratio 20:30, 30:20, and 40:10. The results showed that the ingredients mixing process influenced bound rubber formation and cross link density. In the three methods of mixing, the bound rubber formation was proportional with crosslink density. In contrast in the fourth one, bound rubber formation and cross link density had contradictive relation. Regardless of the mixing method operated, bound rubber had non linear relationship with cross link density. The high cross link density was formed when low bound rubber formation. The cross link density became constant at high bound rubber content.

Keywords: bound-rubber, cross-link density, natural rubber, rubber mixing process

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8 In Vitro Assessment of the Genotoxicity of Composite Obtained by Mixture of Natural Rubber and Leather Residues for Textile Application

Authors: Dalita G. S. M. Cavalcante, Elton A. P. dos Reis, Andressa S. Gomes, Caroline S. Danna, Leandra Ernest Kerche-Silva, Eidi Yoshihara, Aldo E. Job


In order to minimize environmental impacts, a composite was developed from mixture of leather shavings (LE) with natural rubber (NR), which patent is already deposited. The new material created can be used in applications such as floors e heels for shoes. Besides these applications, the aim is to use this new material for the production of products for the textile industry, such as boots, gloves and bags. But the question arises, as to biocompatibility of this new material. This is justified because the structure of the leather shavings has chrome. The trivalent chromium is usually not toxic, but the hexavalent chromium can be highly toxic and genotoxic for living beings, causing damage to the DNA molecule and contributing to the formation of cancer. Based on this, the objective of this study is evaluate the possible genotoxic effects of the new composite, using as system - test two cell lines (MRC-5 and CHO-K1) by comet assay. For this, the production of the composite was performed in three proportions: for every 100 grams of NR was added 40 (E40), 50 (E50) or 60 (E60) grams of LE. The latex was collected from the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). For vulcanization of the NR, activators and accelerators were used. The two cell lines were exposed to the new composite in its three proportions using elution method, that is, cells exposed to liquid extracts obtained from the composite for 24 hours. For obtaining the liquid extract, each sample of the composite was crushed into pieces and mixed with an extraction solution. The quantification of total chromium and hexavalent chromium in the extracts were performed by Optical Emission Spectrometry by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES). The levels of DNA damage in cells exposed to both extracts were monitored by alkaline version of the comet assay. The results of the quantification of metals in ICP-OES indicated the presence of total chromium in different extracts, but were not detected presence of hexavalent chromium in any extract. Through the comet assay were not found DNA damage of the CHO-K1 cells exposed to both extracts. As for MRC-5, was found a significant increase in DNA damage in cells exposed to E50 and E60. Based on the above data, it can be asserted that the extracts obtained from the composite were highly genotoxic for MRC-5 cells. These biological responses do not appear to be related to chromium metal, since there was a predominance of trivalent chromium in the extracts, indicating that during the production process of the new composite, there was no formation of hexavalent chromium. In conclusion it can infer that the leather shavings containing chromium can be reused, thereby reducing the environmental impacts of this waste. Already on the composite indicates to its incorporation in applications that do not aim at direct contact with the human skin, and it is suggested the chain of composite production be studied, in an attempt to make it biocompatible so that it may be safely used by the textile industry.

Keywords: Genotoxicity, cell line, natural rubber, chrome, leather

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7 Optimization of Human Hair Concentration for a Natural Rubber Based Composite

Authors: Soney C. George, Richu J. Babu, Sony Mathew, Sharon Rony Jacob, Jibin C. Jacob


Human hair is a non-biodegradable waste available in plenty throughout the world but is rarely explored for applications in engineering fields. Tensile strength of human hair ranges from 170 to 220 MPa. This property of human hair can be made use in the field of making bio-composites[1]. The composite is prepared by commixing the human hair and natural rubber in a two roll mill along with additives followed by vulcanization. Here the concentration of the human hair is varied by fine-tuning the fiber length as 20 mm and sundry tests like tensile, abrasion, tear and hardness were conducted. While incrementing the fiber length up to a certain range the mechanical properties shows superior amendments.

Keywords: Composite, vulcanization, natural rubber, human hair, fiber loading

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6 High Strength, High Toughness Polyhydroxybutyrate-Co-Valerate Based Biocomposites

Authors: S. Z. A. Zaidi, A. Crosky


Biocomposites is a field that has gained much scientific attention due to the current substantial consumption of non-renewable resources and the environmentally harmful disposal methods required for traditional polymer composites. Research on natural fiber reinforced polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) has gained considerable momentum over the past decade. There is little work on PHAs reinforced with unidirectional (UD) natural fibers and little work on using epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) as a toughening agent for PHA-based biocomposites. In this work, we prepared polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHBV) biocomposites reinforced with UD 30 wt.% flax fibers and evaluated the use of ENR with 50% epoxidation (ENR50) as a toughening agent for PHBV biocomposites. Quasi-unidirectional flax/PHBV composites were prepared by hand layup, powder impregnation followed by compression molding.  Toughening agents – polybutylene adiphate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) and ENR50 – were cryogenically ground into powder and mechanically mixed with main matrix PHBV to maintain the powder impregnation process. The tensile, flexural and impact properties of the biocomposites were measured and morphology of the composites examined using optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The UD biocomposites showed exceptionally high mechanical properties as compared to the results obtained previously where only short fibers have been used. The improved tensile and flexural properties were attributed to the continuous nature of the fiber reinforcement and the increased proportion of fibers in the loading direction. The improved impact properties were attributed to a larger surface area for fiber-matrix debonding and for subsequent sliding and fiber pull-out mechanisms to act on, allowing more energy to be absorbed. Coating cryogenically ground ENR50 particles with PHBV powder successfully inhibits the self-healing nature of ENR-50, preventing particles from coalescing and overcoming problems in mechanical mixing, compounding and molding. Cryogenic grinding, followed by powder impregnation and subsequent compression molding is an effective route to the production of high-mechanical-property biocomposites based on renewable resources for high-obsolescence applications such as plastic casings for consumer electronics.

Keywords: Natural Fibers, natural rubber, polyhydroxyalkanoates, unidirectional

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5 Preparation and Properties of NR Based Ebonite Rubber Suitable for Use as Engineering Material

Authors: Dosu Malomo, O. E. Edeh, P. O. Okolo, F. C. Ibeh


The preparation of various samples of ebonite vulcanizates and their physico-mechanical properties have been investigated using standard methods. This work explores the production of ebonite dust, production of ebonite vulcanizates and investigation of the characterisation of the ebonite. Five different ebonite materials – labelled A, B, C, D, and E with sulphur content in parts per hundred grams of rubber (Phr) of 32, 34, 36, 38 and 40 respectively were produced. The physico-mechanical properties carried out were tensile strength, hardness and abrasion resistance. The tensile strength (MPa) for sample A, B, C, D and E were 5.6, 3.5, 4.7, 1.7 and 2.0 respectively while the abrasion(%mass loss) were 8.49, 4.24, 2.59, 1.08 and 1.05 respectively and the hardness (IRHD) being 63, 64, 65, 70 and 82. The results show that the preparation of ebonite from natural rubber as a base polymer is feasible considering the results of characterisation obtained.

Keywords: vulcanization, natural rubber, compounding, ebonite dust

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4 Sustainable Manufacturing of Concentrated Latex and Ribbed Smoked Sheets in Sri Lanka

Authors: Pasan Dunuwila, V. H. L. Rodrigo, Naohiro Goto


Sri Lanka is one the largest natural rubber (NR) producers of the world, where the NR industry is a major foreign exchange earner. Among the locally manufactured NR products, concentrated latex (CL) and ribbed smoked sheets (RSS) hold a significant position. Furthermore, these products become the foundation for many products utilized by the people all over the world (e.g. gloves, condoms, tires, etc.). Processing of CL and RSS costs a significant amount of material, energy, and workforce. With this background, both manufacturing lines have immensely challenged by waste, low productivity, lack of cost efficiency, rising cost of production, and many environmental issues. To face the above challenges, the adaptation of sustainable manufacturing measures that use less energy, water, materials, and produce less waste is imperative. However, these sectors lack comprehensive studies that shed light on such measures and thoroughly discuss their improvement potentials from both environmental and economic points of view. Therefore, based on a study of three CL and three RSS mills in Sri Lanka, this study deploys sustainable manufacturing techniques and tools to uncover the underlying potentials to improve performances in CL and RSS processing sectors. This study is comprised of three steps: 1. quantification of average material waste, economic losses, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions via material flow analysis (MFA), material flow cost accounting (MFCA), and life cycle assessment (LCA) in each manufacturing process, 2. identification of improvement options with the help of Pareto and What-if analyses, field interviews, and the existing literature; and 3. validation of the identified improvement options via the re-execution of MFA, MFCA, and LCA. With the help of this methodology, the economic and environmental hotspots, and the degrees of improvement in both systems could be identified. Results highlighted that each process could be improved to have less waste, monetary losses, manufacturing costs, and GHG emissions. Conclusively, study`s methodology and findings are believed to be beneficial for assuring the sustainable growth not only in Sri Lankan NR processing sector itself but also in NR or any other industry rooted in other developing countries.

Keywords: Sri Lanka, natural rubber, concentrated latex, ribbed smoked sheets

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3 X-Ray Diffraction and Crosslink Density Analysis of Starch/Natural Rubber Polymer Composites Prepared by Latex Compounding Method

Authors: Raymond Dominic Uzoh


Starch fillers were extracted from three plant sources namely amora tuber (a wild variety of Irish potato), sweet potato and yam starch and their particle size, pH, amylose, and amylopectin percentage decomposition determined accordingly by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The starch was introduced into natural rubber in liquid phase (through gelatinization) by the latex compounding method and compounded according to standard method. The prepared starch/natural rubber composites was characterized by Instron Universal testing machine (UTM) for tensile mechanical properties. The composites was further characterized by x-ray diffraction and crosslink density analysis. The particle size determination showed that amora starch granules have the highest particle size (156 × 47 μm) followed by yam starch (155× 40 μm) and then the sweet potato starch (153 × 46 μm). The pH test also revealed that amora starch has a near neutral pH of 6.9, yam 6.8, and sweet potato 5.2 respectively. Amylose and amylopectin determination showed that yam starch has a higher percentage of amylose (29.68), followed by potato (22.34) and then amora starch with the lowest value (14.86) respectively. The tensile mechanical properties testing revealed that yam starch produced the best tensile mechanical properties followed by amora starch and then sweet potato starch. The structure, crystallinity/amorphous nature of the product composite was confirmed by x-ray diffraction, while the nature of crosslinking was confirmed by swelling test in toluene solvent using the Flory-Rehner approach. This research study has rendered a workable strategy for enhancing interfacial interaction between a hydrophilic filler (starch) and hydrophobic polymeric matrix (natural rubber) yielding moderately good tensile mechanical properties for further exploitation development and application in the rubber processing industry.

Keywords: Starch, fillers, natural rubber, crosslink density, amylose, amylopectin

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2 Identification of the Best Blend Composition of Natural Rubber-High Density Polyethylene Blends for Roofing Applications

Authors: W. V. W. H. Wickramaarachchi, S. Walpalage, S. M. Egodage


Thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) is a multifunctional polymeric material which possesses a combination of excellent properties of parent materials. Basically, TPE has a rubber phase and a thermoplastic phase which gives processability as thermoplastics. When the rubber phase is partially or fully crosslinked in the thermoplastic matrix, TPE is called as thermoplastic elastomer vulcanizate (TPV). If the rubber phase is non-crosslinked, it is called as thermoplastic elastomer olefin (TPO). Nowadays TPEs are introduced into the commercial market with different products. However, the application of TPE as a roofing material is limited. Out of the commercially available roofing products from different materials, only single ply roofing membranes and plastic roofing sheets are produced from rubbers and plastics. Natural rubber (NR) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) are used in various industrial applications individually with some drawbacks. Therefore, this study was focused to develop both TPO and TPV blends from NR and HDPE at different compositions and then to identify the best blend composition to use as a roofing material. A series of blends by varying NR loading from 10 wt% to 50 wt%, at 10 wt% intervals, were prepared using a twin screw extruder. Dicumyl peroxide was used as a crosslinker for TPV. The standard properties for a roofing material like tensile properties tear strength, hardness, impact strength, water absorption, swell/gel analysis and thermal characteristics of the blends were investigated. Change of tensile strength after exposing to UV radiation was also studied. Tensile strength, hardness, tear strength, melting temperature and gel content of TPVs show higher values compared to TPOs at every loading studied, while water absorption and swelling index show lower values, suggesting TPVs are more suitable than TPOs for roofing applications. Most of the optimum properties were shown at 10/90 (NR/HDPE) composition. However, high impact strength and gel content were shown at 20/80 (NR/HDPE) composition. Impact strength, as being an energy absorbing property, is the most important for a roofing material in order to resist impact loads. Therefore, 20/80 (NR/HDPE) is identified as the best blend composition. UV resistance and other properties required for a roofing material could be achieved by incorporating suitable additives to TPVs.

Keywords: Thermoplastic Elastomer, high density polyethylene, natural rubber, roofing material

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1 Functionalized Ultra-Soft Rubber for Soft Robotics Application

Authors: Amit Das, Shib Shankar Banerjeea, Andreas Ferya, Gert Heinricha


Recently, the growing need for the development of soft robots consisting of highly deformable and compliance materials emerge from the serious limitations of conventional service robots. However, one of the main challenges of soft robotics is to develop such compliance materials, which facilitates the design of soft robotic structures and, simultaneously, controls the soft-body systems, like soft artificial muscles. Generally, silicone or acrylic-based elastomer composites are used for soft robotics. However, mechanical performance and long-term reliabilities of the functional parts (sensors, actuators, main body) of the robot made from these composite materials are inferior. This work will present the development and characterization of robust super-soft programmable elastomeric materials from crosslinked natural rubber that can serve as touch and strain sensors for soft robotic arms with very high elastic properties and strain, while the modulus is altered in the kilopascal range. Our results suggest that such soft natural programmable elastomers can be promising materials and can replace conventional silicone-based elastomer for soft robotics applications.

Keywords: Sensors, Soft Materials, Elastomers, natural rubber

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