Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

Natural Pesticides Related Abstracts

2 Characterization of a Broad Range Antimicrobial Substance from Pseudozyma aphidis

Authors: Raviv Harris, Maggie Levy

Abstract:

Natural product-based pesticides may serve as an alternative to the traditional synthetic pesticides, which have a potentially damaging effect, both to human health and for the environment. Along with plants, microorganisms are a prospective source of such biological pesticides. A unique and active strain of P. aphidis (designated isolate L12, Israel 2004), an epiphytic and non-pathogenic basidiomycete yeast, was isolated in our lab from strawberry leaves. P. aphidis L12 secretions were found to inhibit broad range of plant pathogens. This work demonstrates that metabolites isolated from the biocontrol agent P. aphidis (isolate L12) can inhibit varied fungal and bacterial phytopathogens. Biologically active metabolites were extracted from P. aphidis biomass, using the organic solvent ethyl acetate. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was demonstrated, both in vitro and in planta. Using disk diffusion assays, the following inhibition zones were obtained: 43cm² for Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, 28.5cm² for Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, 59cm² for Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, 34cm² for Erwinia amylovora and 34cm² for Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Additionally, strong inhibitory activity of the extract against fungi mycelial growth was established, with IC₅₀ values of 606µg ml⁻¹ for Botrytis cinerea, 221µg ml⁻¹ for Pythium spp., 519µg ml⁻¹ for Rhizoctonia solani, 455µg ml⁻¹ for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, 2270µg ml⁻¹ for Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, and 2038µg ml⁻¹ for Alternaria alternata. The results of the in planta experiments demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction in disease infection. Significant inhibition of B. cinerea lesions on tomato plants was obtained when a spore suspension of this pathogen was treated with extract concentrations higher than 4.2mg ml⁻¹. Concentration of 7mg ml⁻¹ caused a reduction of over 95% in the lesion size of B. cinerea on tomato plants. The strong antimicrobial activity demonstrated both in vitro and in planta against varied phytopathogens, may indicate that the extracted antimicrobial metabolites have potential to serve as natural pesticides in the field.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Natural Pesticides, Metabolites, B. cinerea, P. aphidis

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1 Adverse Effects of Natural Pesticides on Human and Animals: An Experimental Analysis

Authors: Abdel-Tawab H. Mossa

Abstract:

Synthetic pesticides are widely used in large-scale worldwide for control pests in agriculture and public health sectors in both developed and developing countries. Although the positive role of pesticides, they have many adverse toxic effects on humans, animals, and the ecosystem. Therefore, in the last few years, scientists have been searching for new active compounds from natural resources as an alternative to synthetic pesticides. Currently, many commercial natural pesticides are available commercially worldwide. These products are recommended for uses in organic farmers and considered as safe pesticides. This paper focuses on the adverse effects of natural pesticides on mammals. Available commercial pesticides in the market contain essential oils (e.g. pepper, cinnamon, and garlic), plant extracts, microorganism (e.g. bacteria, fungi or their toxin), mineral oils and some active compounds from natural recourses e.g. spinosad, neem, pyrethrum, rotenone, abamectin and other active compounds from essential oils (EOs). Some EOs components, e.g., thujone, pulegone, and thymol have high acute toxicity (LD50) is 87.5, 150 and 980 mg/kg. B.wt on mice, respectively. Natural pesticides such as spinosad, pyrethrum, neem, abamectin, and others have toxicological effects to mammals and ecosystem. These compounds were found to cause hematotoxicity, hepato-renal toxicity, biochemical alteration, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity. It caused adverse effects on the ecosystem. Therefore, natural pesticides in general not safe and have high acute toxicity and can induce adverse effects at long-term exposure.

Keywords: Ecosystem, Biochemical, Safety, Toxicity, Natural Pesticides, Genotoxicity

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