Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

National Security Related Abstracts

21 The Law of Treaties and National Security of Islamic Republic of Iran

Authors: S. M. Tavakoli Sani, M. Sabbet Moghadam, Y. Khorram Farhadi, Iraj Rezayi Nejad

Abstract:

The concept of national security in Iran is a permanently effective factor in acceptance or rejection of many international obligations. These obligations had been defined according to the type of legislation of Iran in many aspects. Therefore, there are several treaties at international level which requires Iran’s security to come in contact with obligations in these treaties in a way that an obstacle to join to them and their passage in parliament. This issue is a typical category which every country pays attention to be accepted in treaties or to include their national security in that treaties and also they can see the related treaties from this perspective, but this issue that 'what is the concept of Iran’s national security', and 'To what extent it is changed in recent years, especially after Islamic Revolution' are important issues that can be criticized. Thus, this study is trying to assess singed treaties from the perspective of Iran’s national security according of the true meaning of treaty and to investigate how the international treaties may be in conflict with Iran’s national security.

Keywords: National Security, Treaties, Iran, Islamic Revolution

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20 Legal Issues of Food Security in Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: G. T. Aigarinova

Abstract:

This article considers the legal issues of food security as a major component of national security of the republic. The problem of food security is the top priority of the economic policy strategy of any state, the effectiveness of this solution influences social, political, and ethnic stability in society. Food security and nutrition is everyone’s business. Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. By analyzing the existing legislation in the area of food security, the author identifies weaknesses and gaps, suggesting ways to improve it.

Keywords: Food Security, Agriculture, National Security, Economic Security, public resources

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19 Managing Education through, Effective School Community Relationships/Participation for National Security

Authors: Shehu S. Janguza

Abstract:

The need for national security cannot be over Emphasis, which should be pursued by any means. Thus the need for effective management of education through effective school community Relationship/participation. In preparing and implementing only effort to promote community involvement in manning Education, it is importance to understand the whole picture of community participation, how it works, what forms are used, what benefit it can yield and what we should expect in the process of carrying out the efforts finally emphasis will be made on how effective school community relationship/participation and lead to national security.

Keywords: National Security, Managing, community participation, school community

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18 Foreign Policy and National Security Dilemma: Examining Nigerian Experience

Authors: Shuaibu Umar Abdul

Abstract:

The essence of any state as well as government is to ensure and advance the security of lives and property of its citizens. As a result, providing security in all spheres ranging from safeguarding the territorial integrity, security of lives and property of the citizens as well as economic emancipation have constitute the core objectives cum national interest of virtually all country’s foreign policy in the world. In view of this imperative above, Nigeria has enshrined in the early part of her 1999 constitution as amended, as its duty and responsibility as a state, to ensure security of lives and property of its citizens. Yet, it does not make any significant shift as it relates to the country’s fundamental security needs as exemplified by the current enormous security challenges that reduced the country’s fortune to the background in all ramifications. The study chooses realist paradigm as theoretical underpinning which emphasizes that exigency of the moment should always take priority in the pursuit of foreign policy. The study is historical, descriptive and narrative in method and character. Data for the study was sourced from secondary sources and analysed via content analysis. The study found out that it is lack of political will on the side of the government to guarantee a just and egalitarian society that will be of benefit to all citizens. This could be more appreciated when looking at the gaps between the theory in Nigerian foreign policy and the practice as exemplified by the action or inaction of the government to ensure security in the state. On this account, the study recommends that until the leaderships in Nigerian foreign policy recognized the need for political will and respect for constitutionalism to ensure security of its citizens and territory, otherwise achieving great Nigeria will remain an illusion.

Keywords: Security, National Security, Foreign Policy, Nigeria, nation

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17 An Exploration of Cyberspace Security, Strategy for a New Era

Authors: Laxmi R. Kasaraneni

Abstract:

The Internet connects all the networks, including the nation’s critical infrastructure that are used extensively by not only a nation’s government and military to protect sensitive information and execute missions, but also the primary infrastructure that provides services that enable modern conveniences such as education, potable water, electricity, natural gas, and financial transactions. It has become the central nervous system for the government, the citizens, and the industries. When it is attacked, the effects can ripple far and wide impacts not only to citizens’ well-being but nation’s economy, civil infrastructure, and national security. As such, these critical services may be targeted by malicious hackers during cyber warfare, it is imperative to not only protect them and mitigate any immediate or potential threats, but to also understand the current or potential impacts beyond the IT networks or the organization. The Nation’s IT infrastructure which is now vital for communication, commerce, and control of our physical infrastructure, is highly vulnerable to attack. While existing technologies can address some vulnerabilities, fundamentally new architectures and technologies are needed to address the larger structural insecurities of an infrastructure developed in a more trusting time when mass cyber attacks were not foreseen. This research is intended to improve the core functions of the Internet and critical-sector information systems by providing a clear path to create a safe, secure, and resilient cyber environment that help stakeholders at all levels of government, and the private sector work together to develop the cybersecurity capabilities that are key to our economy, national security, and public health and safety. This research paper also emphasizes the present and future cyber security threats, the capabilities and goals of cyber attackers, a strategic concept and steps to implement cybersecurity for maximum effectiveness, enabling technologies, some strategic assumptions and critical challenges, and the future of cyberspace.

Keywords: Cyber Security, National Security, critical infrastructure, Enabling Technologies, critical challenges

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16 The Potential Threat of Cyberterrorism to the National Security: Theoretical Framework

Authors: Abdulrahman S. Alqahtani

Abstract:

The revolution of computing and networks could revolutionise terrorism in the same way that it has brought about changes in other aspects of life. The modern technological era has faced countries with a new set of security challenges. There are many states and potential adversaries who have the potential and capacity in cyberspace, which makes them able to carry out cyber-attacks in the future. Some of them are currently conducting surveillance, gathering and analysis of technical information, and mapping of networks and nodes and infrastructure of opponents, which may be exploited in future conflicts. This poster presents the results of the quantitative study (survey) to test the validity of the proposed theoretical framework for the cyber terrorist threats. This theoretical framework will help to in-depth understand these new digital terrorist threats. It may also be a practical guide for managers and technicians in critical infrastructure, to understand and assess the threats they face. It might also be the foundation for building a national strategy to counter cyberterrorism. In the beginning, it provides basic information about the data. To purify the data, reliability and exploratory factor analysis, as well as confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were performed. Then, Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was utilised to test the final model of the theory and to assess the overall goodness-of-fit between the proposed model and the collected data set.

Keywords: Terrorism, National Security, critical infrastructure, Cyberterrorism, theoretical framework

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15 Harnessing Entrepreneurial Opportunities for National Security

Authors: Itiola Kehinde Adeniran

Abstract:

This paper investigated the influence of harnessing entrepreneurial opportunities on the national security in Nigeria with a specific focus on the security situation of the post-amnesty programmes of the Federal Government in Ondo State. The self-administered structured questionnaire was employed to collect data from one hundred and twenty participants through purposive sampling method. Inferential statistics was used to analyze the data, specifically; ordinary least squares linear regression method was employed with the aid of statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20 in order to determine the influence of independent variable (entrepreneurial opportunities) on dependent variable (national security). The result showed that business opportunities have a significant influence on the rate of criminal activities. The study also revealed that entrepreneurial opportunity creation and discovery as well as providing a model on how these entrepreneurial opportunities could be effectively and efficiently utilized jointly predict better national security, which counted for 69% variance of crime rate reduction. The paper, therefore, recommended that citizens should be encouraged to develop an interest in the skill-based activities in order to change their mindset towards self-employment which can motivate them in identify entrepreneurial opportunities.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, National Security, Unemployment, entrepreneurial opportunities

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14 Child Labour and the Challenges of National Security in Nigeria: A Study of Aba Urban, Abia State, Nigeria

Authors: Anyaogu Paul

Abstract:

The study examines the problem of child labour in respect to National security in Nigeria. The current situation reflects a chronic urban poverty, which can compel parents and guardians to send their children and wards of school age to engage in income yielding activities to augment family income. The study sought to explain the basis of child labour, its causes and its effects on its victim and society at large. A social survey research design was employed to select the respondents. A sample size of 250 respondents was selected from targeted population of children below the age of 18 years. A questionnaire instrument was employed to collect data. An accidental sampling technique was employed to select the respondents. The findings revealed that child labour is on the increase and a serious threat to national security and social cohesion. The study recommends that the Nigerian government should enforce the laws on child labour and provide opportunities for job creation for urban dwellers. More so, government should also provide free and compulsory education at primary and secondary school levels of education.

Keywords: National Security, child labour, family income, survey research

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13 The Potential Role of University Libraries in the Fight against Terrorism in Upper Egypt

Authors: Essam Mansour

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to explore the potential role of South Valley University (SVU) libraries’ manpower, collections and services in the fight against terrorism in the Upper Egypt. A quantitative research methodology was used in the form of a survey sent to 127 library staff at the SVU. The survey was undertaken from June to July 2015 with a response rate 73.2%. Printed materials were the most adequate collections in the SVU libraries. Other materials, such as CDs/DVDs, audiovisual materials, microfilm and microfiche, online resources and electronic materials respectively were inadequate at SVU libraries. Few of the services provided by SVU libraries were characterized as adequate services, some are inadequate and other services do not exist. The average of the facilities provided by SVU libraries was somewhat adequate. Activities, such as holding social field trips, holding training workshops and holding academic field trip were, at least, somewhat adequate to SVU libraries. SVU libraries had no a significant role in fighting terrorism in the Upper Egypt. There is no a relationship between the SVU library staff’s professional characteristics and the potential role that their libraries may play in the fight against this phenomenon. As a result of the lack of SVU libraries’ collections, services, facilities and activities, this study concluded that that such role could not be achieved. Almost all the library staff admitted that this severe lack has affected the provision of library patrons and members of the library community to these collections and services, which help in countering the threat of terrorism. Despite the significance of all these problems faced by SVU libraries in the fight against terrorism, it was found that the inadequacy of the library opening hours is significantly correlated with the professional characteristics of the library staff, particularly their job title and work experience.

Keywords: Terrorism, National Security, University Libraries, Survey, Egypt, south valley university

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12 Hampering The 'Right to Know': Consequences of the Excessive Interpretation of the Notion of Exemption from the Right to Information

Authors: Tomasz Lewinski

Abstract:

The right to know becomes gradually recognised as an increasing number of states adopts national legislations regarding access to state-held information. Laws differ from each other in the scope of the right to information (hereinafter: RTI). In all regimes of RTI, there are exceptions from the general notion of the right. States’ authorities too often use exceptions to justify refusals to requests for state-held information. This paper sets out how states hamper RTI basing on the notion of exception and by not providing an effective procedure that could redress unlawful denials. This paper bases on two selected examples of RTI incorporation into the national legal regime, United Kingdom, and South Africa. It succinctly outlines the international standard given in Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (hereinafter: ICCPR) and its influence on the RTI in selected countries. It shortly demonstrates as a background to further analysis the Human Rights Committee’s jurisprudence and standards articulated by successive Special Rapporteurs on freedom of opinion and expression. Subsequently, it presents a brief comparison of these standards with the regional standards, namely the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights and the European Convention on Human Rights. It critically discusses the regimes of exceptions in RTI legislations in respective national laws. It shows how excessive these regimes are, what implications they have for the transparency in general. Also, the objective is to divide exceptions enumerated in legislations of selected states in relation to exceptions provided in Article 19 of the ICCPR. Basing on the established division of exceptions by its natures, it compares both regimes of exceptions related to the principle of national security. That is to compare jurisprudence of domestic courts, and overview practices of states’ authorities applied to RTI requests. The paper evaluates remedies available in legislations, including contexts of the length and costs of the subsequent proceedings. This provides a general assessment of the given mechanisms and present potential risks of its ineffectiveness. The paper relies on examination of the national legislations, comments of the credible non-governmental organisations (e.g. The Public's Right to Know Principles on Freedom of Information Legislation by the Article 19, The Tshwane Principles on National Security and the Right to Information), academics and also the research of the relevant judgements delivered by domestic and international courts. Conclusion assesses whether selected countries’ legislations go in line with international law and trends, whether the jurisprudence of the regional courts provide appropriate benchmarks for national courts to address RTI issues effectively. Furthermore, it identifies the largest disadvantages of current legislations and to what outcomes it leads in domestic courts jurisprudences. In the end, it provides recommendations and policy arguments for states to improve transparency and support local organisations in their endeavours to establish more transparent states and societies.

Keywords: National Security, Freedom of Information, Transparency, access to information, right to know

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11 The Applicability of General Catholic Canon Law during the Ongoing Migration Crisis in Hungary

Authors: Lorand Ujhazi

Abstract:

The vast majority of existing canonical studies about migration are focused on examining the general pastoral and legal regulations of the Catholic Church. The weakness of this approach is that it ignores a number of important factors; like the financial, legal and personal circumstances of a particular church or the canonical position of certain organizations which actually look after the immigrants. This paper is a case study, which analyses the current and historical migration related policies and activities of the Catholic Church in Hungary. To achieve this goal the study uses canon law, historical publications, various instructions and communications issued by church superiors, Hungarian and foreign media reports and the relevant Hungarian legislation. The paper first examines how the Hungarian Catholic Church assisted migrants like Armenians fleeing from the Ottoman Empire, Poles escaping during the Second World War, East German and Romanian citizens in the 1980s and refugees from the former Yugoslavia in the 1990s. These events underline the importance of past historical experience in the development of contemporary pastoral and humanitarian policy of the Catholic Church in Hungary. Then the paper turns to the events of the ongoing crisis by describing the unique challenges faced by churches in transit countries like Hungary. Then the research contrasts these findings with the typical responsibilities of churches in countries which are popular destinations for immigrants. The next part of the case study focuses on the changes to the pre-crisis legal and canonical framework which influenced the actions of hierarchical and charity organizations in Hungary. Afterwards, the paper illustrates the dangers of operating in an unclear legal environment, where some charitable activities of the church like a fundraising campaign may be interpreted as a national security risk by state authorities. Then the paper presents the reactions of Hungarian academics to the current migration crisis and finally it offers some proposals how to improve parts of Canon Law which govern immigration. The conclusion of the paper is that during the formulation of the central refugee policy of the Catholic Church decision makers must take into consideration the peculiar circumstances of its particular churches. This approach may prevent disharmony between the existing central regulations, the policy of the Vatican and the operations of the local church organizations.

Keywords: National Security, Civil Law, Immigration, canon law, Catholic Church, Hungary

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10 The Role of Social Media in the Rise of Islamic State in India: An Analytical Overview

Authors: Parvinder Singh, Yasmeen Cheema

Abstract:

The evolution of Islamic State (acronym IS) has an ultimate goal of restoring the caliphate. IS threat to the global security is main concern of international community but has also raised a factual concern for India about the regular radicalization of IS ideology among Indian youth. The incident of joining Arif Ejaz Majeed, an Indian as ‘jihadist’ in IS has set strident alarm in law & enforcement agencies. On 07.03.2017, many people were injured in an Improvised Explosive Device (IED) blast on-board of Bhopal Ujjain Express. One perpetrator of this incident was killed in encounter with police. But, the biggest shock is that the conspiracy was pre-planned and the assailants who carried out the blast were influenced by the ideology perpetrated by the Islamic State. This is the first time name of IS has cropped up in a terror attack in India. It is a red indicator of violent presence of IS in India, which is spreading through social media. The IS have the capacity to influence the younger Muslim generation in India through its brutal and aggressive propaganda videos, social media apps and hatred speeches. It is a well known fact that India is on the radar of IS, as well on its ‘Caliphate Map’. IS uses Twitter, Facebook and other social media platforms constantly. Islamic State has used enticing videos, graphics, and articles on social media and try to influence persons from India & globally that their jihad is worthy. According to arrested perpetrator of IS in different cases in India, the most of Indian youths are victims to the daydreams which are fondly shown by IS. The dreams that the Muslim empire as it was before 1920 can come back with all its power and also that the Caliph and its caliphate can be re-established are shown by the IS. Indian Muslim Youth gets attracted towards these euphemistic ideologies. Islamic State has used social media for disseminating its poisonous ideology, recruitment, operational activities and for future direction of attacks. IS through social media inspired its recruits & lone wolfs to continue to rely on local networks to identify targets and access weaponry and explosives. Recently, a pro-IS media group on its Telegram platform shows Taj Mahal as the target and suggested mode of attack as a Vehicle Born Improvised Explosive Attack (VBIED). Islamic State definitely has the potential to destroy the Indian national security & peace, if timely steps are not taken. No doubt, IS has used social media as a critical mechanism for recruitment, planning and executing of terror attacks. This paper will therefore examine the specific characteristics of social media that have made it such a successful weapon for Islamic State. The rise of IS in India should be viewed as a national crisis and handled at the central level with efficient use of modern technology.

Keywords: Social Media, National Security, Ideology, India, recruitment, Islamic State, terror attack

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9 Defense Strategy: Perang Semesta Strategy as a Reliable National Security System of Indonesia

Authors: Erdianta S, Chastiti M. Wulolo, IDK Kerta Widana

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Perang Semesta strategy is a national security system used by Republic of Indonesia. It comes from local wisdom, cultural, and hereditary of Indonesia itself. This system involves all people and all nation resources, and it is early prepared by government and conducted totality, integratedly, directly, and continously to enforce a sovereignty of country, teritorial integrity and the safety of the whole nation from threats. This study uses a qualitative content analysis method by studying, recording, and analyzing government policy. The Perang Semesta strategy divided into main, backup, and supporting components. Every component has its function and responsibility in security perspective. So when an attack comes, all people of Indonesia will voluntary to defend the country. Perang Semesta strategy is a national security system which becomes the most reliable strategy toward geography and demography of Indonesia.

Keywords: National Security, Indonesia, local wisdom, Perang Semesta strategy

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8 Limiting Freedom of Expression to Fight Radicalization: The 'Silencing' of Terrorists Does Not Always Allow Rights to 'Speak Loudly'

Authors: Arianna Vedaschi

Abstract:

This paper addresses the relationship between freedom of expression, national security and radicalization. Is it still possible to talk about a balance between the first two elements? Or, due to the intrusion of the third, is it more appropriate to consider freedom of expression as “permanently disfigured” by securitarian concerns? In this study, both the legislative and the judicial level are taken into account and the comparative method is employed in order to provide the reader with a complete framework of relevant issues and a workable set of solutions. The analysis moves from the finding according to which the tension between free speech and national security has become a major issue in democratic countries, whose very essence is continuously endangered by the ever-changing and multi-faceted threat of international terrorism. In particular, a change in terrorist groups’ recruiting pattern, attracting more and more people by way of a cutting-edge communicative strategy, often employing sophisticated technology as a radicalization tool, has called on law-makers to modify their approach to dangerous speech. While traditional constitutional and criminal law used to punish speech only if it explicitly and directly incited the commission of a criminal action (“cause-effect” model), so-called glorification offences – punishing mere ideological support for terrorism, often on the web – are becoming commonplace in the comparative scenario. Although this is direct, and even somehow understandable, consequence of the impending terrorist menace, this research shows many problematic issues connected to such a preventive approach. First, from a predominantly theoretical point of view, this trend negatively impacts on the already blurred line between permissible and prohibited speech. Second, from a pragmatic point of view, such legislative tools are not always suitable to keep up with ongoing developments of both terrorist groups and their use of technology. In other words, there is a risk that such measures become outdated even before their application. Indeed, it seems hard to still talk about a proper balance: what was previously clearly perceived as a balancing of values (freedom of speech v. public security) has turned, in many cases, into a hierarchy with security at its apex. In light of these findings, this paper concludes that such a complex issue would perhaps be better dealt with through a combination of policies: not only criminalizing ‘terrorist speech,’ which should be relegated to a last resort tool, but acting at an even earlier stage, i.e., trying to prevent dangerous speech itself. This might be done by promoting social cohesion and the inclusion of minorities, so as to reduce the probability of people considering terrorist groups as a “viable option” to deal with the lack of identification within their social contexts.

Keywords: National Security, Free Speech, International Terrorism, Radicalization

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7 Reflecting Socio-Political Needs in Education Policy-Making: An Exploratory Study of Vietnam's Key Education Reforms (1945-2017)

Authors: Linh Tong

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This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of key education reforms in Vietnam from 1945 to 2017, which reflects an evolution of socio-political needs of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam throughout this period. It explores the contextual conditions, motivations and ambitions influencing the formation of the education reforms in Vietnam. It also looks, from an applied practical perspective, at the influence of politics on education policy-making. The research methodology includes a content analysis of curriculum designs proposed by the Ministry of Education and Training, relevant resolutions and executive orders passed by the National Assembly and the Prime Minister, as well as interviews with experts and key stakeholders. The results point to a particular configuration of factors which have been inspiring the shape and substance of these reforms and which have most certainly influenced their implementation. This configuration evolves from the immediate needs to erase illiteracy and cultivate socialist economic model at the beginning of Vietnam’s independence in 1945-1975, to a renewed urge to adopt market-oriented economy in 1986 and cautiously communicate with the outside world until 2000s, and to currently a demonstrated desire to fully integrate into the global economy and tackle with rising concerns about national security (the South China Sea Dispute), environmental sustainability, construction of a knowledge economy, and a rule-of-law society. Overall, the paper attempts to map Vietnam’s socio-political needs with the changing sets of goals and expected outcomes in teaching and learning methodologies and practices as introduced in Vietnamese key education reforms.

Keywords: Curriculum Development, National Security, Knowledge Society, politics of education policy-making, Vietnam's education reforms

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6 Countering Terrorism through Social Media: Case Study in Indonesia

Authors: Mauly Budiyanti, Aisyah M. Anggiana

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Terrorism is a threat to national security since the war on terror era after the tragedy of 9/11. The shifting of national threat from military to non-military centric leads us to recognize that military action is not the only way to face and solve terrorism. Alongside the use of military action to counter terrorism, Indonesia has another way to counter it by using the role of social media. The role of social media on spreading positivity to counter terrorism has the power to show that people now are fearless toward terrorist attack because their goal is to make sure that people are threatened enough by the way they act. This is showing the emergence of the non-state actor has a big impact on national security, as well as pluralism, said about the involving of non-state actor on international events. In this paper, we will examine the role of social media in countering terrorism based on study case in Indonesia.

Keywords: Social Media, Terrorism, National Security, Indonesia

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5 Conceptualizing Conflict in the Gray Zone: A Comparative Analysis of Diplomatic, Military and Political Lenses

Authors: John Hardy, Paul Lushenko

Abstract:

he twenty-first century international security order has been fraught with challenges to the credibility and stability of the post-Cold War status quo. Although the American-led international system has rarely been threatened directly by dissatisfied states, an underlying challenge to the international security order has emerged in the form of a slow-burning abnegation of small but significant aspects of the status quo. Meanwhile, those security challenges which have threatened to destabilize order in the international system have not clearly belonged to the traditional notions of diplomacy and armed conflict. Instead, the main antagonists have been both states and non-state actors, the issues have crossed national and international boundaries, and contestation has occurred in a ‘gray zone’ between peace and war. Gray zone conflicts are not easily categorized as military operations, national security policies or political strategies, because they often include elements of diplomacy, military operations, and statecraft in complex combinations. This study applies three approaches to conceptualizing the gray zone in which many contemporary conflicts take place. The first approach frames gray zone conflicts as a form of coercive diplomacy, in which armed force is used to add credibility and commitment to political threats. The second approach frames gray zone conflicts as a form of discrete military operation, in which armed force is used sparingly and is limited to a specific issue. The third approach frames gray zones conflicts as a form of proxy war, in which armed force is used by or through third parties, rather than directly between belligerents. The study finds that each approach to conceptualizing the gray zone accounts for only a narrow range of issues which fall within the gap between traditional notions of peace and war. However, in combination, all three approaches are useful in explicating the gray zone and understanding the character of contemporary security challenges which defy simple categorization. These findings suggest that coercive diplomacy, discrete military operations, and proxy warfare provide three overlapping lenses for conceptualizing the gray zone and for understanding the gray zone conflicts which threaten international security in the early twenty-first century.

Keywords: Strategy, military operations, National Security, International Security, gray zone

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4 Applications of Multi-Path Futures Analyses for Homeland Security Assessments

Authors: John Hardy

Abstract:

A range of future-oriented intelligence techniques is commonly used by states to assess their national security and develop strategies to detect and manage threats, to develop and sustain capabilities, and to recover from attacks and disasters. Although homeland security organizations use future's intelligence tools to generate scenarios and simulations which inform their planning, there have been relatively few studies of the methods available or their applications for homeland security purposes. This study presents an assessment of one category of strategic intelligence techniques, termed Multi-Path Futures Analyses (MPFA), and how it can be applied to three distinct tasks for the purpose of analyzing homeland security issues. Within this study, MPFA are categorized as a suite of analytic techniques which can include effects-based operations principles, general morphological analysis, multi-path mapping, and multi-criteria decision analysis techniques. These techniques generate multiple pathways to potential futures and thereby generate insight into the relative influence of individual drivers of change, the desirability of particular combinations of pathways, and the kinds of capabilities which may be required to influence or mitigate certain outcomes. The study assessed eighteen uses of MPFA for homeland security purposes and found that there are five key applications of MPFA which add significant value to analysis. The first application is generating measures of success and associated progress indicators for strategic planning. The second application is identifying homeland security vulnerabilities and relationships between individual drivers of vulnerability which may amplify or dampen their effects. The third application is selecting appropriate resources and methods of action to influence individual drivers. The fourth application is prioritizing and optimizing path selection preferences and decisions. The fifth application is informing capability development and procurement decisions to build and sustain homeland security organizations. Each of these applications provides a unique perspective of a homeland security issue by comparing a range of potential future outcomes at a set number of intervals and by contrasting the relative resource requirements, opportunity costs, and effectiveness measures of alternative courses of action. These findings indicate that MPFA enhances analysts’ ability to generate tangible measures of success, identify vulnerabilities, select effective courses of action, prioritize future pathway preferences, and contribute to ongoing capability development in homeland security assessments.

Keywords: National Security, Intelligence, homeland security, Strategic Planning, Strategic Intelligence, Operational Design

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3 Border Control and Human Rights Violations: Lessons Learned from the United States and Potential Solutions for the European Union

Authors: María Elena Menéndez Ibáñez

Abstract:

After the terrorist attacks of 9/11, new measures were adopted by powerful countries and regions like the United States and the European Union in order to safeguard their security. In 2002, the US created the Department of Homeland Security with one sole objective; to protect American soil and people. The US adopted new policies that made every immigrant a potential terrorist and a threat to their national security. Stronger border control became one of the key elements of the fight against organized crime and terrorism. The main objective of this paper is to compare some of the most important and radical measures adopted by the US, even those that resulted in systematic violations of human rights, with some of the European measures adopted after the 2015 Paris attacks of 2015, such as unlawful detainment of prisoners and other measures against foreigners. Through the Schengen agreement, the European Union has tried to eliminate tariffs and border controls, in order to guarantee successful economic growth. Terrorists have taken advantage of this and have made the region vulnerable to attacks. Authorities need to strengthen their surveillance methods in order to safeguard the region and its stability. Through qualitative methods applied to social sciences, this research will also try to explain why some of the mechanisms proven to be useful in the US would not be so in Europe, especially because they would result in human rights violations. Finally, solutions will be offered that would not put the whole Schengen Agreement at risk. Europe cannot reinstate border control, without making individuals vulnerable to human rights violations.

Keywords: National Security, Immigration, Border Control, International Cooperation

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2 Venezuela in the US Oil Geopolitics: An Analysis in the Light of the New Oil Landscape

Authors: William Clavijo, Edmar Almeida

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The article analyzes the importance of Venezuela in the US geopolitics of oil considering the new oil landscape. To this end, the importance of oil in the geopolitics of the United States is discussed from the perspective of energy security as well as considering a broader view of national security. Based on this discussion, the relevance of Venezuelan oil reserves on US geopolitical agenda is analyzed. Among the results, the article shows that the transformations in the supply structure of the international oil market during the last decade have allowed the United States to achieve greater levels of independence from oil imports from other producing countries. This new reality has profoundly changed the US interest in Venezuelan oil to a broader subject that involves sensitive issues of its national security agenda.

Keywords: Energy Security, National Security, United States, Venezuela, oil geopolitics

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1 The Effects of Cross-Border Use of Drones in Nigerian National Security

Authors: Powei Happiness Kerry

Abstract:

In 2017, the G4S Intelligence bulletin released a report that drones have become a threat from above, backing up their claims with so many incidents that have occurred in many countries between 2006 and 2017. One incident that was cited is the case of the Hezbollah group that sent out three Ababil drones near Tyre, Lebanon, into Israel borders to attack strategic targets, including Israeli F-16 jets. While this technology could constitute a danger to national security on the one hand, on the other hand, it is used in developed and developing countries for border security, and in some cases, for protection of security agents and migrants. In the case of Nigeria, drones are used by the military to monitor and tighten security around the borders. However, it was reported that Boko Haram now use sophisticated drones to carry out their illegal activities. Therefore, the potential danger in the widespread proliferation of this technology has become a myriad of risks. The research on the effects of cross-border use of drones in Nigerian national security looks at the negative and positive consequences of using drone technology. The study employs the use of interviews and relevant documents to obtain data while the study applied the just war theory to justify the reason why countries use force; it further buttresses the points with what the realist theory thinks about the use of force. In conclusion, the paper recommends that the Nigerian government through the National Assembly should pass a bill for the establishment of a law that will guide the use of armed and unarmed drones in Nigeria enforced by Nigeria Civil Aviation Authority and the office of the National Security Adviser.

Keywords: National Security, Drones, cross-border, armed drones

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