Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

nanowires Related Abstracts

12 Biosynthesis of Selenium Oxide Nanoparticles by Streptomyces bikiniensis and Its Cytotoxicity as Antitumor Agents against Hepatocellular and Breast Cells Carcinoma

Authors: Maged Syed Ahamd, Manal Mohamed Yasser, Essam Sholkamy


In this paper, we reported that selenium (Se) nanoparticles were firstly biosynthesized with a simple and eco-friendly biological method. Their shape, size, FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy), UV–vis spectra, TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) images and EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) pattern have been analyzed. TEM analyses of the samples obtained at different stages indicated that the formation of these Se nanostructures was governed by an incubation time (12- 24- 48 hours). The Se nanoparticles were initially generated and then would transform into crystal seeds for the subsequent growth of nanowires; however obtaining stable Se nanowire with a diameter of about 15-100 nm. EDS shows that Se nanoparticles are entirely pure. The IR spectra showed the peaks at 550 cm-1, 1635 cm-1, 1994 cm-1 and 3430 cm-1 correspond to the presence of Se-O bending and stretching vibrations. The concentrations of Se-NPs (0, 1, 2, 5 µg/ml) did not give significantly effect on both two cell lines while the highest concentrations (10- 100 µg/ml gave significantly effects on them. The lethal dose (ID50%) of Se-NPs on Hep2 G and MCF-7 cells was obtained at 75.96 and 61.86 µg/ml, respectively. Results showed that Se nanoparticles as anticancer agent against MCF-7 cells were more effective than Hep2 G cells. Our results suggest that Se-NPs may be a candidate for further evaluation as a chemotherapeutic agent for breast and liver cancers.

Keywords: nanowires, selenium nanoparticle, Streptomyces bikiniensis, chemotherapeutic agent

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11 Structure and Morphology of Electrodeposited Nickel Nanowires at an Electrode Distance of 20mm

Authors: Ram Mohan, Mahendran Samykano, Shyam Aravamudhan


The objective of this work is to study the effect of two key factors-external magnetic field and applied current density during the template-based electrodeposition of nickel nanowires using an electrode distance of 20 mm. Morphology, length, crystallite size, and crystallographic characterization of the grown nickel nanowires at an electrode distance of 20mm are presented. For this electrode distance of 20 mm, these two key electrodeposition factors when coupled was found to reduce crystallite size with a higher growth length and preferred orientation of Ni crystals. These observed changes can be inferred to be due to coupled interaction forces induced by the intensity of applied electric field (current density) and external magnetic field known as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effect during the electrodeposition process.

Keywords: nanowires, Nickel, electrodeposition, anodic alumina oxide

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10 Copper Phthalocyanine Nanostructures: A Potential Material for Field Emission Display

Authors: Uttam Kumar Ghorai, Madhupriya Samanta, Subhajit Saha, Swati Das, Nilesh Mazumder, Kalyan Kumar Chattopadhyay


Organic semiconductors have gained potential interest in the last few decades for their significant contributions in the various fields such as solar cell, non-volatile memory devices, field effect transistors and light emitting diodes etc. The most important advantages of using organic materials are mechanically flexible, light weight and low temperature depositing techniques. Recently with the advancement of nanoscience and technology, one dimensional organic and inorganic nanostructures such as nanowires, nanorods, nanotubes have gained tremendous interests due to their very high aspect ratio and large surface area for electron transport etc. Among them, self-assembled organic nanostructures like Copper, Zinc Phthalocyanine have shown good transport property and thermal stability due to their π conjugated bonds and π-π stacking respectively. Field emission properties of inorganic and carbon based nanostructures are reported in literatures mostly. But there are few reports in case of cold cathode emission characteristics of organic semiconductor nanostructures. In this work, the authors report the field emission characteristics of chemically and physically synthesized Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc) nanostructures such as nanowires, nanotubes and nanotips. The as prepared samples were characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Ultra Violet Visible Spectrometer (UV-Vis), Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (FTIR), and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The field emission characteristics were measured in our home designed field emission set up. The registered turn-on field and local field enhancement factor are found to be less than 5 V/μm and greater than 1000 respectively. The field emission behaviour is also stable for 200 minute. The experimental results are further verified by theoretically using by a finite displacement method as implemented in ANSYS Maxwell simulation package. The obtained results strongly indicate CuPc nanostructures to be the potential candidate as an electron emitter for field emission based display device applications.

Keywords: nanotubes, nanowires, organic semiconductor, phthalocyanine, field emission

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9 Experimental Uniaxial Tensile Characterization of One-Dimensional Nickel Nanowires

Authors: Ram Mohan, Mahendran Samykano, Shyam Aravamudhan


Metallic nanowires with sub-micron and hundreds of nanometer diameter have a diversity of applications in nano/micro-electromechanical systems (NEMS/MEMS). Characterizing the mechanical properties of such sub-micron and nano-scale metallic nanowires are tedious; require sophisticated and careful experimentation to be performed within high-powered microscopy systems (scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM)). Also, needed are nanoscale devices for placing the nanowires; loading them with the intended conditions; obtaining the data for load–deflection during the deformation within the high-powered microscopy environment poses significant challenges. Even picking the grown nanowires and placing them correctly within a nanoscale loading device is not an easy task. Mechanical characterizations through experimental methods for such nanowires are still very limited. Various techniques at different levels of fidelity, resolution, and induced errors have been attempted by material science and nanomaterial researchers. The methods for determining the load, deflection within the nanoscale devices also pose a significant problem. The state of the art is thus still at its infancy. All these factors result and is seen in the wide differences in the characterization curves and the reported properties in the current literature. In this paper, we discuss and present our experimental method, results, and discussions of uniaxial tensile loading and the development of subsequent stress–strain characteristics curves for Nickel nanowires. Nickel nanowires in the diameter range of 220–270 nm were obtained in our laboratory via an electrodeposition method, which is a solution based, template method followed in our present work for growing 1-D Nickel nanowires. Process variables such as the presence of magnetic field, its intensity; and varying electrical current density during the electrodeposition process were found to influence the morphological and physical characteristics including crystal orientation, size of the grown nanowires1. To further understand the correlation and influence of electrodeposition process variables, associated formed structural features of our grown Nickel nanowires to their mechanical properties, careful experiments within scanning electron microscope (SEM) were conducted. Details of the uniaxial tensile characterization, testing methodology, nanoscale testing device, load–deflection characteristics, microscopy images of failure progression, and the subsequent stress–strain curves are discussed and presented.

Keywords: nanowires, Nickel, electrodeposition, stress-strain, uniaxial tensile characterization

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8 A Compilation of Nanotechnology in Thin Film Solar Cell Devices

Authors: Nurul Amziah Md Yunus, Izhal Abdul Halin, Nasri Sulaiman, Noor Faezah Ismail, Nik Hasniza Nik Aman


Nanotechnology has become the world attention in various applications including the solar cells devices due to the uniqueness and benefits of achieving low cost and better performances of devices. Recently, thin film solar cells such as cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper-indium-gallium-diSelenide (CIGS), copper-zinc-tin-sulphide (CZTS), and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) enhanced by nanotechnology have attracted much attention. Thus, a compilation of nanotechnology devices giving the progress in the solar cells has been presented. It is much related to nanoparticles or nanocrystallines, carbon nanotubes, and nanowires or nanorods structures.

Keywords: Nanotechnology, nanowires, Carbon Nanotubes, nanorods, Thin Film Solar Cells, nanocrystalline

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7 Dielectrophoretic Characterization of Tin Oxide Nanowires for Biotechnology Application

Authors: Ahmad Sabry Mohamad, Kai F. Hoettges, Michael Pycraft Hughes


This study investigates nanowires using Dielectrophoresis (DEP) in non-aqueous suspension of Tin (IV) Oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles dispersed in N,N-dimenthylformamide (DMF). The self assembly of nanowires in DEP impedance spectroscopy can be determined. In this work, dielectrophoretic method was used to measure non-organic molecules for estimating the permittivity and conductivity characteristic of the nanowires. As in aqueous such as salt solution has been dominating the transport of SnO2, which are the wire growth threshold, depend on applied voltage. While DEP assembly of nanowires depend on applied frequency, the applications of dielectrophoretic collection are measured using impedance spectroscopy.

Keywords: nanowires, Impedance spectroscopy, Dielectrophoresis, N-dimenthylformamide, SnO2

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6 Solution Growth of Titanium Nitride Nanowires for Implantation Application

Authors: Richard Cross, Roaa Sait


The synthesis and characterization of one dimensional nanostructure such as nanowires has received considerable attention. Much effort has concentrated on TiN material especially in the biological field due to its useful and unique properties in this field. Therefore, for the purpose of this project, synthesis of Titanium Nitride (TiN) nanowires (NWs) will be presented. They will be synthesised by growing titanium dioxide (Ti) NWs in an aqueous solution at low temperatures under atmospheric pressure. Then the grown nanowires will undergo a 'Nitrodation process' in which results in the formation of TiN NWs. The structure, morphology and composition of the grown nanowires will be characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). Obtaining TiN NWs is a challenging task since it has not been formulated before, as far as we acknowledge. This might be due to the fact that nitriding Ti NWs can be difficult in terms of optimizing experimental parameters.

Keywords: nanowires, Deposition, nucleation, spin coating, dissolution-growth, PECVD, scanning electron microscopic analysis, cyclic voltammetry analysis

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5 Bio-Electrochemical Process Coupled with MnO2 Nanowires for Wastewater Treatment

Authors: A. Giwa, S. M. Jung, W. Fang, J. Kong, S. W. Hasan


MnO2 nanowires were developed as filtration media for wastewater treatment that uniquely combines several advantages. The resulting material demonstrated strong capability to remove the pollution of heavy metal ions and organic contents in water. In addition, the manufacture process of such material is practical and economical. In this work, MnO2 nanowires were integrated with the state-of-art bio-electrochemical system for wastewater treatment, to overcome problems currently encountered with organic, inorganic, heavy metal, and microbe removal, and to minimize the unit footprint (land/space occupation) at low cost. Results showed that coupling the bio-electrochemical with MnO2 resulted in very encouraging results with higher removal efficiencies of such pollutants.

Keywords: nanowires, wastewater, bio-electrochemical, novel

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4 Development of Composite Materials for CO2 Reduction and Organic Compound Decomposition

Authors: H. F. Shi, C. L. Zhang


Visible-light-responsive g-C3N4/NaNbO3 nanowires photocatalysts were fabricated by introducing polymeric g-C3N4 on NaNbO3 nanowires. The microscopic mechanisms of interface interaction, charge transfer and separation, as well as the influence on the photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4/NaNbO3 composite were systematic investigated. The HR-TEM revealed that an intimate interface between C3N4 and NaNbO3 nanowires formed in the g-C3N4/NaNbO3 heterojunctions. The photocatalytic performance of photocatalysts was evaluated for CO2 reduction under visible-light illumination. Significantly, the activity of g-C3N4/NaNbO3 composite photocatalyst for photoreduction of CO2 was higher than that of either single-phase g-C3N4 or NaNbO3. Such a remarkable enhancement of photocatalytic activity was mainly ascribed to the improved separation and transfer of photogenerated electron-hole pairs at the intimate interface of g-C3N4/NaNbO3 heterojunctions, which originated from the well-aligned overlapping band structures of C3N4 and NaNbO3. Pt loaded NaNbO3-xNx (Pt-NNON), a visible-light-sensitive photocatalyst, was synthesized by an in situ photodeposition method from H2PtCl6•6H2O onto NaNbO3-xNx (NNON) sample. Pt-NNON exhibited a much higher photocatalytic activity for gaseous 2-propanol (IPA) degradation under visible-light irradiation in contrast to NNON. The apparent quantum efficiency (AQE) of Pt-NNON sample for IPA photodegradation achieved up to 8.6% at the wavelength of 419 nm. The notably enhanced photocatalytic performance was attributed to the promoted charge separation and transfer capability in the Pt-NNON system. This work suggests that surface nanosteps possibly play an important role as an electron transfer at high way, which facilitates to the charge carrier collection onto Pt rich zones and thus suppresses recombination between photogenerated electrons and holes. This method can thus be considered as an excellent strategy to enhance photocatalytic activity of organic decomposition in addition to the commonly applied noble metal doping method.

Keywords: nanowires, CO2 Reduction, NaNbO3, g-C3N4

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3 Detection of Telomerase Activity as Cancer Biomarker Using Nanogap-Rich Au Nanowire SERS Sensor

Authors: H. Kim, G. Eom, A. Hwang, T. Kang, B. Kim


Telomerase activity is overexpressed in over 85% of human cancers while suppressed in normal somatic cells. Telomerase has been attracted as a universal cancer biomarker. Therefore, the development of effective telomerase activity detection methods is urgently demanded in cancer diagnosis and therapy. Herein, we report a nanogap-rich Au nanowire (NW) surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensor for detection of human telomerase activity. The nanogap-rich Au NW SERS sensors were prepared simply by uniformly depositing nanoparticles (NPs) on single-crystalline Au NWs. We measured SERS spectra of methylene blue (MB) from 60 different nanogap-rich Au NWs and obtained the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.80%, confirming the superb reproducibility of nanogap-rich Au NW SERS sensors. The nanogap-rich Au NW SERS sensors enable us to detect telomerase activity in 0.2 cancer cells/mL. Furthermore, telomerase activity is detectable in 7 different cancer cell lines whereas undetectable in normal cell lines, which suggest the potential applicability of nanogap-rich Au NW SERS sensor in cancer diagnosis. We expect that the present nanogap-rich Au NW SERS sensor can be useful in biomedical applications including a diverse biomarker sensing.

Keywords: nanowires, cancer biomarker, telomerase, surface-enhanced raman scattering

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2 Synthesis and Characterization of High-Aspect-Ratio Hematite Nanostructures for Solar Water Splitting

Authors: Paula Quiterio, Arlete Apolinario, Celia T. Sousa, Joao Azevedo, Paula Dias, Adelio Mendes, Joao P. Araujo


Nowadays one of the mankind's greatest challenges has been the supply of low-cost and environmentally friendly energy sources as an alternative to non-renewable fossil fuels. Hydrogen has been considered a promising solution, representing a clean and low-cost fuel. It can be produced directly from clean and abundant resources, such as sunlight and water, using photoelectrochemical cells (PECs), in a process that mimics the nature´s photosynthesis. Hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) has attracted considerable attention as a promising photoanode for solar water splitting, due to its high chemical stability, nontoxicity, availability and low band gap (2.2 eV), which allows reaching a high thermodynamic solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of 16.8 %. However, the main drawbacks of hematite such as the short hole diffusion length and the poor conductivity that lead to high electron-hole recombination result in significant PEC efficiency losses. One strategy to overcome these limitations and to increase the PEC efficiency is to use 1D nanostructures, such as nanotubes (NTs) and nanowires (NWs), which present high aspect ratios and large surface areas providing direct pathways for electron transport up to the charge collector and minimizing the recombination losses. In particular, due to the ultrathin walls of the NTs, the holes can reach the surface faster than in other nanostructures, representing a key factor for the NTs photoresponse. In this work, we prepared hematite NWs and NTs, respectively by hydrothermal process and electrochemical anodization. For hematite NWs growing, we studied the effect of variable hydrothermal conditions, different annealing temperatures and time, and the use of Ti and Sn dopants on the morphology and PEC performance. The crystalline phase characterization by X-ray diffraction was crucial to distinguish the formation of hematite and other iron oxide phases, alongside its effect on the photoanodes conductivity and consequent PEC efficiency. The conductivity of the as-prepared NWs is very low, in the order of 10-5 S cm-1, but after doping and annealing optimization it increased by a factor of 105. A high photocurrent density of 1.02 mA cm-2 at 1.45 VRHE was obtained under simulated sunlight, which is a very promising value for this kind of hematite nanostructures. The stability of the photoelectrodes was also tested, presenting good stability after several J-V measurements over time. The NTs, synthesized by fast anodizations with potentials ranging from 20-100 V, presented a linear growth of the NTs pore walls, with very low thicknesses from 10 - 18 nm. These preliminary results are also very promising for the use of hematite photoelectrodes on PEC hydrogen applications.

Keywords: nanotubes, nanowires, Photoelectrochemical Cells, hematite

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1 Modeling Nanomechanical Behavior of ZnO Nanowires as a Function of Nano-Diameter

Authors: L. Achou, A. Doghmane


Elastic performances, as an essential property of nanowires (NWs), play a significant role in the design and fabrication of modern nanodevices. In this paper, our interest is focused on ZnO NWs to investigate wire diameter (Dwire ≤ 400 nm) effects on elastic properties. The plotted data reveal that a strong size dependence of the elastic constants exists when the wire diameter is smaller than ~ 100 nm. For larger diameters (Dwire > 100 nm), these ones approach their corresponding bulk values. To enrich this study, we make use of the scanning acoustic microscopy simulation technique. The calculation methodology consists of several steps: determination of longitudinal and transverse wave velocities, calculation of refection coefficients, calculation of acoustic signatures and Rayleigh velocity determination. Quantitatively, it was found that changes in ZnO diameters over the ranges 1 nm ≤ Dwire ≤ 100 nm lead to similar exponential variations, for all elastic parameters, of the from: A = a + b exp(-Dwire/c) where a, b, and c are characteristic constants of a given parameter. The developed relation can be used to predict elastic properties of such NW by just knowing its diameter and vice versa.

Keywords: Semiconductors, nanowires, ZnO, elastic properties, theoretical model

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