Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

nanotubes Related Abstracts

7 TiO2 Formation after Nanotubes Growth on Ti-15Mo Alloy Surface for Different Annealing Temperatures

Authors: A. L. R. Rangel, J. A. M. Chaves, A. P. R. Alves Claro


Surface modification of titanium and its alloys using TiO2 nanotube growth has been widely studied for biomedical field due to excellent interaction between implant and biological environment. The success of this treatment is directly related to anatase phase formation (TiO2 phase) which affects the cells growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phases formed in the nanotubes growth on the Ti-15Mo surface. Nanotubes were grown by electrochemical anodization of the alloy in ammonium fluoride based glycerol electrolyte for 24 hours at 20V. Then, the samples were annealed at 200°,400°, 450°, 500°, 600°, and 800° C for 1 hour. Contact angles measurements, scanning electron microscopy images and X rays diffraction analysis (XRD) were carried out for all samples. Raman Spectroscopy was used to evaluate TiO2 phases transformation in nanotubes samples as well. The results of XRD showed anatase formation for lower temperatures, while at 800 ° C the rutile phase was observed all over the surface. Raman spectra indicate that this phase transition occurs between 500 and 600 °C. The different phases formed have influenced the nanotubes morphologies, since higher annealing temperatures induced agglutination of the TiO2 layer, disrupting the tubular structure. On the other hand, the nanotubes drastically reduced the contact angle, regardless the annealing temperature.

Keywords: nanotubes, Titanium Alloys, TiO2, Ti-15Mo

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6 Determining the Octanol-Water Partition Coefficient for Armchair Polyhex BN Nanotubes Using Topological Indices

Authors: Esmat Mohammadinasab


The aim of this paper is to investigate theoretically and establish a predictive model for determination LogP of armchair polyhex BN nanotubes by using simple descriptors. The relationship between the octanol-water partition coefficient (LogP) and quantum chemical descriptors, electric moments, and topological indices of some armchair polyhex BN nanotubes with various lengths and fixed circumference are represented. Based on density functional theory (DFT) electric moments and physico-chemical properties of those nanotubes are calculated. The DFT method performed based on the Becke’s 3-parameter formulation with the Lee-Yang-Parr functional (B3LYP) method and 3-21G standard basis sets. For the first time, the relationship between partition coefficient and different properties of polyhex BN nanotubes is investigated.

Keywords: nanotubes, topological indices, quantum descriptors, DFT method

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5 Influence of Preparation, Characterisation and Application of Carbon Nano Tube

Authors: Dhaivat S. Soni, Snehal Thakor, Afroz Bhatti


The prepare CNTs in bulk quantity by as easiest as possible method with highly pure and small diameter. Prepared CNTs first charactered its structural parameter for the conformation of CNTs and purity. Surface morphology of CNTs stured by using various instruments finally study application of prepared CNTs in various field. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized in large scale by pyrolyzing activated carbon in sealed autoclaves.

Keywords: Nanostructures, nanotubes, Carbon, pyrolysis

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4 Copper Phthalocyanine Nanostructures: A Potential Material for Field Emission Display

Authors: Uttam Kumar Ghorai, Madhupriya Samanta, Subhajit Saha, Swati Das, Nilesh Mazumder, Kalyan Kumar Chattopadhyay


Organic semiconductors have gained potential interest in the last few decades for their significant contributions in the various fields such as solar cell, non-volatile memory devices, field effect transistors and light emitting diodes etc. The most important advantages of using organic materials are mechanically flexible, light weight and low temperature depositing techniques. Recently with the advancement of nanoscience and technology, one dimensional organic and inorganic nanostructures such as nanowires, nanorods, nanotubes have gained tremendous interests due to their very high aspect ratio and large surface area for electron transport etc. Among them, self-assembled organic nanostructures like Copper, Zinc Phthalocyanine have shown good transport property and thermal stability due to their π conjugated bonds and π-π stacking respectively. Field emission properties of inorganic and carbon based nanostructures are reported in literatures mostly. But there are few reports in case of cold cathode emission characteristics of organic semiconductor nanostructures. In this work, the authors report the field emission characteristics of chemically and physically synthesized Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc) nanostructures such as nanowires, nanotubes and nanotips. The as prepared samples were characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Ultra Violet Visible Spectrometer (UV-Vis), Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (FTIR), and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The field emission characteristics were measured in our home designed field emission set up. The registered turn-on field and local field enhancement factor are found to be less than 5 V/μm and greater than 1000 respectively. The field emission behaviour is also stable for 200 minute. The experimental results are further verified by theoretically using by a finite displacement method as implemented in ANSYS Maxwell simulation package. The obtained results strongly indicate CuPc nanostructures to be the potential candidate as an electron emitter for field emission based display device applications.

Keywords: nanotubes, nanowires, organic semiconductor, phthalocyanine, field emission

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3 Computer Simulation Studies of Spinel LiMn₂O₄ Nanotubes

Authors: D. M. Tshwane, R. R. Maphanga, P. E. Ngoepe


Nanostructured materials are attractive candidates for efficient electrochemical energy storage devices because of their unique physicochemical properties. Nanotubes have drawn a continuous attention because of their unique electrical, optical and magnetic properties contrast to that of bulk system. They have potential application in the field of optical, electronics and energy storage device. Introducing nanotubes structures as electrode materials; represents one of the most attractive strategies that could dramatically enhance the battery performance. Spinel LiMn2O4 is the most promising cathode material for Li-ion batteries. In this work, computer simulation methods are used to generate and investigate properties of spinel LiMn2O4 nanotubes. Molecular dynamic simulation is used to probe the local structure of LiMn2O4 nanotubes and the effect of temperature on these systems. It is found that diameter, Miller indices and size have a direct control on nanotubes morphology. Furthermore, it is noted that stability depends on surface and wrapping of the nanotube. The nanotube structures are described using the radial distribution function and XRD patterns. There is a correlation between calculated XRD and experimentally reported results.

Keywords: Nanostructures, nanotubes, Li-ion batteries, LiMn2O4

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2 Improving Gas Separation Performance of Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Based Membranes Containing Ionic Liquid

Authors: S. Al-Enezi, J. Samuel, A. Al-Banna


Polymer based membranes are one of the low-cost technologies available for the gas separation. Three major elements required for a commercial gas separating membrane are high permeability, high selectivity, and good mechanical strength. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is a commercially available fluoropolymer and a widely used membrane material in gas separation devices since it possesses remarkable thermal, chemical stability, and excellent mechanical strength. The PVDF membrane was chemically modified by soaking in different ionic liquids and dried. The thermal behavior of modified membranes was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetry (TGA), and the results clearly show the best affinity between the ionic liquid and the polymer support. The porous structure of the PVDF membranes was clearly seen in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The CO₂ permeability of blended membranes was explored in comparison with the unmodified matrix. The ionic liquid immobilized in the hydrophobic PVDF support exhibited good performance for separations of CO₂/N₂. The improved permeability of modified membrane (PVDF-IL) is attributed to the high concentration of nitrogen rich imidazolium moieties.

Keywords: nanotubes, gas permeability, PVDF, CO2 separation, polymer membrane

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1 Synthesis and Characterization of High-Aspect-Ratio Hematite Nanostructures for Solar Water Splitting

Authors: Paula Quiterio, Arlete Apolinario, Celia T. Sousa, Joao Azevedo, Paula Dias, Adelio Mendes, Joao P. Araujo


Nowadays one of the mankind's greatest challenges has been the supply of low-cost and environmentally friendly energy sources as an alternative to non-renewable fossil fuels. Hydrogen has been considered a promising solution, representing a clean and low-cost fuel. It can be produced directly from clean and abundant resources, such as sunlight and water, using photoelectrochemical cells (PECs), in a process that mimics the nature´s photosynthesis. Hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) has attracted considerable attention as a promising photoanode for solar water splitting, due to its high chemical stability, nontoxicity, availability and low band gap (2.2 eV), which allows reaching a high thermodynamic solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of 16.8 %. However, the main drawbacks of hematite such as the short hole diffusion length and the poor conductivity that lead to high electron-hole recombination result in significant PEC efficiency losses. One strategy to overcome these limitations and to increase the PEC efficiency is to use 1D nanostructures, such as nanotubes (NTs) and nanowires (NWs), which present high aspect ratios and large surface areas providing direct pathways for electron transport up to the charge collector and minimizing the recombination losses. In particular, due to the ultrathin walls of the NTs, the holes can reach the surface faster than in other nanostructures, representing a key factor for the NTs photoresponse. In this work, we prepared hematite NWs and NTs, respectively by hydrothermal process and electrochemical anodization. For hematite NWs growing, we studied the effect of variable hydrothermal conditions, different annealing temperatures and time, and the use of Ti and Sn dopants on the morphology and PEC performance. The crystalline phase characterization by X-ray diffraction was crucial to distinguish the formation of hematite and other iron oxide phases, alongside its effect on the photoanodes conductivity and consequent PEC efficiency. The conductivity of the as-prepared NWs is very low, in the order of 10-5 S cm-1, but after doping and annealing optimization it increased by a factor of 105. A high photocurrent density of 1.02 mA cm-2 at 1.45 VRHE was obtained under simulated sunlight, which is a very promising value for this kind of hematite nanostructures. The stability of the photoelectrodes was also tested, presenting good stability after several J-V measurements over time. The NTs, synthesized by fast anodizations with potentials ranging from 20-100 V, presented a linear growth of the NTs pore walls, with very low thicknesses from 10 - 18 nm. These preliminary results are also very promising for the use of hematite photoelectrodes on PEC hydrogen applications.

Keywords: nanotubes, nanowires, Photoelectrochemical Cells, hematite

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