Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Nanoparticle Related Abstracts

34 Green Prossesing of PS/Nanoparticle Fibers and Studying Morphology and Properties

Authors: M. Kheirandish, S. Borhani

Abstract:

In this experiment Polystyrene/Zinc-oxide (PS/ZnO) nanocomposite fibers were produced by electrospinning technique using limonene as a green solvent. First, the morphology of electrospun pure polystyrene (PS) and PS/ZnO nanocomposite fibers investigated by SEM. Results showed the PS fiber diameter decreased by increasing concentration of Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs). Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) results showed thermal stability of nanocomposites increased by increasing ZnO NPs in PS electrospun fibers. Considering Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) thermograms for electrospun PS fibers indicated that introduction of ZnO NPs into fibers affects the glass transition temperature (Tg) by reducing it. Also, UV protection properties of nanocomposite fibers were increased by increasing ZnO concentration. Evaluating the effect of metal oxide NPs amount on mechanical properties of electrospun layer showed that tensile strength and elasticity modulus of the electrospun layer of PS increased by addition of ZnO NPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of nanopcomposite fibers confirmed the presence of NPs in the samples.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, ZnO, polystyrene, electrospininng

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33 The Effect of Fuel Type on Synthesis of CeO2-MgO Nano-Powder by Combustion Method

Authors: F. Ghafoori-Najafabadi, R. Sarraf-Mamoory, N. Riahi-Noori

Abstract:

In this study, nanocrystalline CeO2-MgO powders were synthesized by combustion reactions using citric acid, ethylene glycol, and glycine as different fuels and nitrate as an oxidant. The powders obtained with different kinds of fuels are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The size and morphology of the particles and the extent of agglomeration in the powders were studied using SEM analysis. It is observed that the variation of fuel has an intense influence on the particle size and morphology of the resulting powder. X-ray diffraction revealed that any combined phases were observed, and that MgO and CeO2 phases were formed, separately.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Combustion Synthesis, CeO2-MgO, nano-powder

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32 Therapeutical Role of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles (CuO NPs) for Breast Cancer Therapy

Authors: Dipranjan Laha, Parimal Karmakar

Abstract:

Metal oxide nanoparticles are well known to generate oxidative stress and deregulate normal cellular activities. Among these, transition metals copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are more compelling than others and able to modulate different cellular responses. In this work, we have synthesized and characterized CuO NPs by various biophysical methods. These CuO NPs (~30 nm) induce autophagy in human breast cancer cell line, MCF7 in a time and dose-dependent manner. Cellular autophagy was tested by MDC staining, induction of green fluorescent protein light chain 3 (GFP-LC3B) foci by confocal microscopy, transfection of pBABE-puro mCherry-EGFP-LC3B plasmid and western blotting of autophagy marker proteins LC3B, beclin1, and ATG5. Further, inhibition of autophagy by 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) decreased LD50 doses of CuO NPs. Such cell death was associated with the induction of apoptosis as revealed by FACS analysis, cleavage of PARP, dephosphorylation of Bad and increased cleavage product of caspase3. siRNA-mediated inhibition of autophagy-related gene beclin1 also demonstrated similar results. Finally, induction of apoptosis by 3-MA in CuO NPs treated cells were observed by TEM. This study indicates that CuO NPs are a potent inducer of autophagy which may be a cellular defense against the CuO NPs mediated toxicity and inhibition of autophagy switches the cellular response into apoptosis. A combination of CuO NPs with the autophagy inhibitor is essential to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Acknowledgments: The authors would like to acknowledge for financial support for this research work to the Department of Biotechnology (No. BT/PR14661/NNT/28/494/2010), Government of India.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, apoptosis, autophagy, siRNA-mediated inhibition

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31 Bioremediation of Disposed X-Ray Film for Nanoparticles Production

Authors: Essam A. Makky, Siti H. Mohd Rasdi, J. B. Al-Dabbagh, G. F. Najmuldeen

Abstract:

The synthesis of silver nano particles (SNPs) extensively studied by using chemical and physical methods. Here, the biological methods were used and give benefits in research field in the aspect of very low cost (from waste to wealth) and safe time as well. The study aims to isolate and exploit the microbial power in the production of industrially important by-products in nano-size with high economic value, to extract highly valuable materials from hazardous waste, to quantify nano particle size, and characterization of SNPs by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. Disposal X-ray films were used as substrate because it consumes about 1000 tons of total silver chemically produced worldwide annually. This silver is being wasted when these films are used and disposed. Different bacterial isolates were obtained from various sources. Silver was extracted as nano particles by microbial power degradation from disposal X-ray film as the sole carbon source for ten days incubation period in darkness. The protein content was done and all the samples were analyzed using XRD, to characterize of silver (Ag) nano particles size in the form of silver nitrite. Bacterial isolates CL4C showed the average size of SNPs about 19.53 nm, GL7 showed average size about 52.35 nm and JF Outer 2A (PDA) showed 13.52 nm. All bacterial isolates partially identified using Gram’s reaction and the results obtained exhibited that belonging to Bacillus sp.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Bioremediation, Nanotechnology, Waste, XRD, disposal X-ray film

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30 Improvement of Chemical Demulsifier Performance Using Silica Nanoparticles

Authors: G. E. Gandomkar, E. Bekhradinassab, S. Sabbaghi, M. M. Zerafat

Abstract:

The reduction of water content in crude oil emulsions reduces pipeline corrosion potential and increases the productivity. Chemical emulsification of crude oil emulsions is one of the methods available to reduce the water content. Presence of demulsifier causes the film layer between the crude oil emulsion and water droplets to become unstable leading to the acceleration of water coalescence. This research has been performed to study the improvement performance of a chemical demulsifier by silica nanoparticles. The silica nano-particles have been synthesized by sol-gel technique and precipitation using poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and poly ethylene glycol (PEG) as surfactants and then nano-particles are added to the demulsifier. The silica nanoparticles were characterized by Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) and SEM. Upon the addition of nanoparticles, bottle tests have been carried out to separate and measure the water content. The results show that silica nano-particles increase the demulsifier efficiency by about 40%.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, dehydration, demulsifier, silicon dioxide

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29 Investigation of the Morphology of SiO2 Nano-Particles Using Different Synthesis Techniques

Authors: S. Sabbaghi, E. Gandomkar

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In this paper, the effects of variation synthesized methods on morphology and size of silica nanostructure via modifying sol-gel and precipitation method have been investigated. Meanwhile, resulting products have been characterized by particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra. As result, the shape of SiO2 with sol-gel and precipitation methods was spherical but with modifying sol-gel method we have been had nanolayer structure.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Precipitation, modified sol-gel, nanolayer, Na2SiO3

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28 Easy Method of Synthesis and Functionalzation of Zno Nanoparticules With 3 Aminopropylthrimethoxysilane (APTES)

Authors: Haythem Barrak, Gaetan Laroche, Adel M’nif, Ahmed Hichem Hamzaoui

Abstract:

The use of semiconductor oxides, as chemical or biological, requires their functionalization with appropriate dependent molecules of the substance to be detected. generally, the support materials used are TiO2 and SiO2. In the present work, we used zinc oxide (ZnO) known for its interesting physical properties. The synthesis of nano scale ZnO was performed by co-precipitation at low temperature (60 ° C).To our knowledge, the obtaining of this material at this temperature was carried out for the first time. This shows the low cost of this operation. On the other hand, the surface functionalization of ZnO was performed with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) by using a specific method using ethanol for the first time. In addition, the duration of this stage is very low compared to literature. The samples obtained were analyzed by XRD, TEM, DLS, FTIR, and TGA shows that XPS that the operation of grafting of APTES on our support was carried out with success.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, functionalization, ZnO, APTES, caractérisation

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27 Systematic Exploration and Modulation of Nano-Bio Interactions

Authors: Bing Yan

Abstract:

Nanomaterials are widely used in various industrial sectors, biomedicine, and more than 1300 consumer products. Although there is still no standard safety regulation, their potential toxicity is a major concern worldwide. We discovered that nanoparticles target and enter human cells1, perturb cellular signaling pathways2, affect various cell functions3, and cause malfunctions in animals4,5. Because the majority of atoms in nanoparticles are on the surface, chemistry modification on their surface may change their biological properties significantly. We modified nanoparticle surface using nano-combinatorial chemistry library approach6. Novel nanoparticles were discovered to exhibit significantly reduced toxicity6,7, enhance cancer targeting ability8, or re-program cellular signaling machineries7. Using computational chemistry, quantitative nanostructure-activity relationship (QNAR) is established and predictive models have been built to predict biocompatible nanoparticles.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Nanotoxicity, nano-bio, nano-combinatorial chemistry, nanoparticle library

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26 Target Drug Delivery of Pamidronate Nanoparticles for Enhancing Osteoblastic Activity in Osteoporosis

Authors: Divya Vohora, Sarika Gupta, Purnima Rawat, Farhan J. Ahmad, Sushama Talegaonkar

Abstract:

Nanoparticles (NPs) that target bone tissue were developed using PLGA–mPEG (poly(lactic-co-glycolic-acid)–polyethylene glycol) diblock copolymers by using pamidronate as a bone-targeting moieties. These NPs are expected to enable the transport of hydrophilic drugs. The NP was prepared by in situ polymerization method, and their in- vitro characteristics were evaluated using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and in phosphate-buffered solution. The bone targeting potential of the NP was also evaluated on in-vitro pre-osteoblast MCT3E1 cell line using ALP activity, degree of mineralization and RT-PCR assay. The average particle size of the NP was 101.6 ± 3.7nm, zeta potential values were negative (-25±0.34mV) of the formulations and the entrapment efficiency was 93± 3.1 % obtained. The moiety of the PLGA–mPEG–pamidronate NPs exhibited the best apatite mineral binding ability in-vitro MCT3E1 pre-osteoblast cell line. Our results suggested that the developed nanoparticles may use as a delivery system for Pamidronate in bone repair and regeneration, warranting further evaluation of the treatment of bone disease.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, osteoblast, in-situ polymerization, pamidronate

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25 Inhibitory Mechanism of Ag and Fe Colloidal Nanoparticles on P. aeruginosa and E.coli Growth

Authors: Fatemeh Moradian, Razieh Ghorbani, Poria Biparva

Abstract:

Growing resistance of microorganisms to potent antibiotics has renewed a great interest towards investigating bactericidal properties of nanoparticles and their Nano composites as an alternative. The use of metal nanoparticles to combat bacterial infections is one of the most wide spread applications of nanotechnology in the field of antibacterial. Nanomaterials have unique properties compared to their bulk counterparts. In this report, we demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of zerovalent Iron(ZVI) and Ag(silver) nanoparticles against Gram-negative bacteria E.coli(DH5α) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. At first ZVI and Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction method and using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) the nanoparticle size determined. Different concentrations of Ag and ZVI nanoparticles were added to bacteria on nutrient agar medium. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Ag and Fe nanoparticles for P. aeruginosa were 5µM and 1µg as well as for E.coli were 6µM. and 10 µg, respectively. Among the two nanoparticles, ZVI showed that the greatest antimicrobial activity against E.coli and Ag nanoparticle on P.aeruginosa. Results suggested that the bactericidal effect of metal nanoparticles has been attributed to their small size as well as high surface to volume ratio and NPs could be used as an effective antibacterial material.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Mic, SEM, bactericidal properties

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24 ZnO / TiO2 Nanoparticles for Degradation of Cyanide Ion

Authors: Masoumeh Tabatabaee, Zahra Shahryarzadeh, Masoud R. Shishebor

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Advanced oxidation process (AOPs) is alternative method for the complete degradation many organic pollutants. When a photocatalyst absorbs radiation whose energy hν > Eg an ē from its filled valance band (VB) is promoted to its conduction band (CB) and valance band holes h+ are formed. Electron would reduce any available species, including O2, water and hydroxide ion to form hydroxyl radicals. ZnO and TiO2 are important photocatalysts with high catalytic activity that have attracted much research attention. TiO2 can only absorb a small portion of solar spectrum in the UV region and many methods such as dye sensitization, doping of other metals and using TiO2 with another semiconductor have been used to improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 under solar irradiation. Studies have shown that the use of metal oxides or sulfide such as WO3, MoO3, SiO2, MgO, ZnO, and CdS with TiO2 can significantly enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. Due to similarity of photodegradation mechanism of ZnO with TiO2, it is a suitable semiconductor using with TiO2 and recently nanosized bicomponent TiO2-ZnO photocatalysts were prepared and used for degradation of some pollutants. In this study, Nano-sized ZnO/TiO2 composite was synthesized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of it. The effect of photocatalytic activity of prepared ZnO/TiO2 on the degradation of cyanide ion under UV was investigated. The effect of various parameters such as ZnO/TiO2 concentration, amount of photocatalyst, amount of H2O2, initial dye or cyanide ion concentration, pH and irradiation time on were investigated. Results show that more than 95% of 4 mgL-1 cyanide ion degraded after 60-min reaction time and under UV irradiation.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Photodegradation, ZnO/TiO2, cyanide ion

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23 Preparation and In vitro Characterization of Nanoparticle Hydrogel for Wound Healing

Authors: Rajni Kant Panik

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate mupirocin loaded nanoparticle incorporated into hydrogel as an infected wound healer. Incorporated Nanoparticle in hydrogel provides a barrier that effectively prevents the contamination of the wound and further progression of infection to deeper tissues. Hydrogel creates moist healing environment on wound space with good fluid absorbance. Nanoparticles were prepared by double emulsion solvent evaporation method using different ratios of PLGA polymer and the hydrogels was developed using sodium alginate and gelatin. Further prepared nanoparticles were then incorporated into the hydrogels. The formulations were characterized by FT-IR and DSC for drug and polymer compatibility and surface morphology was studied by TEM. Nanoparticle hydrogel were evaluated for their size, shape, encapsulation efficiency and for in vitro studies. The FT-IR and DSC confirmed the absence of any drug polymer interaction. The average size of Nanoparticle was found to be in range of 208.21-412.33 nm and shape was found to be spherical. The maximum encapsulation efficiency was found to be 69.03%. The in vitro release profile of Nanoparticle incorporated hydrogel formulation was found to give sustained release of drug. Antimicrobial activity testing confirmed that encapsulated drug preserve its effectiveness. The stability study confirmed that the formulation prepared were stable. Present study complements our finding that mupirocin loaded Nanoparticle incorporated into hydrogel has the potential to be an effective and safe novel addition for the release of mupirocin in sustained manner, which may be a better option for the management of wound. These finding also supports the progression of antibiotic via hydrogel delivery system is a novel topical dosage form for the management of wound.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Wound Healing, Hydrogel, PLGA

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22 Ceramide-PLGA Nanoparticle Formation to Apply to Atopic Dermatitis

Authors: Hwa Sung Shin, Sang-Myung Jung, Gwang Heum Yoon, Hoo Chul Lee

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Ceramide, a component of stratum corneum at epidermis, helps to construct a rigid and dense skin barrier to prevent pathogens that cause atopic dermatitis. However, ceramide was too hydrophobic to be directly absorbed into stratum corneum and has risks of side effects by excessive treatment. To overcome the obstacles, ceramide was embedded into PLGA nanoparticles coated with chitosan. PLGA and chitosan have been known as biocompatible materials. PLGA was squeezed when faced with water and pumped ceramide out of PLGA nanoparticle. In addition, the chitosan coating layer helped initial adherence of nanoparticles to skin and regulate ceramide release until removed. This coating was degraded at weakly acid state like skin surface, finally ceramide release could be controlled. Finally, the nanoparticle was demonstrated to be non-cytotoxic and regenerate stratum corneum of atopic dermatitis model. Overall the nanoparticle is suggested as a novel and effective nanodrug to apply atopic dermatitis.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Atopic dermatitis, controlled release, chitosan coating, ceramide

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21 Synthesis of Vic-Dioxime Palladium (II) Complex: Precursor for Deposition on SBA-15 in ScCO2

Authors: Bilgehan Güzel, Asım Egitmen, Aysen Demir, Burcu Darendeli, Fatma Ulusal

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Synthesizing supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) soluble precursors would be helpful for many processes of material syntheses based on scCO2. Ligand (amphi-(1Z, 2Z)-N-(2-fluoro-3-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl)-N'-hydroxy-2-(hydroxyimino) were synthesized from chloro glyoxime and flourus aniline and Pd(II) complex (precursor) prepared. For scCO2 deposition method, organometallic precursor was dissolved in scCO2 and impregnated onto the SBA-15 at 90 °C and 3000 psi. Then the organometallic precursor was reduced with H2 in the CO2 mixture (150 psi H2 + 2850 psi CO2). Pd deposited support material was characterized by ICP-OES, XRD, FE-SEM, TEM and EDX analyses. The Pd loading of the prepared catalyst, measured by ICP-OES showed a value of about 1.64% mol/g Pd of catalyst. Average particle size was found 5.3 nm. The catalytic activity of prepared catalyst was investigated over Suzuki-Miyaura C-C coupling reaction in different solvent with K2CO3 at 50 oC. The conversion ratio was determined by gas chromatography.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Nanotube, supercritical CO2, precursor, oximes

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20 Lateral Buckling of Nanoparticle Additive Composite Beams

Authors: Gürkan Şakar, Akgün Alsaran, Emrah E. Özbaldan

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In this study, lateral buckling analysis of composite beams with particle additive was carried out experimentally and numerically. The effects of particle type, particle addition ratio on buckling loads of composite beams were determined. The numerical studies were performed with ANSYS package. In the analyses, clamped-free boundary condition was assumed. The load carrying capabilities of composite beams were influenced by different particle types and particle addition ratios.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, composite beam, numeric analysis, lateral buckling

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19 A Feasibility Study of Waste (d) Potential: Synergistic Effect Evaluation by Co-digesting Organic Wastes and Kinetics of Biogas Production

Authors: Sanjay Mathur, Subodh Kumar, Kunwar Paritosh, Monika Yadav, Paras Gandhi, Nidhi Pareek, Vivekanand Vivekanand

Abstract:

A significant fraction of energy is wasted every year managing the biodegradable organic waste inadequately as development and sustainability are the inherent enemies. The management of these waste is indispensable to boost its optimum utilization by converting it to renewable energy resource (here biogas) through anaerobic digestion and to mitigate greenhouse gas emission. Food and yard wastes may prove to be appropriate and potential feedstocks for anaerobic co-digestion for biogas production. The present study has been performed to explore the synergistic effect of co-digesting food waste and yard trimmings from MNIT campus for enhanced biogas production in different ratios in batch tests (37±10C, 90 rpm, 45 days). The results were overwhelming and showed that blending two different organic waste in proper ratio improved the biogas generation considerably, with the highest biogas yield (2044±24 mLg-1VS) that was achieved at 75:25 of food waste to yard waste ratio on volatile solids (VS) basis. The yield was 1.7 and 2.2 folds higher than the mono-digestion of food or yard waste (1172±34, 1016±36mLg-1VS) respectively. The increase in biogas production may be credited to optimum C/N ratio resulting in higher yield. Also Adding TiO2 nanoparticles showed virtually no effect on biogas production as sometimes nanoparticles enhance biogas production. ICP-MS, FTIR analysis was carried out to gain an insight of feedstocks. Modified Gompertz and logistics models were applied for the kinetic study of biogas production where modified Gompertz model showed goodness-of-fit (R2=0.9978) with the experimental results.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Kinetics, Biogas, Organic Waste, anaerobic co-digestion

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18 Biosynthesis of Silver-Phosphate Nanoparticles Using the Extracellular Polymeric Substance of Sporosarcina pasteurii

Authors: Mohammadhosein Rahimi, Mohammad Raouf Hosseini, Mehran Bakhshi, Alireza Baghbanan

Abstract:

Silver ions (Ag+) and their compounds are consequentially toxic to microorganisms, showing biocidal effects on many species of bacteria. Silver-phosphate (or silver orthophosphate) is one of these compounds, which is famous for its antimicrobial effect and catalysis application. In the present study, a green method was presented to synthesis silver-phosphate nanoparticles using Sporosarcina pasteurii. The composition of the biosynthesized nanoparticles was identified as Ag3PO4 using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Also, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that Ag3PO4 nanoparticles was synthesized in the presence of biosurfactants, enzymes, and proteins. In addition, UV-Vis adsorption of the produced colloidal suspension approved the results of XRD and FTIR analyses. Finally, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images indicated that the size of the nanoparticles was about 20 nm.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Bacteria, Biosynthesis, Sporosarcina pasteurii, silver-phosphate

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17 Cadmium Filter Cake of a Hydrometallurgical Zinc Smelter as a New Source for the Biological Synthesis of CdS Quantum Dots

Authors: Mohammadhosein Rahimi, Mohammad Raouf Hosseini, Mehran Bakhshi

Abstract:

The cadmium sulfide nanoparticles were synthesized from the nickel-cadmium cake of a hydrometallurgical zinc producing plant and sodium sulfide as Cd2+ and S-2 sources, respectively. Also, the synthesis process was performed by using the secretions of Bacillus licheniformis as bio-surfactant. Initially, in order to obtain a cadmium rich solution, two following steps were carried out: 1) Alkaline leaching for the removal of zinc oxide from the cake, and 2) acidic leaching to dissolve cadmium from the remained solid residue. Afterward, the obtained CdSO4 solution was used for the nanoparticle biosynthesis. Nanoparticles were characterized by the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to confirm the formation of CdS crystals with cubic structure. Also, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was applied to determine the particle sizes which were in 2-10 nm range. Moreover, the presence of the protein containing bio-surfactants was approved by using infrared analysis (FTIR). In addition, the absorbance below 400 nm confirms quantum particles’ size. Finally, it was shown that valuable CdS quantum dots could be obtained from the industrial waste products via environment-friendly biological approaches.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Biosynthesis, cadmium cake, cadmium sulfide, zinc smelter

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16 Characteristics of the Particle Size Distribution and Exposure Concentrations of Nanoparticles Generated from the Laser Metal Deposition Process

Authors: Yu-Hsuan Liu, Ying-Fang Wang

Abstract:

The objectives of the present study are to characterize nanoparticles generated from the laser metal deposition (LMD) process and to estimate particle concentrations deposited in the head (H), that the tracheobronchial (TB) and alveolar (A) regions, respectively. The studied LMD chamber (3.6m × 3.8m × 2.9m) is installed with a robot laser metal deposition machine. Direct-reading instrument of a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, Model 3082, TSI Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA) was used to conduct static sampling inside the chamber for nanoparticle number concentration and particle size distribution measurements. The SMPS obtained particle number concentration at every 3 minutes, the diameter of the SMPS ranged from 11~372 nm when the aerosol and sheath flow rates were set at 0.6 and 6 L / min, respectively. The resultant size distributions were used to predict depositions of nanoparticles at the H, TB, and A regions of the respiratory tract using the UK National Radiological Protection Board’s (NRPB’s) LUDEP Software. Result that the number concentrations of nanoparticles in indoor background and LMD chamber were 4.8×10³ and 4.3×10⁵ # / cm³, respectively. However, the nanoparticles emitted from the LMD process was in the form of the uni-modal with number median diameter (NMD) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) as 142nm and 1.86, respectively. The fractions of the nanoparticles deposited on the alveolar region (A: 69.8%) were higher than the other two regions of the head region (H: 10.9%), tracheobronchial region (TB: 19.3%). This study conducted static sampling to measure the nanoparticles in the LMD process, and the results show that the fraction of particles deposited on the A region was higher than the other two regions. Therefore, applying the characteristics of nanoparticles emitted from LMD process could be provided valuable scientific-based evidence for exposure assessments in the future.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Exposure Assessment, laser metal deposition process, respiratory region

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15 An Alternative Nano Design Strategy by Neutralized AMPS and Soy Bean Lecithin to Form Nanoparticles

Authors: Esra Cansever Mutlu, Muge Sennaroglu Bostan, Fatemeh Bahadori, Ebru Toksoy Oner, Mehmet S. Eroglu

Abstract:

Paclitaxel is used in treatment of different cancer types mainly breast, ovarian, lung and Kaposi’s sarcoma. It is poorly soluble in water; therefore, currently used formulations tremendously show side-effects and high toxicity. Encapsulation of the drug in a nano drug carrier which causes both reducing side effects and increasing drug activity is a desired new approach for the nano-medicine to target the site of cancer. In this study, synthesis of a novel nano paclitaxel formulation made of a new amphiphilic monomer was followed by the investigation of its pharmacological properties. UV radical polymerization was carried out by using the monomer Lecithin-2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropane (L-AMPS) and the drug-spacer, to obtain sterically high stabilized, biocompatible and biodegradable phospholipid nanoparticles, in which the drug paclitaxel (Pxl) was encapsulated (NanoPxl). Particles showed high drug loading capacity (68%) and also hydrodynamic size less than 200 nm with slight negative surface charge. The drug release profile was obtained and in vitro cytotoxicity test was performed on MCF-7 cell line. Consequently, these data indicated that paclitaxel loaded Lecithin-AMPS/PCL-MAC nanoparticles can be considered as a new, safe and effective nanocarrier for the treatment of breast cancer.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, drug delivery, paclitaxel, L-AMPS

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14 Impact of Nanoparticles in Enhancement of Thermal Conductivity of Phase Change Materials in Thermal Energy Storage and Cooling of Concentrated Photovoltaics

Authors: Mahmoud Ahmed, Shinichi Ookawara, Ismaila H. Zarma, Hamdi Abo-Ali

Abstract:

Phase change materials (PCM) are an ideal thermal storage medium. They are characterized by a high latent heat, which allows them to store large amounts of energy when the material transitions into different physical states. Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems are widely recognized as the most efficient form of Photovoltaic (PV) for thermal energy which can be stored in Phase Change Materials (PCM). However, PCMs often have a low thermal conductivity which leads to a slow transient response. This makes it difficult to quickly store and access the energy stored within the PCM based systems, so there is need to improve transient responses and increase the thermal conductivity. The present study aims to investigate and analyze the melting and solidification process of phase change materials (PCMs) enhanced by nanoparticle contained in a container. Heat flux from concentrated photovoltaic is applied in an attempt to analyze the thermal performance and the impact of nanoparticles. The work will be realized by using a two dimensional model which take into account the phase change phenomena based on the principle of enthalpy method. Numerical simulations have been performed to investigate heat and flow characteristics by using governing equations, to ascertain the impacts of the nanoparticle loading. The Rayleigh number, sub-cooling as well as the unsteady evolution of the melting front and the velocity and temperature fields were also observed. The predicted results exhibited a good agreement, showing thermal enhancement due to present of nanoparticle which leads to decreasing the melting time.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Thermal Energy Storage, phase-change material, concentrated photovoltaic

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13 Continuous Synthesis of Nickel Nanoparticles by Hydrazine Reduction

Authors: Tae Kwon Ha, Seok Hong Min, Seung-Min Yang, Yong-Su Jo

Abstract:

The synthesis of nickel nanoparticles by the reduction of nickel chloride with hydrazine in an aqueous solution. The effect of hydrazine concentration on batch-processed particle characteristics was investigated using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). Both average particle size and geometric standard deviation (GSD) were decreasing with increasing hydrazine concentration. The continuous synthesis of nickel nanoparticles by microemulsion method was also studied using FESEM and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The average size and geometric standard deviation of continuous-processed particles were 87.4 nm and 1.16, respectively. X-ray diffraction revealed continuous-processed particles were pure nickel crystalline with a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, continuous process, hydrazine reduction, microemulsion method

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12 Development of Gold Nanoparticles-Antibody System for the Selective Photothermal Destruction of Multidrug Resistant Bacteria

Authors: Teodora Mocan, Lucian Mocan, Flaviu A. Tabaran, Cornel Iancu, Matea Cristian, Bartos Dana

Abstract:

Antimicrobial resistance, which threatens the efficacy of the existing antibiotics represents a worldwide public health issue. At the current time, vancomycin is the only responsive treatment although has significant cytotoxicity, is partially effective and it is poorly retained by infected tissues. From a clinical point of view, attractive alternative approaches for treating such Meticillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) strains would be using agents that cause physical damage to the bacteria. Modular nanopharmaceuticals systems are being designed to address all of these multifunctional capabilities for the ideal bacterial treatment, with the ability to mix and match appropriate functions. Here we present a novel method of selective laser photothermal ablation of MRSA bacteria mediated by gold nanoparticles bound to PBP antibody against PBP protein located on the MRSA surface.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, laser, Antibody, MRSA

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11 Superoxide Dismutase Activity of Male Rats after Administration of Extract and Nanoparticle of Ginger Torch Flower

Authors: Ruswanto Ruswanto, Tita Nofianti, Tresna Lestari, Ade Yeni Aprilia, Lilis Tuslinah

Abstract:

Nanoparticle formulation is often used to improve drug absorptivity, thus increasing the sharpness of the action. Ginger torch flower extract was formulated into nanoparticle form using poloxamer 1, 3 and 5%. The nanoparticle was then characterized by its particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and morphological form by SEM. The result shows that nanoparticle formulations have particle size 134.7-193.1 nm, polydispersity index less than 0.5 for all formulations, zeta potential -41.0 - (-24.3) mV and entrapment efficiency 89.93-97.99 against flavonoid content with a soft surface and spherical form of particles. Methanolic extract of ginger torch flower could enhance superoxide dismutase activity by 1,3183 U/mL in male rats. Nanoparticle formulation of ginger torch extract is expected to increase the capability of the drug to enhance superoxide dismutase activity.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, superoxide dismutase, ginger torch flower, poloxamer

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10 Antioxidant Activity of Nanoparticle of Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M.Sm Flower Extract on Liver and Kidney of Rats

Authors: Ruswanto Ruswanto, Tita Nofianti, Tresna Lestari, Lilis Tuslinah, Ade Y. Aprillia

Abstract:

Nanoparticle technology gives a chance for drugs, especially natural based product, to give better activities than in its macromolecule form. The ginger torch is known to have activities as an antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, etc. In this research, ginger torch flower extract was nanoparticlized using poloxamer 1, 3, and 5%. Nanoparticle was charaterized for its particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, and morphological form by SEM (scanning electron microscope). The result shows that nanoparticle formulations have particle size 134.7-193.1 nm, polydispersity index is less than 0.5 for all formulations, zeta potential is -41.0 to (-24.3) mV, and entrapment efficiency is 89.93 to 97.99 against flavonoid content with a soft surface and spherical form of particles. Methanolic extract of ginger torch flower could enhance superoxide dismutase activity by 1,3183 U/mL in male rats. Nanoparticle formulation of ginger torch extract is expected to increase the capability of drug to enhance superoxide dismutase activity.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, superoxide dismutase, ginger torch flower, poloxamer

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9 Characterizing Nanoparticles Generated from the Different Working Type and the Stack Flue during 3D Printing Process

Authors: Ying-Fang Wang, Kai-Jui Kou, Tzu-Ling Shen

Abstract:

The objectives of the present study are to characterize nanoparticles generated from the different working type in 3D printing room and the stack flue during 3D printing process. The studied laboratory (10.5 m× 7.2 m × 3.2 m) with a ventilation rate of 500 m³/H is installed a 3D metal printing machine. Direct-reading instrument of a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, Model 3082, TSI Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA) was used to conduct static sampling for nanoparticle number concentration and particle size distribution measurements. The SMPS obtained particle number concentration at every 3 minutes, the diameter of the SMPS ranged from 11~372 nm when the aerosol and sheath flow rates were set at 0.6 and 6 L/min, respectively. The concentrations of background, printing process, clearing operation, and screening operation were performed in the laboratory. On the other hand, we also conducted nanoparticle measurement on the 3D printing machine's stack flue to understand its emission characteristics. Results show that the nanoparticles emitted from the different operation process were the same distribution in the form of the uni-modal with number median diameter (NMD) as approximately 28.3 nm to 29.6 nm. The number concentrations of nanoparticles were 2.55×10³ count/cm³ in laboratory background, 2.19×10³ count/cm³ during printing process, 2.29×10³ count/cm³ during clearing process, 3.05×10³ count/cm³ during screening process, 2.69×10³ count/cm³ in laboratory background after printing process, and 6.75×10³ outside laboratory, respectively. We found that there are no emission nanoparticles during the printing process. However, the number concentration of stack flue nanoparticles in the ongoing print is 1.13×10⁶ count/cm³, and that of the non-printing is 1.63×10⁴ count/cm³, with a NMD of 458 nm and 29.4 nm, respectively. It can be confirmed that the measured particle size belongs to easily penetrate the filter in theory during the printing process, even though the 3D printer has a high-efficiency filtration device. Therefore, it is recommended that the stack flue of the 3D printer would be equipped with an appropriate dust collection device to prevent the operators from exposing these hazardous particles.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, particle emission, number concentration

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8 The Effect of Magnetite Particle Size on Methane Production by Fresh and Degassed Anaerobic Sludge

Authors: R. Bello-Mendoza, D. G. Wareham, E. Al-Essa

Abstract:

Anaerobic batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of magnetite-supplementation (7 mM) on methane production from digested sludge undergoing two different microbial growth phases, namely fresh sludge (exponential growth phase) and degassed sludge (endogenous decay phase). Three different particle sizes were assessed: small (50 - 150 nm), medium (168 – 490 nm) and large (800 nm - 4.5 µm) particles. Results show that, in the case of the fresh sludge, magnetite significantly enhanced the methane production rate (up to 32%) and reduced the lag phase (by 15% - 41%) as compared to the control, regardless of the particle size used. However, the cumulative methane produced at the end of the incubation was comparable in all treatment and control bottles. In the case of the degassed sludge, only the medium-sized magnetite particles increased significantly the methane production rate (12% higher) as compared to the control. Small and large particles had little effect on the methane production rate but did result in an extended lag phase which led to significantly lower cumulative methane production at the end of the incubation period. These results suggest that magnetite produces a clear and positive effect on methane production only when an active and balanced microbial community is present in the anaerobic digester. It is concluded that, (i) the effect of magnetite particle size on increasing the methane production rate and reducing lag phase duration is strongly influenced by the initial metabolic state of the microbial consortium, and (ii) the particle size would positively affect the methane production if it is provided within the nanometer size range.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Methanogenesis, Anaerobic Digestion, iron oxide

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7 Synthesis, Characterization and Coating of the Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Cotton Fabric by Mechanical Thermo-Fixation Techniques to Impart Antimicrobial Activity

Authors: Mohammad Ali, Imana Shahrin Tania

Abstract:

Present study reports the synthesis, characterization, and application of nano sized zinc-oxide (ZnO) particles on cotton fabric surface. The aim of the investigations is to impart the antimicrobial activity on textile cloth. Nanoparticle is synthesized by wet chemical method from zinc sulphate and sodium hydroxide. SEM (scanning electron micrograph) images are taken to demonstrate the surface morphology of nanoparticles. XRD analysis is done to determine the crystal size of nanoparticle. With the conformation of nano formation the cotton woven fabric is treated with ZnO nanoparticle by mechanical thermo-fixation (pad-dry-cure) technique. To increase the wash durability of nano treated fabric an acrylic binder is used as a fixing agent. The treated fabric shows up to 90% bacterial reduction for S. aureus (Staphylococcus aureus) and 87% for E. coli (Escherichia coli), which is appreciable for bacteria protective clothing.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, zinc oxide, antibacterial activity, binder, cotton fabric

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6 Effect of Alkalinity of Water on the Aggregation of Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles

Authors: Fedda Y. Alzoubi, Ihsan A. Aljarrah

Abstract:

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most vital and fascinating nanomaterials among several metallic nanoparticles that are involved in different applications, especially in biomedical applications. Samples of different alkaline water were prepared in order to study the effect of alkalinity of water on the optical properties, size, and morphology of colloidal AgNPs prepared according to the chemical reduction method using the prepared water samples. Ultraviolet-Visible spectrophotometer, Zeta-sizer, and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) have been utilized to carry out this study. Absorption spectra AgNPs in different alkaline water show a surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at the wavelength of 420 nm. The position of this peak is sensitive to the shape of the particles, and in our case, it indicates that the particles are spherical. As the alkalinity increases, the intensity of the SPR peak decreases, indicating the aggregation of particles. Zeta-sizer measurements show that the average diameter for AgNPs in pure water is found to be 53.51 nm, and this value increases as the alkalinity increases. Zeta potential values of samples show that the negatively coated particles are stable in the solution. SEM images insure the spherical shape of the prepared nanoparticles and show that as the alkalinity increases the particles aggregate into larger particles.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, aggregation, Colloid, alkalinity

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5 Sustainable Antimicrobial Biopolymeric Food & Biomedical Film Engineering Using Bioactive AMP-Ag+ Formulations

Authors: Eduardo Lanzagorta Garcia, Chaitra Venkatesh, Romina Pezzoli, Laura Gabriela Rodriguez Barroso, Declan Devine, Margaret E. Brennan Fournet

Abstract:

New antimicrobial interventions are urgently required to combat rising global health and medical infection challenges. Here, an innovative antimicrobial technology, providing price competitive alternatives to antibiotics and readily integratable with currently technological systems is presented. Two cutting edge antimicrobial materials, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and uncompromised sustained Ag+ action from triangular silver nanoplates (TSNPs) reservoirs, are merged for versatile effective antimicrobial action where current approaches fail. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) exist widely in nature and have recently been demonstrated for broad spectrum of activity against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. TSNP’s are highly discrete, homogenous and readily functionisable Ag+ nanoreseviors that have a proven amenability for operation within in a wide range of bio-based settings. In a design for advanced antimicrobial sustainable plastics, antimicrobial TSNPs are formulated for processing within biodegradable biopolymers. Histone H5 AMP was selected for its reported strong antimicrobial action and functionalized with the TSNP (AMP-TSNP) in a similar fashion to previously reported TSNP biofunctionalisation methods. A synergy between the propensity of biopolymers for degradation and Ag+ release combined with AMP activity provides a novel mechanism for the sustained antimicrobial action of biopolymeric thin films. Nanoplates are transferred from aqueous phase to an organic solvent in order to facilitate integration within hydrophobic polymers. Extrusion is used in combination with calendering rolls to create thin polymerc film where the nanoplates are embedded onto the surface. The resultant antibacterial functional films are suitable to be adapted for food packing and biomedical applications. TSNP synthesis were synthesized by adapting a previously reported seed mediated approach. TSNP synthesis was scaled up for litre scale batch production and subsequently concentrated to 43 ppm using thermally controlled H2O removal. Nanoplates were transferred from aqueous phase to an organic solvent in order to facilitate integration within hydrophobic polymers. This was acomplised by functionalizing the TSNP with thiol terminated polyethylene glycol and using centrifugal force to transfer them to chloroform. Polycaprolactone (PCL) and Polylactic acid (PLA) were individually processed through extrusion, TSNP and AMP-TSNP solutions were sprayed onto the polymer immediately after exiting the dye. Calendering rolls were used to disperse and incorporate TSNP and TSNP-AMP onto the surface of the extruded films. Observation of the characteristic blue colour confirms the integrity of the TSNP within the films. Antimicrobial tests were performed by incubating Gram + and Gram – strains with treated and non-treated films, to evaluate if bacterial growth was reduced due to the presence of the TSNP. The resulting films successfully incorporated TSNP and AMP-TSNP. Reduced bacterial growth was observed for both Gram + and Gram – strains for both TSNP and AMP-TSNP compared with untreated films indicating antimicrobial action. The largest growth reduction was observed for AMP-TSNP treated films demonstrating the additional antimicrobial activity due to the presence of the AMPs. The potential of this technology to impede bacterial activity in food industry and medical surfaces will forge new confidence in the battle against antibiotic resistant bacteria, serving to greatly inhibit infections and facilitate patient recovery.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Antimicrobial, Polymer, Peptide, biodegradable

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