Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Nanomaterials Related Abstracts

25 Effect of Transition Metal (Fe, Mn) Ion Doping on TiO2 Nano Particles

Authors: Kirit Siddhapara, Dimple Shah

Abstract:

In this research, we have studied the doping behaviors of two transition metal ion dopants on the crystal phase, particle sizes, XRD patterns, EDAX spectra, and photoreactivity of TiO2 nanoparticles. The crystalline size of TiO2 is close to 4 nm Calculated from (1 0 1) peak by using FWHM method in Scherrer’s equation. Test metal ion concentrations ranged from 1% to 4 at.%, we report the growth of [Fe, Mn]xTiO2 nanocrystals prepared by Sol-Gel technique, followed by freeze-drying treatment at -30°C temperature for 12hrs. The obtained Gel was thermally treated at different temperature like 200°C, 400°C, 600°C, 800°C. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) shows that dopant concentration affects thermal decomposition. The photoreactivities of transition metal ion-doped TiO2 nanoparticles under UV irradiation were quantified by the degradation of formaldehyde.

Keywords: Magnetic Materials, Nanomaterials, Oxides, Sol-Gel Method, growth from solution, titanium compounds

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24 Direct Electrical Communication of Redox Enzyme Based on 3-Dimensional Crosslinked Redox Enzyme/Carbon Nanotube on a Thiol-Modified Au Surface

Authors: A. K. M. Kafi, S. N. Nina, Mashitah M. Yusoff

Abstract:

In this work, we have described a new 3-dimensional (3D) network of crosslinked Horseradish Peroxidase/Carbon Nanotube (HRP/CNT) on a thiol-modified Au surface in order to build up the effective electrical wiring of the enzyme units with the electrode. This was achieved by the electropolymerization of aniline-functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 4-aminothiophenol -modified-HRP on a 4-aminothiophenol monolayer-modified Au electrode. The synthesized 3D HRP/CNT networks were characterized with cyclic voltammetry and amperometry, resulting the establishment direct electron transfer between the redox active unit of HRP and the Au surface. Electrochemical measurements reveal that the immobilized HRP exhibits high biological activity and stability and a quasi-reversible redox peak of the redox center of HRP was observed at about −0.355 and −0.275 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The electron transfer rate constant, KS and electron transfer co-efficient were found to be 0.57 s-1 and 0.42, respectively. Based on the electrocatalytic process by direct electrochemistry of HRP, a biosensor for detecting H2O2 was developed. The developed biosensor exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of H2O2. The proposed biosensor modified with HRP/CNT 3D network displays a broader linear range and a lower detection limit for H2O2 determination. The linear range is from 1.0×10−7 to 1.2×10−4M with a detection limit of 2.2.0×10−8M at 3σ. Moreover, this biosensor exhibits very high sensitivity, good reproducibility and long-time stability. In summary, ease of fabrication, a low cost, fast response and high sensitivity are the main advantages of the new biosensor proposed in this study. These obvious advantages would really help for the real analytical applicability of the proposed biosensor.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, Biosensor, redox enzyme, thiol-modified Au surface

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23 Microstructural Study of Mechanically Alloyed Powders and the Thin Films of Cufe Alloys

Authors: Mechri hanane, Azzaz Mohammed

Abstract:

Polycrystalline CuFe thin film was prepared by thermal evaporation process (Physical vapor deposition), using the nanocrystalline CuFe powder obtained by mechanical alloying After 24 h of milling elemental powders. The microscopic study of nanocrystalline powder and the thin film of Cu70Fe30 binary alloy were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The cross-sectional TEM images showed that the obtained CuFe layer was polycrystalline film of about 20 nm thick and composed of grains of different size ranging from 4 nm to 18 nm.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, Thin Films, SEM, TEM

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22 Producing Carbon Nanoparticles from Agricultural and Municipal Wastes

Authors: Kanik Sharma

Abstract:

In the year of 2011, the global production of carbon nano-materials (CNMs) was around 3,500 tons, and it is projected to expand at a compound annual growth rate of 30.6%. Expanding markets for applications of CNMs, such as carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) and carbon nano-fibers (CNFs), place ever-increasing demands on lowering their production costs. Current technologies for CNM generation require intensive premium feedstock consumption and employ costly catalysts; they also require input of external energy. Industrial-scale CNM production is conventionally achieved through chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods which consume a variety of expensive premium chemical feedstocks such as ethylene, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2); or by flame synthesis techniques, which also consume premium feedstock fuels. Additionally, CVD methods are energy-intensive. Renewable and replenishable feedstocks, such as those found in municipal, industrial, agricultural recycling streams have a more judicious reason for usage, in the light of current emerging needs for sustainability. Agricultural sugarcane bagasse and corn residues, scrap tire chips as well as post-consumer polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle shreddings when either thermally treated by sole pyrolysis or by sequential pyrolysis and partial oxidation result in the formation of gaseous carbon-bearing effluents which when channeled into a heated reactor, produce CNMs, including carbon nano-tubes, catalytically synthesized therein on stainless steel meshes. The structure of the nano-material synthesized depends on the type of feedstock available for pyrolysis, and can be determined by analysing the feedstock. These feedstocks could supersede the use of costly and often toxic or highly-flammable chemicals such as hydrocarbon gases, carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which are commonly used as feedstocks in current nano-manufacturing process for CNMs.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, pyrolysis, Waste Plastics, sugarcane bagasse

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21 Direct Electrical Communication of Redox Enzyme Based on 3-Dimensional Cross-Linked Redox Enzyme/Nanomaterials

Authors: A. K. M. Kafi, S. N. Nina, Mashitah M. Yusoff

Abstract:

In this work, we have described a new 3-dimensional (3D) network of cross-linked Horseradish Peroxidase/Carbon Nanotube (HRP/CNT) on a thiol-modified Au surface in order to build up the effective electrical wiring of the enzyme units with the electrode. This was achieved by the electropolymerization of aniline-functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 4-aminothiophenol -modified-HRP on a 4-aminothiophenol monolayer-modified Au electrode. The synthesized 3D HRP/CNT networks were characterized with cyclic voltammetry and amperometry, resulting the establishment direct electron transfer between the redox active unit of HRP and the Au surface. Electrochemical measurements reveal that the immobilized HRP exhibits high biological activity and stability and a quasi-reversible redox peak of the redox center of HRP was observed at about −0.355 and −0.275 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The electron transfer rate constant, KS and electron transfer co-efficient were found to be 0.57 s-1 and 0.42, respectively. Based on the electrocatalytic process by direct electrochemistry of HRP, a biosensor for detecting H2O2 was developed. The developed biosensor exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of H2O2. The proposed biosensor modified with HRP/CNT 3D network displays a broader linear range and a lower detection limit for H2O2 determination. The linear range is from 1.0×10−7 to 1.2×10−4M with a detection limit of 2.2.0×10−8M at 3σ. Moreover, this biosensor exhibits very high sensitivity, good reproducibility and long-time stability. In summary, ease of fabrication, a low cost, fast response and high sensitivity are the main advantages of the new biosensor proposed in this study. These obvious advantages would really help for the real analytical applicability of the proposed biosensor.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, Biosensors, redox enzyme, electrical communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
20 Microfluidic Continuous Approaches to Produce Magnetic Nanoparticles with Homogeneous Size Distribution

Authors: Victor Sebastian, Ane Larrea, Manuel Arruebo, Jesus Santamaria

Abstract:

We present a gas-liquid microfluidic system as a reactor to obtain magnetite nanoparticles with an excellent degree of control regarding their crystalline phase, shape and size. Several types of microflow approaches were selected to prevent nanomaterial aggregation and to promote homogenous size distribution. The selected reactor consists of a mixer stage aided by ultrasound waves and a reaction stage using a N2-liquid segmented flow to prevent magnetite oxidation to non-magnetic phases. A milli-fluidic reactor was developed to increase the production rate where a magnetite throughput close to 450 mg/h in a continuous fashion was obtained.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, Microfluidics, magnetic nanoparticles, continuous production

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19 Pollution-Sources, Controls, and Impact Analysis

Authors: Aditi Acharya

Abstract:

Environmental pollution is threatening the environmental and human health in the most drastic way. This paper provides insight about the affects of environmental pollution in the perspective of water pollution. Sewage in drinking water, the increasing contamination of water bodies and water resources and the human beings are the major contributors, increasing the harsh activities of pollution. The research presents information about the sources of pollution, its impacts and control activities to be undertaken to make our environment free from water pollution.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, Environmental Pollution, Nanotechnology, Water pollution

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18 Fabrication and Characterization of Cu50 (Zr50-xNix) 50 Nanocrystalline Coating by Cold Spray Technique for Potential Antibiofilm Application

Authors: Ahmad Alazemi, M. Sherif El-Eskandrany, Mohamad Kishk, Thanyan AlOnaizi, Ahmad Alduweesh, Shorouq Abdullaleel

Abstract:

Arc melting technique followed by top-down approach, using a high-energy ball milling technique were employed to synthesize nanocrystalline of Cu50(Zr50-xNix)50 (x = 0, 10, 20 and 30 at.%) powder particles. The end-products of the alloy powders obtained after 50 h of the ball milling time were uniform in composition and had spherical-like morphology with an average particle size of 0.75 µm in diameter. The powders, which consisted of nanocrystalline grains with an average grain size of 10 nm in diameter, were used as feedstock materials for double face coating of stainless (SUS304) sheets, using cold spraying process. The coating materials enjoyed nanocrystalline structure and uniform composition. Biofilms were grown on 20-mm2 SUS304 sheets coated coupons inoculated with 1.5 × 108 CFU ml−1 E. coli. Significant biofilm inhibition was recorded in the nanoparticles coated coupons in comparison to non-coated SUS304 coupon. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that formation of biofilms can be significantly inhibited by Cu-based alloys especially in case of high (Ni) content. The inhibition of biofilm formation by nanocrystalline powders of Cu-based provides a practical approach to achieve the inhibition of biofilms formed by an emerging pathogen.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, Biofilm, nanocrystalline, E.coli, FE-HRTEM/EDS

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17 Acute Hepatotoxicity of Nano and Micro-Sized Iron Particles in Adult Albino Rats

Authors: Ghada Hasabo, Mahmoud Saber Elbasiouny, Mervat Abdelsalam, Sherin Ghaleb, Niveen Eldessouky

Abstract:

In the near future, nanotechnology is envisaged for large scale use. Hence health and safety issues of nanoparticles should be promptly addressed. In the present study the acute hepatoxicity assessment due to high single oral dose of nano iron and micro iron particles were studied. The normal daily activities, biochemical alterations, blood coagulation, histopathological changes in Wister rats were the aspect of the toxicological assessment.This work found that significant alterations in biochemical enzymes (serum iron level, liver enzymes, albumin, and bilirubin levels), blood coagulation (PT, PC, INR), and histopathological changes occurred more prominently in the nano iron particle treated group.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, Nanotechnology, Nanobiotechnology, Nanosystems

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16 A Review on Applications of Nanotechnology in Automotive Industry

Authors: Akshata S. Malani, Anagha D. Chaudhari, Rajeshkumar U. Sambhe

Abstract:

Nanotechnology in pristine sense refers to building of structures at atomic and molecular scale. Meticulously nanotechnology encompasses the nanomaterials with atleast one dimension size ranging from 1 to 100 nanometres.Unlike the literal meaning of its name, nanotechnology is a massive concept beyond imagination. This paper predominantly deals with relevance of nanotechnology in automotive industries. New generation of automotives looks at nanotechnology as an emerging trend of manufacturing revolution. Intricate shapes can be made out of fairly inexpensive raw materials instead of conventional fabrication process. Though the current era have enough technology to face competition, nanotechnology can give futuristic implications to pick up the modern pace. Nanotechnology intends to bridge the gap between automotives with superior technical performance and their cost fluctuation. Preliminarily, it is an area of great scientific interest and a major shaper of many new technologies. Nanotechnology can be an ideal building block for automotive industries, under constant evolution offering a very wide scope of activity. It possesses huge potential and is still in the embryonic form of research and development.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, Manufacturing, Nanotechnology, Automotive industry

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15 Solubility Measurements in the Context of Nanoregulation

Authors: Ratna Tantra

Abstract:

From a risk assessment point of view, solubility is a property that has been identified as being important. If nanomaterial is completely soluble, then its disposal can be treated much in the same way as ‘ordinary’ chemicals, which subsequently will simplify testing and characterization regimes. The measurement of solubility has been highlighted as important in a pan-European project, Framework Programme (FP) 7 NANoREG. Some of the project outputs surrounding this topic will be presented here, in which there are two parts. First, a review on existing methods capable of measuring nanomaterial solubility will be discussed. Second, a case study will be presented based on using colorimetry methods to quantify dissolve zinc from ZnO nanomaterial upon exposure to digestive juices. The main findings are as follows: a) there is no universal method for nanomaterial solubility testing. The method chosen will be dependent on sample type and nano-specific application/scenario. b) The colorimetry results show a positive correlation between particle concentration and amount of [Zn2+] released; this was expected c) results indicate complete dissolution of the ZnO nanomaterial, as a result of the digestion protocol but only a fraction existing as free ions. Finally, what differentiates the F7 NANoREG project over other projects is the need for participating research laboratories to follow a set of defined protocols, necessary to establish quality control and assurance. The methods and results associated with mandatory testing that carried out by all partners in NANoREG will be discussed.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, Nanotoxicology, zinc oxide, solubility

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14 First-Principles Calculations of Hydrogen Adsorbed in Multi-Layer Graphene

Authors: Mohammad Shafiul Alam, Mineo Saito

Abstract:

Graphene-based materials have attracted much attention because they are candidates for post silicon materials. Since controlling of impurities is necessary to achieve nano device, we study hydrogen impurity in multi-layer graphene. We perform local spin Density approximation (LSDA) in which the plane wave basis set and pseudopotential are used. Previously hydrogen monomer and dimer in graphene is well theoretically studied. However, hydrogen on multilayer graphene is still not clear. By using first-principles electronic structure calculations based on the LSDA within the density functional theory method, we studied hydrogen monomers and dimers in two-layer graphene. We found that the monomers are spin-polarized and have magnetic moment 1 µB. We also found that most stable dimer is much more stable than monomer. In the most stable structures of the dimers in two-layer graphene, the two hydrogen atoms are bonded to the host carbon atoms which are nearest-neighbors. In this case two hydrogen atoms are located on the opposite sides. Whereas, when the two hydrogen atoms are bonded to the same sublattice of the host materials, magnetic moments of 2 µB appear in two-layer graphene. We found that when the two hydrogen atoms are bonded to third-nearest-neighbor carbon atoms, the electronic structure is nonmagnetic. We also studied hydrogen monomers and dimers in three-layer graphene. The result is same as that of two-layer graphene. These results are very important in the field of carbon nanomaterials as it is experimentally difficult to show the magnetic state of those materials.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, first-principles calculations, LSDA, multi-layer gra-phene

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13 Impact of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles on Terrestrial Flora and Microorganisms

Authors: L. Steponavičiūtė, L. Steponavičienė

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Despite the rapid nanotechnology progress and recognition, its potential impact in ecosystems and health of humans is still not fully known. In this paper, the study of ecotoxicological dangers of nanomaterials is presented. By chemical reduction method, silver (AgNPs) and gold (AuNPs) nanoparticles were synthesized, characterized and used in experiments to examine their impact on microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans) and terrestrial flora (Phaseolus vulgaris and Lepidium sativum). The results collected during experiments with terrestrial flora show tendentious growth stimulations caused by gold nanoparticles. In contrast to these results, silver nanoparticle solutions inhibited growth of beans and garden cress, compared to control samples. The results obtained from experiments with microorganisms show similarities with ones collected from experiments with terrestrial plants. Samples treated with AuNPs of size 13 nm showed stimulation in the growth of the colonies compared with 3,5 nm size nanoparticles.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, Ecosystems, Nanoparticles, Ecotoxicology

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12 Measurement of Acoustic Loss in Nano-Layered Coating Developed for Thermal Noise Reduction

Authors: E. Cesarini, M. Lorenzini, R. Cardarelli, S. Chao, E. Coccia, V. Fafone, Y. Minenkow, I. Nardecchia, I. M. Pinto, A. Rocchi, V. Sequino, C. Taranto

Abstract:

Structural relaxation processes in optical coatings represent a fundamental limit to the sensitivity of gravitational waves detectors, MEMS, optical metrology and entangled state experiments. To face this problem, many research lines are now active, in particular the characterization of new materials and novel solutions to be employed as coatings in future gravitational wave detectors. Nano-layered coating deposition is among the most promising techniques. We report on the measurement of acoustic loss of nm-layered composites (Ti2O/SiO2), performed with the GeNS nodal suspension, compared with sputtered λ/4 thin films nowadays employed.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, mechanical measurement, optical coating, thermal noise

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11 Synthesis and Characterisation of New Heteropolyanion Substitute by CO2+

Authors: Ouahiba Bechiri, Mostefa Abbessi

Abstract:

In recent year, polyoxometallates are intensely being explored because of their applications as new materiels, structural aesthetics, catalysts, and biologically active compounds. heteropolyanions of general formulae [X2M18O62] n- (X= heteroatom, e.g. P, Si) and (M=W, Mo), known as Dawson-type anions, constitue a special class of polyoxometallate compounds. In this present work, cobalt substituted heteropolyanion Dawson-type [HP2W15Mo3CoO61] were synthesized and characterized by IR spectroscopy, 31 P NMR, cyclic voltammetry.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, Characterization, heteropolyanions, Dawson-type

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10 Mixed Natural Adsorbents and Oxides for Oil Remediation

Authors: Cesar Maximo Oliva González, Javier Acevedo Cortez, Boris Kharisov, Thelma Serrano Quezada

Abstract:

The importance of the crude oil refining process is due to the demand for petroleum products such as gasoline, kerosene, asphalt, etc., which are used in daily activities and have a high impact on the global economy. In the processes of oil obtaining and refining, it is common to find problems such as spills on seabed and high energy consumption in processing. In order to quickly and efficiently attack these problems, the use of adsorbents has taken on great importance due to its ease of implementation, as well as the possibility of their regeneration to be reused. In this work, the use of two types of adsorbents is proposed: the first is a natural adsorbent such as aloe vera or nopal, which were lyophilized and hydrophobized to achieve a selectivity in oil adsorption in oil / water mixtures. The second is a mixed iron/nickel oxide, which is specially designed to adsorb the asphaltenes in the heavy fractions of the oil; in addition, this type of adsorbents presents catalytic properties that manage to decompose the heavier fractions of the petroleum in light hydrocarbons, descending thus the energy required for the oil refining process.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, Remediation, Mixed Oxides, Oil Spills, natural adsorbents

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9 Catalytic Nanomaterials for Energy Conversion and Storage

Authors: Yijin Kang

Abstract:

Chemical-electrical energy conversion and storage are greatly attractive for the development of sustainable energy. Catalytic processes are heavily involved in such energy conversion and storage. Development of high-performance catalyst nanomaterials relies on tuning material structures at nanoscale. This is in particular manifested in the design of catalysts demanding both high activity and durability. Here, a research system will be presented that connects fundamental investigation on well-defined extended surfaces (e.g. single crystal surfaces), extrapolation onto nanocrystals with highly controlled shape and size, exploration of interfacial interaction using novel nanocrystal superlattices as platform, and finally design of high performance catalysts in which all the possible beneficial properties from complex functional structures are implemented. Using recently published results, it will be demonstrated that optimal and fine balanced activity and durability, as well as tunable functionality, can be achieved by carefully tailoring the nanostructure of catalytic nanomaterials.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, Energy, Catalysis, Electrocatalysis

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8 Interdigitated Flexible Li-Ion Battery by Aerosol Jet Printing

Authors: Yohann R. J. Thomas, Sébastien Solan

Abstract:

Conventional battery technology includes the assembly of electrode/separator/electrode by standard techniques such as stacking or winding, depending on the format size. In that type of batteries, coating or pasting techniques are only used for the electrode process. The processes are suited for large scale production of batteries and perfectly adapted to plenty of application requirements. Nevertheless, as the demand for both easier and cost-efficient production modes, flexible, custom-shaped and efficient small sized batteries is rising. Thin-film, printable batteries are one of the key areas for printed electronics. In the frame of European BASMATI project, we are investigating the feasibility of a new design of lithium-ion battery: interdigitated planar core design. Polymer substrate is used to produce bendable and flexible rechargeable accumulators. Direct fully printed batteries lead to interconnect the accumulator with other electronic functions for example organic solar cells (harvesting function), printed sensors (autonomous sensors) or RFID (communication function) on a common substrate to produce fully integrated, thin and flexible new devices. To fulfill those specifications, a high resolution printing process have been selected: Aerosol jet printing. In order to fit with this process parameters, we worked on nanomaterials formulation for current collectors and electrodes. In addition, an advanced printed polymer-electrolyte is developed to be implemented directly in the printing process in order to avoid the liquid electrolyte filling step and to improve safety and flexibility. Results: Three different current collectors has been studied and printed successfully. An ink of commercial copper nanoparticles has been formulated and printed, then a flash sintering was applied to the interdigitated design. A gold ink was also printed, the resulting material was partially self-sintered and did not require any high temperature post treatment. Finally, carbon nanotubes were also printed with a high resolution and well defined patterns. Different electrode materials were formulated and printed according to the interdigitated design. For cathodes, NMC and LFP were efficaciously printed. For anodes, LTO and graphite have shown to be good candidates for the fully printed battery. The electrochemical performances of those materials have been evaluated in a standard coin cell with lithium-metal counter electrode and the results are similar with those of a traditional ink formulation and process. A jellified plastic crystal solid state electrolyte has been developed and showed comparable performances to classical liquid carbonate electrolytes with two different materials. In our future developments, focus will be put on several tasks. In a first place, we will synthesize and formulate new specific nano-materials based on metal-oxyde. Then a fully printed device will be produced and its electrochemical performance will be evaluated.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, Lithium-Ion Battery, high resolution digital printing, solid-state electrolytes

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7 Validation of an Impedance-Based Flow Cytometry Technique for High-Throughput Nanotoxicity Screening

Authors: Melanie Ostermann, Eivind Birkeland, Ying Xue, Alexander Sauter, Mihaela R. Cimpan

Abstract:

Background: New reliable and robust techniques to assess biological effects of nanomaterials (NMs) in vitro are needed to speed up safety analysis and to identify key physicochemical parameters of NMs, which are responsible for their acute cytotoxicity. The central aim of this study was to validate and evaluate the applicability and reliability of an impedance-based flow cytometry (IFC) technique for the high-throughput screening of NMs. Methods: Eight inorganic NMs from the European Commission Joint Research Centre Repository were used: NM-302 and NM-300k (Ag: 200 nm rods and 16.7 nm spheres, respectively), NM-200 and NM- 203 (SiO₂: 18.3 nm and 24.7 nm amorphous, respectively), NM-100 and NM-101 (TiO₂: 100 nm and 6 nm anatase, respectively), and NM-110 and NM-111 (ZnO: 147 nm and 141 nm, respectively). The aim was to assess the biological effects of these materials on human monoblastoid (U937) cells. Dispersions of NMs were prepared as described in the NANOGENOTOX dispersion protocol and cells were exposed to NMs at relevant concentrations (2, 10, 20, 50, and 100 µg/mL) for 24 hrs. The change in electrical impedance was measured at 0.5, 2, 6, and 12 MHz using the IFC AmphaZ30 (Amphasys AG, Switzerland). A traditional toxicity assay, Trypan Blue Dye Exclusion assay, and dark-field microscopy were used to validate the IFC method. Results: Spherical Ag particles (NM-300K) showed the highest toxic effect on U937 cells followed by ZnO (NM-111 ≥ NM-110) particles. Silica particles were moderate to non-toxic at all used concentrations under these conditions. A higher toxic effect was seen with smaller sized TiO2 particles (NM-101) compared to their larger analogues (NM-100). No interferences between the IFC and the used NMs were seen. Uptake and internalization of NMs were observed after 24 hours exposure, confirming actual NM-cell interactions. Conclusion: Results collected with the IFC demonstrate the applicability of this method for rapid nanotoxicity assessment, which proved to be less prone to nano-related interference issues compared to some traditional toxicity assays. Furthermore, this label-free and novel technique shows good potential for up-scaling in directions of an automated high-throughput screening and for future NM toxicity assessment. This work was supported by the EC FP7 NANoREG (Grant Agreement NMP4-LA-2013-310584), the Research Council of Norway, project NorNANoREG (239199/O70), the EuroNanoMed II 'GEMN' project (246672), and the UH-Nett Vest project.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, High-throughput, Cytotoxicity, impedance

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6 Facile Synthesis of Sulfur Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity

Authors: Saeed M. Alhassan, Vishnu V. Pillai, Sunil P. Lonkar, Akhil M. Abraham

Abstract:

An effectual technology for wastewater treatment is a great demand now in order to encounter the water pollution caused by organic pollutants. Photocatalytic oxidation technology is widely used in removal of such unsafe contaminants. Among the semi-conducting metal oxides, robust and thermally stable TiO2 has emerged as a fascinating material for photocatalysis. Enhanced catalytic activity was observed for nanostructured TiO2 due to its higher surface, chemical stability and higher oxidation ability. However, higher charge carrier recombination and wide band gap of TiO2 limits its use as a photocatalyst in the UV region. It is desirable to develop a photocatalyst that can efficiently absorb the visible light, which occupies the main part of the solar spectrum. Hence, in order to extend its photocatalytic efficiency under visible light, TiO2 nanoparticles are often doped with metallic or non-metallic elements. Non-metallic doping of TiO2 has attracted much attention due to the low thermal stability and enhanced recombination of charge carriers endowed by metallic doping of TiO2. Amongst, sulfur doped TiO2 is most widely used photocatalyst in environmental purification. However, the most of S-TiO2 synthesis technique uses toxic chemicals and complex procedures. Hence, a facile, scalable and environmentally benign preparation process for S-TiO2 is highly desirable. In present work, we have demonstrated new and facile solid-state reaction method for S-TiO2 synthesis that uses abundant elemental sulfur as S source and moderate temperatures. The resulting nano-sized S-TiO2 has been successfully employed as visible light photocatalyst in methylene blue dye removal from aqueous media.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, Photocatalysts, methylene blue, ecofriendly

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5 Immobilization of Cobalt Ions on F-Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes-Chitosan Thin Film: Preparation and Application for Paracetamol Detection

Authors: Shamima Akhter, Samira Bagheri, M. Shalauddin, Wan Jefrey Basirun

Abstract:

In the present study, a nanocomposite of f-MWCNTs-Chitosan was prepared by the immobilization of Co(II) transition metal through self-assembly method and used for the simultaneous voltammetric determination of paracetamol (PA). The composite material was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-Ray analysis (EDX). The electroactivity of cobalt immobilized f-MWCNTs with excellent adsorptive polymer chitosan was assessed during the electro-oxidation of paracetamol. The resulting GCE modified f-MWCNTs/CTS-Co showed electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of PA. The electrochemical performances were investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) methods. Under favorable experimental conditions, differential pulse voltammetry showed a linear dynamic range for paracetamol solution in the range of 0.1 to 400µmol L⁻¹ with a detection limit of 0.01 µmol L⁻¹. The proposed sensor exhibited significant selectivity for the paracetamol detection. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of paracetamol in commercial tablets and human serum sample.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, paracetamol, multi-wall carbon nanotube, electrochemical technique

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4 Magnetic Carriers of Organic Selenium (IV) Compounds: Physicochemical Properties and Possible Applications in Anticancer Therapy

Authors: P. C. Morais, E. Mosiniewicz-Szablewska, P. Suchocki

Abstract:

Despite the significant progress in cancer treatment, there is a need to search for new therapeutic methods in order to minimize side effects. Chemotherapy, the main current method of treating cancer, is non-selective and has a number of limitations. Toxicity to healthy cells is undoubtedly the biggest problem limiting the use of many anticancer drugs. The problem of how to kill cancer without harming a patient can be solved by using organic selenium (IV) compounds. Organic selenium (IV) compounds are a new class of materials showing a strong anticancer activity. They are first organic compounds containing selenium at the +4 oxidation level and therefore they eliminate the multidrug-resistance for all tumor cell lines tested so far. These materials are capable of selectively killing cancer cells without damaging the healthy ones. They are obtained by the incorporation of selenous acid (H2SeO3) into molecules of fatty acids of sunflower oil and therefore, they are inexpensive to manufacture. Attaching these compounds to magnetic carriers enables their precise delivery directly to the tumor area and the simultaneous application of the magnetic hyperthermia, thus creating a huge opportunity to effectively get rid of the tumor without any side effects. Polylactic-co-glicolic acid (PLGA) nanocapsules loaded with maghemite (-Fe2O3) nanoparticles and organic selenium (IV) compounds are successfully prepared by nanoprecipitation method. In vitro antitumor activity of the nanocapsules were evidenced using murine melanoma (B16-F10), oral squamos carcinoma (OSCC) and murine (4T1) and human (MCF-7) breast lines. Further exposure of these cells to an alternating magnetic field increased the antitumor effect of nanocapsules. Moreover, the nanocapsules presented antitumor effect while not affecting normal cells. Magnetic properties of the nanocapsules were investigated by means of dc magnetization, ac susceptibility and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. The nanocapsules presented a typical superparamagnetic behavior around room temperature manifested itself by the split between zero field-cooled/field-cooled (ZFC/FC) magnetization curves and the absence of hysteresis on the field-dependent magnetization curve above the blocking temperature. Moreover, the blocking temperature decreased with increasing applied magnetic field. The superparamagnetic character of the nanocapsules was also confirmed by the occurrence of a maximum in temperature dependences of both real ′(T) and imaginary ′′ (T) components of the ac magnetic susceptibility, which shifted towards higher temperatures with increasing frequency. Additionally, upon decreasing the temperature the ESR signal shifted to lower fields and gradually broadened following closely the predictions for the ESR of superparamagnetoc nanoparticles. The observed superparamagnetic properties of nanocapsules enable their simple manipulation by means of magnetic field gradient, after introduction into the blood stream, which is a necessary condition for their use as magnetic drug carriers. The observed anticancer and superparamgnetic properties show that the magnetic nanocapsules loaded with organic selenium (IV) compounds should be considered as an effective material system for magnetic drug delivery and magnetohyperthermia inductor in antitumor therapy.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, Nanotechnology, Cancer Treatment, magnetic drug delivery system

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3 Bibliometric Analysis of the Research Progress on Graphene Inks from 2008 to 2018

Authors: Jean C. A. Sousa, Julio Cesar Maciel Santos, Andressa J. Rubio, Edneia A. S. Paccola, Natália U. Yamaguchi

Abstract:

A bibliometric analysis in the Web of Science database was used to identify overall scientific results of graphene inks to date (2008 to 2018). The objective of this study was to evaluate the evolutionary tendency of graphene inks research and to identify its aspects, aiming to provide data that can guide future work. The contributions of different researches, languages, thematic categories, periodicals, place of publication, institutes, funding agencies, articles cited and applications were analyzed. The results revealed a growing number of annual publications, of 258 papers found, 107 were included because they met the inclusion criteria. Three main applications were identified: synthesis and characterization, electronics and surfaces. The most relevant research on graphene inks has been summarized in this article, and graphene inks for electronic devices presented the most incident theme according to the research trends during the studied period. It is estimated that this theme will remain in evidence and will contribute to the direction of future research in this area.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, Coating, Scientometrics, Bibliometric

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2 Research Trends on Magnetic Graphene for Water Treatment: A Bibliometric Analysis

Authors: J. C. M. Santos, J. C. A. Sousa, A. J. Rubio, L. S. Soletti, F. Gasparotto, N. U. Yamaguchi

Abstract:

Magnetic graphene has received widespread attention for their capability of water and wastewater treatment, which has been attracted many researchers in this field. A bibliometric analysis based on the Web of Science database was employed to analyze the global scientific outputs of magnetic graphene for water treatment until the present time (2012 to 2017), to improve the understanding of the research trends. The publication year, place of publication, institutes, funding agencies, journals, most cited articles, distribution outputs in thematic categories and applications were analyzed. Three major aspects analyzed including type of pollutant, treatment process and composite composition have further contributed to revealing the research trends. The most relevant research aspects of the main technologies using magnetic graphene for water treatment were summarized in this paper. The results showed that research on magnetic graphene for water treatment goes through a period of decline that might be related to a saturated field and a lack of bibliometric studies. Thus, the result of the present work will lead researchers to establish future directions in further studies using magnetic graphene for water treatment.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, Composite, Scientometrics, Graphene Oxide

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1 Characterization of Single-Walled Carbon Nano Tubes Forest Decorated with Chromium

Authors: Ana Paula Mousinho, Ronaldo D. Mansano, Nelson Ordonez

Abstract:

Carbon nanotubes are one of the main elements in nanotechnologies; their applications are in microelectronics, nano-electronics devices (photonics, spintronic), chemical sensors, structural material and currently in clean energy devices (supercapacitors and fuel cells). The use of magnetic particle decorated carbon nanotubes increases the applications in magnetic devices, magnetic memory, and magnetic oriented drug delivery. In this work, single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) forest decorated with chromium were deposited at room temperature by high-density plasma chemical vapor deposition (HDPCVD) system. The CNTs forest was obtained using pure methane plasmas and chromium, as precursor material (seed) and for decorating the CNTs. Magnetron sputtering deposited the chromium on silicon wafers before the CNTs' growth. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction characterized the single-walled CNTs forest decorated with chromium. In general, the CNTs' spectra show a unique emission band, but due to the presence of the chromium, the spectra obtained in this work showed many bands that are related to the CNTs with different diameters. The CNTs obtained by the HDPCVD system are highly aligned and showed metallic features, and they can be used as photonic material, due to the unique structural and electrical properties. The results of this work proved the possibility of obtaining the controlled deposition of aligned single-walled CNTs forest films decorated with chromium by high-density plasma chemical vapor deposition system.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, CNTs forest, high density plasma deposition, high-aligned CNTs

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