Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Nanomaterial Related Abstracts

7 Nanotechnology Innovations for the Sustainable Buildings of the Future

Authors: Ayşin Sev, Meltem Ezel


Sustainability, being the urgent issue of our time, is closely related with the innovations in technology. Nanotechnology (NT), although not a new science, can be regarded relatively a new science for buildings with brand new materials and applications. This paper tends to give a research review of current and near future applications of nanotechnology (NT) for achieving high-performance and healthy buildings for a sustainable future. In the introduction, the driving forces for the sustainability of construction industry are explained. Then, the term NT is defined, and significance of innovations in NT for a sustainable construction industry is revealed. After presenting the application areas of NT and nanomaterials for buildings with a number of cases, challenges in the adoption of this technology are put forward, and finally the impacts of nanoparticles and nanomaterials on human health and environment are discussed.

Keywords: Nanomaterial, Wood, steel, Self-Healing Concrete, Aerogel, self cleaning sensor, nanosensor, flexible solar panel

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6 Anti-Microbial Activity of Ag-N Co-Doped ZnS and ZnS-Fe2O3 Composite Nanoparticles

Authors: O. P. Yadav


Ag-N co-doped ZnS and ZnS/Fe2O3 composite nanoparticles have been synthesized by chemical and sol-gel methods. As-synthesized nanomaterial have been characterized by XRD and TEM techniques and their antimicrobial effects were studied using paper disc diffusion technique against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. As-synthesized nanomaterial showed potent antimicrobial activity against studied bacterial strains. Antimicrobial activity of synthesized nanomaterial has also been compared with some commonly used antibiotics.

Keywords: Nanomaterial, Antibiotic, Staphylococcus aureus, TEM, Escherichia coli

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5 Propylene Self-Metathesis to Ethylene and Butene over WOx/SiO2, Effect of Nano-Sized Extra Supports (SiO2 and TiO2)

Authors: Adisak Guntida


Propylene self-metathesis to ethylene and butene was studied over WOx/SiO2 catalysts at 450 °C and atmospheric pressure. The WOx/SiO2 catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation of ammonium metatungstate aqueous solution. It was found that, adding nano-sized extra supports (SiO2 and TiO2) by physical mixing with the WOx/SiO2 enhanced propylene conversion. The UV-Vis and FT-Raman results revealed that WOx could migrate from the original silica support to the extra support, leading to a better dispersion of WOx. The ICP-OES results also indicate that WOx existed on the extra support. Coke formation was investigated on the catalysts after 10 h time-on-stream by TPO. However, adding nano-sized extra supports led to higher coke formation which may be related to acidity as characterized by NH3-TPD.

Keywords: Nanomaterial, tungsten oxide, extra support, propylene self-metathesis

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4 Synthesis of Montmorillonite/CuxCd1-xS Nanocomposites and Their Application to the Photodegradation of Methylene Blue

Authors: H. Boukhatem, L. Djouadi, H. Khalaf, R. M. Navarro, F. V. Ganzalez


Synthetic organic dyes are used in various industries, such as textile industry, leather tanning industry, paper production, hair dye production, etc. Wastewaters containing these dyes may be harmful to the environment and living organisms. Therefore, it is very important to remove or degrade these dyes before discharging them into the environment. In addition to standard technologies for the degradation and/or removal of dyes, several new specific technologies, the so-called advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), have been developed to eliminate dangerous compounds from polluted waters. AOPs are all characterized by the same chemical feature: production of radicals (•OH) through a multistep process, although different reaction systems are used. These radicals show little selectivity of attack and are able to oxidize various organic pollutants due to their high oxidative capacity (reduction potential of HO• Eo = 2.8 V). Heterogeneous photocatalysis, as one of the AOPs, could be effective in the oxidation/degradation of organic dyes. A major advantage of using heterogeneous photocatalysis for this purpose is the total mineralization of organic dyes, which results in CO2, H2O and corresponding mineral acids. In this study, nanomaterials based on montmorillonite and CuxCd1-xS with different Cu concentration (0.3 < x < 0.7) were utilized for the degradation of the commercial cationic textile dye Methylene blue (MB), used as a model pollutant. The synthesized nanomaterials were characterized by fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA). Test results of photocatalysis of methylene blue under UV-Visible irradiation show that the photoactivity of nanomaterials montmorillonite/ CuxCd1-xS increases with the increasing of Cu concentration. The kinetics of the degradation of the MB dye was described with the Langmuir–Hinshelwood (L–H) kinetic model.

Keywords: Nanomaterial, Heterogeneous Photocatalysis, montmorillonite, methylene blue

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3 Photocatalytic Degradation of Lead from Aqueous Solution Using TiO2 as Adsorbent

Authors: Navven Desai, Veena Soraganvi


Heavy metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury do not have biological significance hence they are known to be extremely toxic heavy metals. Water contains various heavy metals like Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), Arsenic (As), Lead (Pb), and Zinc (Zn) etc., when it gets polluted with industrial waste water. These heavy metals cause various health effects even at low concentration when consumed by humans. Most of the heavy metals are poisonous to living organisms. Heavy metals are non-degradable and are preserved in the environment through bioaccumulation. Therefore removal of heavy metals from water is necessary. In recent years, a great deal of attentions has been focused on to the application of nanosized metal oxides to treat heavy metals, especially titanium oxides, ferric oxides, manganese oxides, aluminium oxides and magnesium oxides as adsorbent and photocatalyst. TiO2 based photocatalysts have attracted continuously increasing attention because of the excellent properties such as high light -conversion efficiency, chemical stability, nontoxic nature, low cost. The catalyst displays high photocatalytic activity because of its large surface area. In this study, the photocatalytic degradation of Lead (Pb) from aqueous solution was investigated in natural sunlight by using TiO2 as Nanomaterial. This study was performed at laboratory scale. All the experiments were carried out in the batch process. The concentration of lead was constant (25mg/lit) in the experiment and effect of titanium dioxide dose and pH were varied to study the removal efficiency of the lead by adsorption. Further study was performed on the dependence of photocatalytic reaction on the reaction temperature. The aqueous solution was prepared by Lead metal powder. TiO2 photo catalyst nanopowder used was Sisco-74629 grade. The heavy metal is analyzed with VARIAN AA 240 atomic adsorption spectrophotometer. The study shows, with increasing TiO2 dose and pH the lead removal increases. According to study, it can be concluded that the utilization of titanium dioxide accounted for higher efficiency in the removal of lead from aqueous solution.

Keywords: Nanomaterial, Heavy Metals, Adsorption, photocatalysis

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2 INNPT Nano Particles Material Technology as Enhancement Technology for Biological WWTP Performance and Capacity

Authors: Medhat Gad


Wastewater treatment became a big issue in this decade due to shortage of water resources, growth of population and modern live requirements. Reuse of treated wastewater in industrial and agriculture sectors has a big demand to substitute the shortage of clean water supply as well as to save the eco system from dangerous pollutants in insufficient treated wastewater In last decades, most of wastewater treatment plants are built using primary or secondary biological treatment technology which almost does not provide enough treatment and removal of phosphorus and nitrogen. those plants which built ten to 15 years ago also now suffering from overflow which decrease the treatment efficiency of the plant. Discharging treated wastewater which contains phosphorus and nitrogen to water reservoirs and irrigation canals destroy ecosystem and aquatic life. Using chemical material to enhance treatment efficiency for domestic wastewater but it leads to huge amount of sludge which cost a lot of money. To enhance wastewater treatment, we used INNPT nano material which consists of calcium, aluminum and iron oxides and compounds plus silica, sodium and magnesium. INNPT nano material used with a dose of 100 mg/l to upgrade SBR treatment plant in Cairo Egypt -which has three treatment tanks each with a capacity of 2500 cubic meters per day - to tertiary treatment level by removing Phosphorus, Nitrogen and increase dissolved oxygen in final effluent. The results showed that the treatment retention time decreased from 9 hours in SBR system to one hour using INNPT nano material with improvement in effluent quality while increasing plant capacity to 20 k cubic meters per day. Nitrogen removal efficiency achieved 77%, while phosphorus removal efficiency achieved 90% and COD removal efficiency was 93% which all comply with tertiary treatment limits according to Egyptian law.

Keywords: Nanomaterial, INNPT technology, tertiary wastewater treatment, capacity extending

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1 Characterization Techniques for Studying Properties of Nanomaterials

Authors: Nandini Sharma


Monitoring the characteristics of a nanostructured material comprises measurements of structural, morphological, mechanical, optical and electronic properties of the synthesized nanopowder and different layers and coatings of nanomaterials coated on transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) substrates like fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) or Indium doped tin oxide (ITO). This article focuses on structural and optical characterization with emphasis on measurements of the photocatalytic efficiency as a photocatalyst and their interpretation to extract relevant information about various TCOs and materials, their emitter regions, and surface passivation. It also covers a brief description of techniques based on photoluminescence that can portray high resolution pictorial graphs for application as solar energy devices. With the advancement in the scientific techniques, detailed information about the structural, morphological, and optical properties can be investigated, which is further useful for engineering and designing of an efficient device. The common principles involved in the prevalent characterization techniques aid to illustrate the range of options that can be broadened in near future for acurate device characterization and diagnosis.

Keywords: Optical, Characterization, Nanomaterial, Structural

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