Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 59

Nanofluid Related Abstracts

59 Nanofluid Flow Heat Transfer Through Ducts with Different Cross-Sections

Authors: Mohammad Reza Salimpour, Amir Dehshiri

Abstract:

In the present article, we investigate experimental laminar forced convective heat transfer specifications of TiO2/water nanofluids through conduits with different cross sections. We check the effects of different parameters such as cross-sectional shape, Reynolds number and concentration of nanoparticles in stable suspension on increasing convective heat transfer by designing and assembling of an experimental apparatus. The results demonstrate adding a little amount of nanoparticles to the base fluid, improves heat transfer behavior in conduits. Moreover, conduit with circular cross-section has better performance compared to the square and triangular cross sections. However, conduits with square and triangular cross sections have more relative heat transfer enhancement than conduit with circular cross section.

Keywords: Nanofluid, Convection, cross-sectional shape, TiO2

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
58 Unsteady Heat and Mass Transfer in MHD Flow of Nanofluids over Stretching Sheet with a Non Uniform Heat Source/Sink

Authors: Yohannes Yirga, Bandari Shankar

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem of heat and mass transfer in unsteady MHD boundary-layer flow of nanofluids over stretching sheet with a non uniform heat source/sink is considered. The unsteadiness in the flow and temperature is caused by the time-dependent stretching velocity and surface temperature. The unsteady boundary layer equations are transformed to a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations and solved numerically using Keller box method. The velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles were obtained and utilized to compute the skin-friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, and local Sherwood number for different values of the governing parameters viz. solid volume fraction parameter, unsteadiness parameter, magnetic field parameter, Schmidt number, space-dependent and temperature-dependent parameters for heat source/sink. A comparison of the numerical results of the present study with previously published data revealed an excellent agreement

Keywords: Nanofluid, Heat and Mass Transfer, unsteady, manetohydrodynamics, non-uniform heat source/sink, stretching sheet

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
57 Heat and Mass Transfer in MHD Flow of Nanofluids through a Porous Media Due to a Permeable Stretching Sheet with Viscous Dissipation and Chemical Reaction Effects

Authors: Yohannes Yirga, Daniel Tesfay

Abstract:

The convective heat and mass transfer in nanofluid flow through a porous media due to a permeable stretching sheet with magnetic field, viscous dissipation, and chemical reaction and Soret effects are numerically investigated. Two types of nanofluids, namely Cu-water and Ag-water were studied. The governing boundary layer equations are formulated and reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations and then solved numerically using the Keller box method. Numerical results are obtained for the skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number as well as for the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles for selected values of the governing parameters. Excellent validation of the present numerical results has been achieved with the earlier linearly stretching sheet problems in the literature.

Keywords: Fluid Dynamics, Nanofluid, Heat and Mass Transfer, Magnetohydrodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
56 Stability Analysis of Three-Dimensional Flow and Heat Transfer over a Permeable Shrinking Surface in a Cu-Water Nanofluid

Authors: Roslinda Nazar, Khamisah Jafar, Ioan Pop, Amin Noor

Abstract:

In this paper, the steady laminar three-dimensional boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a copper (Cu)-water nanofluid in the vicinity of a permeable shrinking flat surface in an otherwise quiescent fluid is studied. The nanofluid mathematical model in which the effect of the nanoparticle volume fraction is taken into account is considered. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using a similarity transformation which is then solved numerically using the function bvp4c from Matlab. Dual solutions (upper and lower branch solutions) are found for the similarity boundary layer equations for a certain range of the suction parameter. A stability analysis has been performed to show which branch solutions are stable and physically realizable. The numerical results for the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number as well as the velocity and temperature profiles are obtained, presented and discussed in detail for a range of various governing parameters.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Nanofluid, Stability Analysis, shrinking surface, three-dimensional flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
55 Entropy Generation Analysis of Cylindrical Heat Pipe Using Nanofluid

Authors: Morteza Ghanbarpour, Rahmatollah Khodabandeh

Abstract:

In this study, second law of thermodynamic is employed to evaluate heat pipe thermal performance. In fact, nanofluids potential to decrease the entropy generation of cylindrical heat pipes are studied and the results are compared with experimental data. Some cylindrical copper heat pipes of 200 mm length and 6.35 mm outer diameter were fabricated and tested with distilled water and water based Al2O3 nanofluids with volume concentrations of 1-5% as working fluids. Nanofluids are nanotechnology-based colloidal suspensions fabricated by suspending nanoparticles in a base liquid. These fluids have shown potential to enhance heat transfer properties of the base liquids used in heat transfer application. When the working fluid undergoes between different states in heat pipe cycle the entropy is generated. Different sources of irreversibility in heat pipe thermodynamic cycle are investigated and nanofluid effect on each of these sources is studied. Both experimental and theoretical studies reveal that nanofluid is a good choice to minimize the entropy generation in heat pipe thermodynamic cycle which results in higher thermal performance and efficiency of the system.

Keywords: Thermodynamics, Nanofluid, Thermal Resistance, entropy generation, heat pipe

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
54 Effect of Channel Cross Section Shape on Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient of Nanofluid Flow

Authors: Mohammad Reza Salimpour, Amir Dehshiri

Abstract:

In the present article, we investigate experimental laminar forced convective heat transfer specifications of TiO2/water nanofluids through conduits with different cross sections. We check the effects of different parameters such as cross sectional shape, Reynolds number and concentration of nanoparticles in stable suspension on increasing convective heat transfer by designing and assembling of an experimental apparatus. The results demonstrate adding a little amount of nanoparticles to the base fluid improves heat transfer behavior in conduits. Moreover, conduit with circular cross-section has better performance compared to the square and triangular cross sections. However, conduits with square and triangular cross sections have more relative heat transfer enhancement than conduit with circular cross section.

Keywords: Nanofluid, Convection, cross-sectional shape, TiO2

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
53 Experimental Analysis on Heat Transfer Enhancement in Double Pipe Heat Exchanger Using Al2O3/Water Nanofluid and Baffled Twisted Tape Inserts

Authors: Ratheesh Radhakrishnan, P. C. Sreekumar, K. Krishnamoorthy

Abstract:

Heat transfer augmentation techniques ultimately results in the reduction of thermal resistance in a conventional heat exchanger by generating higher convective heat transfer coefficient. It also results in reduction of size, increase in heat duty, decrease in approach temperature difference and reduction in pumping power requirements for heat exchangers. Present study deals with compound augmentation technique, which is not widely used. The study deals with the use of Alumina (Al2O3)/water nanofluid and baffled twisted tape inserts in double pipe heat exchanger as compound augmentation technique. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient and friction factor for the flow through the inner tube of heat exchanger in turbulent flow range (8000Keywords: Nanofluid, Enhancement, friction factor, heat transfer coefficient, twisted tape

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
52 Entropy Generation of Natural Convection Heat Transfer in a Square Cavity Using Al2O3-Water Nanofluid

Authors: M. Alipanah, A. Ranjbar, E. Farnad, F. Alipanah

Abstract:

Entropy generation of an Al2O3-water nanofluid due to heat transfer and fluid friction irreversibility has been investigated in a square cavity subject to different side wall temperatures using a nanofluid for natural convection flow. This study has been carried out for the pertinent parameters in the following ranges: Rayleigh number between 104 to 107 and volume fraction between 0 to 0.05. Based on the obtained dimensionless velocity and temperature values, the distributions of local entropy generation, average entropy generation and average Bejan number are determined. The results are compared for a pure fluid and a nanofluid. It is totally found that the heat transfer and entropy generation of the nanofluid is more than the pure fluid and minimum entropy generation and Nusselt number occur in the pure fluid at any Rayleigh number. Results depict that the addition of nanoparticles to the pure fluid has more effect on the entropy generation as the Rayleigh number goes up.

Keywords: Nanofluid, natural convection, entropy generation, bejan number, nuselt number

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
51 Numerical Investigation of Nanofluid Based Thermosyphon System

Authors: Ramesh Babu Bejjam, Atul Najan, Kiran Kumar K.

Abstract:

A thermosyphon system is a heat transfer loop which operates on the basis of gravity and buoyancy forces. It guarantees a good reliability and low maintenance cost as it does not involve any mechanical pump. Therefore it can be used in many industrial applications such as refrigeration and air conditioning, electronic cooling, nuclear reactors, geothermal heat extraction, etc. But flow instabilities and loop configuration are the major problems in this system. Several previous researchers studied that stabilities can be suppressed by using nanofluids as loop fluid. In the present study a rectangular thermosyphon loop with end heat exchangers are considered for the study. This configuration is more appropriate for many practical applications such as solar water heater, geothermal heat extraction, etc. In the present work, steady-state analysis is carried out on thermosyphon loop with parallel flow coaxial heat exchangers at heat source and heat sink. In this loop nano fluid is considered as the loop fluid and water is considered as the external fluid in both hot and cold heat exchangers. For this analysis one-dimensional homogeneous model is developed. In this model, conservation equations like conservation of mass, momentum, energy are discretized using finite difference method. A computer code is written in MATLAB to simulate the flow in thermosyphon loop. A comparison in terms of heat transfer is made between water and nano fluid as working fluids in the loop.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Nanofluid, heat exchanger, thermosyphon loop

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
50 Flow and Heat Transfer of a Nanofluid over a Shrinking Sheet

Authors: N. Bachok, N. L. Aleng, N. M. Arifin, A. Ishak, N. Senu

Abstract:

The problem of laminar fluid flow which results from the shrinking of a permeable surface in a nanofluid has been investigated numerically. The model used for the nanofluid incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. A similarity solution is presented which depends on the mass suction parameter S, Prandtl number Pr, Lewis number Le, Brownian motion number Nb and thermophoresis number Nt. It was found that the reduced Nusselt number is decreasing function of each dimensionless number.

Keywords: Nanofluid, boundary layer, shrinking sheet, thermophoresis, similarity solution, Brownian motion

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
49 Stability Analysis of Stagnation-Point Flow past a Shrinking Sheet in a Nanofluid

Authors: Norihan Md. Arifin, Roslinda Nazar, Amin Noor

Abstract:

In this paper, a numerical and theoretical study has been performed for the stagnation-point boundary layer flow and heat transfer towards a shrinking sheet in a nanofluid. The mathematical nanofluid model in which the effect of the nanoparticle volume fraction is taken into account is considered. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using a similarity transformation which is then solved numerically using the function bvp4c from Matlab. Numerical results are obtained for the skin friction coefficient, the local Nusselt number as well as the velocity and temperature profiles for some values of the governing parameters, namely the nanoparticle volume fraction Φ, the shrinking parameter λ and the Prandtl number Pr. Three different types of nanoparticles are considered, namely Cu, Al2O3 and TiO2. It is found that solutions do not exist for larger shrinking rates and dual (upper and lower branch) solutions exist when λ < -1.0. A stability analysis has been performed to show which branch solutions are stable and physically realizable. It is also found that the upper branch solutions are stable while the lower branch solutions are unstable.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Nanofluid, Stability Analysis, shrinking sheet, stagnation-point flow

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48 CFD Studies on Forced Convection Nanofluid Flow Inside a Circular Conduit

Authors: W. Rashmi, M. Khalid, L. L. Kwan

Abstract:

This work provides an overview on the experimental and numerical simulations of various nanofluids and their flow and heat transfer behavior. It was further extended to study the effect of nanoparticle concentration, fluid flow rates and thermo-physical properties on the heat transfer enhancement of Al2O3/water nanofluid in a turbulent flow circular conduit using ANSYS FLUENT™ 14.0. Single-phase approximation (homogeneous model) and two-phase (mixture and Eulerian) models were used to simulate the nanofluid flow behavior in the 3-D horizontal pipe. The numerical results were further validated with experimental correlations reported in the literature. It was found that heat transfer of nanofluids increases with increasing particle volume concentration and Reynolds number, respectively. Results showed good agreement (~9% deviation) with the experimental correlations, especially for a single-phase model with constant properties. Among two-phase models, mixture model (~14% deviation) showed better prediction compared to Eulerian-dispersed model (~18% deviation) when temperature independent properties were used. Non-drag forces were also employed in the Eulerian two-phase model. However, the two-phase mixture model with temperature dependent nanofluid properties gave slightly closer agreement (~12% deviation).

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Nanofluid, CFD, forced convection, circular conduit

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47 Turbulent Forced Convection of Cu-Water Nanofluid: CFD Models Comparison

Authors: S. He, I. Behroyan, P. Ganesan, S. Sivasankaran

Abstract:

This study compares the predictions of five types of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models, including two single-phase models (i.e. Newtonian and non-Newtonian) and three two-phase models (Eulerian-Eulerian, mixture and Eulerian-Lagrangian), to investigate turbulent forced convection of Cu-water nanofluid in a tube with a constant heat flux on the tube wall. The Reynolds (Re) number of the flow is between 10,000 and 25,000, while the volume fraction of Cu particles used is in the range of 0 to 2%. The commercial CFD package of ANSYS-Fluent is used. The results from the CFD models are compared with results from experimental investigations from literature. According to the results of this study, non-Newtonian single-phase model, in general, does not show a good agreement with Xuan and Li correlation in prediction of Nu number. Eulerian-Eulerian model gives inaccurate results expect for φ=0.5%. Mixture model gives a maximum error of 15%. Newtonian single-phase model and Eulerian-Lagrangian model, in overall, are the recommended models. This work can be used as a reference for selecting an appreciate model for future investigation. The study also gives a proper insight about the important factors such as Brownian motion, fluid behavior parameters and effective nanoparticle conductivity which should be considered or changed by the each model.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Nanofluid, single-phase models, two-phase models

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
46 Magneto-Hydrodynamic Mixed Convection of Water-Al2O3 Nanofluid in a Wavy Lid-Driven Cavity

Authors: Farshid Fathinia

Abstract:

This paper examines numerically the laminar steady magneto-hydrodynamic mixed convection flow and heat transfer in a wavy lid-driven cavity filled with water-Al2O3 nanofluid using FDM method. The left and right sidewalls of the cavity have a wavy geometry and are maintained at a cold and hot temperature, respectively. The top and bottom walls are considered flat and insulated while, the bottom wall moves from left to right direction with a uniform lid-driven velocity. A magnetic field is applied vertically downward on the bottom wall of the cavity. Based on the numerical results, the effects of the dominant parameters such as Rayleigh number, Hartmann number, solid volume fraction, and wavy wall geometry parameters are examined. The numerical results are obtained for Hartmann number varying as 0 ≤ Ha ≤ 0.6, Rayleigh numbers varying as 103≤ Ra ≤105, and the solid volume fractions varying as 0 ≤ φ ≤ 0.0003. Comparisons with previously published numerical works on mixed convection in a nanofluid filled cavity are performed and good agreements between the results are observed. It is found that the flow circulation and mean Nusselt number decrease as the solid volume fraction and Hartmann number increase. Moreover, the convection enhances when the amplitude ratio of the wavy surface increases. The results also show that both the flow and thermal fields are significantly affected by the amplitude ratio (i.e., wave form) of the wavy wall.

Keywords: Nanofluid, Magnetic Field, mixed convection, wavy cavity, lid-driven, SPH method

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
45 Effect of Thermal Radiation on Flow, Heat, and Mass Transfer of a Nanofluid over a Stretching Horizontal Cylinder Embedded in a Porous Medium with Suction/Injection

Authors: T. G. Emam, Elsayed M. A. Elbashbeshy, M. S. El-Azab, K. M. Abdelgaber

Abstract:

The effect of thermal radiation on flow, heat and mass transfer of an incompressible viscous nanofluid over a stretching horizontal cylinder embedded in a porous medium with suction/injection is discussed numerically. The governing boundary layer equations are reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations. Mathematica has been used to solve such system after obtaining the missed initial conditions. Comparison of obtained numerical results is made with previously published results in some special cases, and found to be in a good agreement.

Keywords: Nanofluid, Thermal radiation, suction/injection, laminar flow, boundary layer, stretching horizontal cylinder

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
44 Numerical Investigation of Al2O3/Water Nanofluid Heat Transfer in a Microtube with Viscous Dissipation Effect

Authors: Hossein Shokouhmand, Misagh Irandoost Shahrestani, Mohammad Kalteh, Behrang Hasanpour

Abstract:

In this paper, nanofluid conjugate heat transfer through a microtube with viscous dissipation effect is investigated numerically. The fluid flow is considered as a laminar regime. A constant heat flux is applied on the microtube outer wall and the two ends of its wall are considered adiabatic. Conjugate heat transfer problem is solved and investigated for this geometry. It is shown that viscous dissipation effect which is induced by shear stresses can not be neglected in microtubes. Viscous heating behaves as an energy source in the fluid and affects the temperature distribution. The effect of Reynolds number, particle volume fraction and the nanoparticles diameter on the energy source are investigated and an attempt on establishing suitable equations for assessing the value of the energy source based on Re, Dp and Φ is performed and they are depicted as 3D diagrams. Finally, the significance of viscous dissipation and the influence of these parameters on convective heat transfer coefficient are studied.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Nanofluid, convective heat transfer coefficient, microtube, viscous dissipation

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43 Estimation of Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids Using MD-Stochastic Simulation-Based Approach

Authors: Sujoy Das, M. M. Ghosh

Abstract:

The thermal conductivity of a fluid can be significantly enhanced by dispersing nano-sized particles in it, and the resultant fluid is termed as "nanofluid". A theoretical model for estimating the thermal conductivity of a nanofluid has been proposed here. It is based on the mechanism that evenly dispersed nanoparticles within a nanofluid undergo Brownian motion in course of which the nanoparticles repeatedly collide with the heat source. During each collision a rapid heat transfer occurs owing to the solid-solid contact. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the collision of nanoparticles with the heat source has shown that there is a pulse-like pick up of heat by the nanoparticles within 20-100 ps, the extent of which depends not only on thermal conductivity of the nanoparticles, but also on the elastic and other physical properties of the nanoparticle. After the collision the nanoparticles undergo Brownian motion in the base fluid and release the excess heat to the surrounding base fluid within 2-10 ms. The Brownian motion and associated temperature variation of the nanoparticles have been modeled by stochastic analysis. Repeated occurrence of these events by the suspended nanoparticles significantly contributes to the characteristic thermal conductivity of the nanofluids, which has been estimated by the present model for a ethylene glycol based nanofluid containing Cu-nanoparticles of size ranging from 8 to 20 nm, with Gaussian size distribution. The prediction of the present model has shown a reasonable agreement with the experimental data available in literature.

Keywords: Nanofluid, Molecular Dynamics, Thermal Conductivity, brownian dynamics

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42 Stagnation-Point Flow towards a Stretching/Shrinking Sheet in a Nanofluid: A Stability Analysis

Authors: Anuar Ishak

Abstract:

The characteristics of stagnation point flow of a nanofluid towards a stretching/shrinking sheet are investigated. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations, which are then solved numerically using MATLAB routine boundary value problem solver bvp4c. The numerical results show that dual (upper and lower branch) solutions exist for the shrinking case, while for the stretching case, the solution is unique. A stability analysis is performed to determine the stability of the dual solutions. It is found that the skin friction decreases when the sheet is stretched, but increases when the suction effect is increased. It is also found that increasing the thermophoresis parameter reduces the heat transfer rate at the surface, while increasing the Brownian motion parameter increases the mass transfer rate at the surface.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Nanofluid, Stability Analysis, forced convection, dual solutions

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
41 Experimental Analysis of Laminar Nanofluid Flow Convection

Authors: Mohammad R. Salimpour

Abstract:

In this study, we investigate experimental laminar forced convective heat transfer specifications of TiO2/water nanofluids through conduits with different cross sections. Ee check the effects of different parameters such as cross sectional shape, Reynolds number and concentration of nanoparticles in stable suspension on increasing convective heat transfer by designing and assembling of an experimental apparatus. The results demonstrate adding a little amount of nanoparticles to the base fluid, improves heat transfer behavior in conduits. Moreover, conduit with circular cross-section has better performance compared to the square and triangular cross sections. However, conduits with square and triangular cross sections have more relative heat transfer enhancement than conduit with circular cross section.

Keywords: Nanofluid, Convection, cross-sectional shape, TiO2

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
40 Performance Evaluation and Economic Analysis of Minimum Quantity Lubrication with Pressurized/Non-Pressurized Air and Nanofluid Mixture

Authors: M. Amrita, R. R. Srikant, A. V. Sita Rama Raju

Abstract:

Water miscible cutting fluids are conventionally used to lubricate and cool the machining zone. But issues related to health hazards, maintenance and disposal costs have limited their usage, leading to application of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL). To increase the effectiveness of MQL, nanocutting fluids are proposed. In the present work, water miscible nanographite cutting fluids of varying concentration are applied at cutting zone by two systems A and B. System A utilizes high pressure air and supplies cutting fluid at a flow rate of 1ml/min. System B uses low pressure air and supplies cutting fluid at a flow rate of 5ml/min. Their performance in machining is evaluated by measuring cutting temperatures, tool wear, cutting forces and surface roughness and compared with dry machining and flood machining. Application of nano cutting fluid using both systems showed better performance than dry machining. Cutting temperatures and cutting forces obtained by both techniques are more than flood machining. But tool wear and surface roughness showed improvement compared to flood machining. Economic analysis has been carried out in all the cases to decide the applicability of the techniques.

Keywords: Nanofluid, Machining, Economic analysis, minimum quantity lubrication

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
39 CFD Simulation of Forced Convection Nanofluid Heat Transfer in the Automotive Radiator

Authors: Sina Movafagh, Younes Bakhshan

Abstract:

Heat transfer of coolant flow through the automobile radiators is of great importance for the optimization of fuel consumption. In this study, the heat transfer performance of the automobile radiator is evaluated numerically. Different concentrations of nanofluids have been investigated by the addition of Al2O3 nano-particles into the water. Also, the effect of the inlet temperature of nanofluid on the performance of radiator is studied. Results show that with an increase of inlet temperature the outlet temperature and pressure drop along the radiator increase. Also, it has been observed that increase of nono-particle concentration will result in an increase in heat transfer rate within the radiator.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Nanofluid, CFD simulation, car radiator

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
38 Heat Transfer Enhancement via Using Al2O3/Water Nanofluid in Car Radiator

Authors: S. Movafagh, Y. Bakhshan

Abstract:

In this study, effect of adding Al2O3 nanoparticle to base fluid (water) in car radiator is investigated numerically. Radiators are compact heat exchangers optimized and evaluated by considering different working conditions. The cooling system of a car plays an important role in vehicle's performance, consists of two main parts, known as radiator and fan. Improving thermal efficiency of engine leads to increase the engine's performance, decline the fuel consumption and decrease the pollution emissions. In this study, the effects of fluid inlet flow rate and nanoparticle volume fraction on heat transfer and pressure drop of acar radiator are studied.

Keywords: Nanofluid, forced convection, CFD simulation, radiator

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
37 Prediction of Unsteady Heat Transfer over Square Cylinder in the Presence of Nanofluid by Using ANN

Authors: Ajoy Kumar Das, Prasenjit Dey

Abstract:

Heat transfer due to forced convection of copper water based nanofluid has been predicted by Artificial Neural network (ANN). The present nanofluid is formed by mixing copper nano particles in water and the volume fractions are considered here are 0% to 15% and the Reynolds number are kept constant at 100. The back propagation algorithm is used to train the network. The present ANN is trained by the input and output data which has been obtained from the numerical simulation, performed in finite volume based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) commercial software Ansys Fluent. The numerical simulation based results are compared with the back propagation based ANN results. It is found that the forced convection heat transfer of water based nanofluid can be predicted correctly by ANN. It is also observed that the back propagation ANN can predict the heat transfer characteristics of nanofluid very quickly compared to standard CFD method.

Keywords: Nanofluid, Neural Network, forced convection, square cylinder

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
36 Experimental Investigation and Optimization of Nanoparticle Mass Concentration and Heat Input of Loop Heat Pipe

Authors: Nur Irmawati, P. Gunnasegaran, M. Z. Abdullah, M. Z. Yusoff

Abstract:

This study presents experimental and optimization of nanoparticle mass concentration and heat input based on the total thermal resistance (Rth) of loop heat pipe (LHP), employed for PC-CPU cooling. In this study, silica nanoparticles (SiO2) in water with particle mass concentration ranged from 0% (pure water) to 1% is considered as the working fluid within the LHP. The experimental design and optimization is accomplished by the design of the experimental tool, Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The results show that the nanoparticle mass concentration and the heat input have a significant effect on the Rth of LHP. For a given heat input, the Rth is found to decrease with the increase of the nanoparticle mass concentration up to 0.5% and increased thereafter. It is also found that the Rth is decreased when the heat input is increased from 20W to 60W. The results are optimized with the objective of minimizing the Rt, using Design-Expert software, and the optimized nanoparticle mass concentration and heat input are 0.48% and 59.97W, respectively, the minimum thermal resistance being 2.66(ºC/W).

Keywords: Nanofluid, Optimization, Thermal Resistance, loop heat pipe

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35 The Effect of Type of Nanoparticles on the Quenching Process

Authors: Abdurrahim Bolukbasi, Dogan Ciloglu, Harun Cifci

Abstract:

In this study, the experiments were carried out to determine the best coolant for the quenching process among water-based silica, alumina, titania and copper oxide nanofluids (0.1 vol%). A sphere made up off brass material was used in the experiments. After the spherical test specimen was heated at high temperatures, it was suddenly plunged into the nanofluid suspensions. All experiments were performed at saturated conditions and under atmospheric pressure. Using the temperature-time data of the specimen, the cooling curves were obtained. The experimental results showed that the cooling performance of test specimen depended on the type of nanofluids. The silica nanoparticles enhanced the performance of boiling heat transfer and it is the best coolant for the quenching among other nanoparticles.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Nanofluid, quenching, pool boiling

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
34 Thermal Analysis on Heat Transfer Enhancement and Fluid Flow for Al2O3 Water-Ethylene Glycol Nano Fluid in Single PEMFC Mini Channel

Authors: Irnie Zakaria, W. H. Azmi, W. A. N. W. Mohamed

Abstract:

Thermal enhancement of a single mini channel in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) cooling plate is numerically investigated. In this study, low concentration of Al2O3 in Water - Ethylene Glycol mixtures is used as coolant in mini channel of carbon graphite plate to mimic the PEMFC cooling plate. A steady and incompressible flow with constant heat flux is assumed in the channel of 1mm x 5mm x 100mm. Nano particle of Al2O3 used ranges from 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 vol % concentration and then dispersed in 60:40 (water: Ethylene Glycol) mixture. The effect of different flow rates to fluid flow and heat transfer enhancement in Re number range of 20 to 140 was observed. The result showed that heat transfer coefficient was improved by 18.11%, 9.86% and 5.37% for 0.5, 0.3 and 0.1 vol % Al2O3 in 60:40 (water: EG) as compared to base fluid of 60:40 (water: EG). It is also showed that the higher vol % concentration of Al2O3 performed better in term of thermal enhancement but at the expense of higher pumping power required due to increase in pressure drop experienced. Maximum additional pumping power of 0.0012W was required for 0.5 vol % Al2O3 in 60:40 (water: EG) at Re number 140.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Nanofluid, PEMFC, mini channel

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33 Effect of Nanoparticle Diameter of Nano-Fluid on Average Nusselt Number in the Chamber

Authors: N. Pourmahmoud, A. Ghafouri, I. Mirzaee

Abstract:

In this numerical study, effects of using Al2O3-water nanofluid on the rate of heat transfer have been investigated numerically. The physical model is a square enclosure with insulated top and bottom horizontal walls while the vertical walls are kept at different constant temperatures. Two appropriate models are used to evaluate the viscosity and thermal conductivity of nanofluid. The governing stream-vorticity equations are solved using a second order central finite difference scheme, coupled to the conservation of mass and energy. The study has been carried out for the nanoparticle diameter 30, 60, and 90 nm and the solid volume fraction 0 to 0.04. Results are presented by average Nusselt number and normalized Nusselt number in the different range of φ and D for mixed convection dominated regime. It is found that different heat transfer rate is predicted when the effect of nanoparticle diameter is taken into account.

Keywords: Nanofluid, Heat Transfer Enhancement, nusselt number, nanoparticle diameter, square enclosure

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32 Numerical Study of Natural Convection of a Localized Heat Source at the up of a Nanofluid-Filled Enclosure

Authors: Hossein Shokouhmand, Marziyeh Heydari

Abstract:

This article presents a numerical study of natural convection of a heat source embedded on the up wall of an enclosure filled with nanofluid. The bottom and vertical walls of the enclosure are maintained at a relatively low temperature. The type of nanofluid and solid volume fraction of nanoparticle on the heat transfer performance is studied. The results indicated that adding nanoparticle into pure paraffin improves heat transfer. The results are presented over a wide range of Rayleigh numbers(Ra=〖10〗^3 〖-10〗^5), the volume fraction of nanoparticles (0≤ɸ≤0.4%). For an enclosure, the Nusselt number of a cu-paraffin nanofluid was reduced by increasing the volume fraction of nanoparticles above 0.2%.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Nanofluid, heat source, enclosure

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31 Numerical Study of Natural Convection in a Nanofluid-Filled Vertical Cylinder under an External Magnetic Field

Authors: R. Bessaih, M. Maache

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of the magnetic field direction on the free convection heat transfer in a vertical cylinder filled with an Al₂O₃ nanofluid is investigated numerically. The external magnetic field is applied in either direction axial and radial on a cylinder having an aspect ratio H/R0=5, bounded by the top and the bottom disks at temperatures Tc and Th and by an adiabatic side wall. The equations of continuity, Navier Stocks and energy are non-dimensionalized and then discretized by the finite volume method. A computer program based on the SIMPLER algorithm is developed and compared with the numerical results found in the literature. The numerical investigation is carried out for different governing parameters namely: The Hartmann number (Ha=0, 5, 10, …, 40), nanoparticles volume fraction (ϕ=0, 0.025, …,0.1) and Rayleigh number (Ra=103, Ra=104 and Ra=105). The behavior of average Nusselt number, streamlines and temperature contours are illustrated. The results revel that the average Nusselt number increases with an increase of the Rayleigh number but it decreases with an increase in the Hartmann number. Depending on the magnetic field direction and on the values of Hartmann and Rayleigh numbers, an increase of the solid volume fraction may result enhancement or deterioration of the heat transfer performance in the nanofluid.

Keywords: Nanofluid, Magnetic Field, natural convection, vertical cylinder

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30 Unsteady Flow and Heat Transfer of Nanofluid from Circular Tube in Cross-Flow

Authors: H. Bayat, M. Majidi, M. Bolhasani, A. Karbalaie Alilou, A. Mirabdolah Lavasani

Abstract:

Unsteady flow and heat transfer from a circular cylinder in cross-flow is studied numerically. The governing equations are solved by using finite volume method. Reynolds number varies in range of 50 to 200, in this range flow is considered to be laminar and unsteady. Al2O3 nanoparticle with volume fraction in range of 5% to 20% is added to pure water. Effects of adding nanoparticle to pure water on lift and drag coefficient and Nusselt number is presented. Addition of Al2O3 has inconsiderable effect on the value of drags and lift coefficient. However, it has significant effect on heat transfer; results show that heat transfer of Al2O3 nanofluid is about 9% to 36% higher than pure water.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Nanofluid, cross-flow, forced convection, unsteady flow

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