Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Nanoemulsion Related Abstracts

12 Grading of Emulsified Agarwood Oil Using Gel Electrophoresis Technique

Authors: R. Zakaria, Y. T. Boon, M. N. Naim, N. F. Abu Bakar, N. Ahmad, I. W. Lenggoro

Abstract:

In this study, encapsulation of agarwood oil with non-ionic surfactant, Tween 80 was prepared at critical micelle concentration of 0.0167 % v/v to produce the most stable nano-emulsion in aqueous. The encapsulation has minimized the bioactive compounds degradation in various pH conditions thus prolong their shelf life and maintained its initial oil grade. The oil grading of the prepared samples were conducted using the gel electrophoresis instead of using common analytical industrial grading such as gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC- MS). The grading method was chosen due to their unique zeta potential value after the encapsulation process. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of applying the electrophoresis principles to separate the encapsulated agarwood oil or grading of the emulsified agarwood oil. The results indicated that the grading process are potential to be further investigate based on their droplet size and zeta potential value at various pH condition when the droplet were migrate through polyacrylamide gel.

Keywords: Nanoemulsion, Essential Oil, electrophoretic mobility, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, tween 80, zeta potential

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11 Effect of Surfactant Level of Microemulsions and Nanoemulsions on Cell Viability

Authors: Sonal Gupta, Rakhi Bansal, Javed Ali, Reema Gabrani, Shweta Dang

Abstract:

Nanoemulsions (NEs) and microemulsions (MEs) have been an attractive tool for encapsulation of both hydrophilic and lipophillic actives. Both these systems are composed of oil phase, surfactant, co-surfactant and aqueous phase. Depending upon the application and intended use, both oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions can be designed. NEs are fabricated using high energy methods employing less percentage of surfactant as compared to MEs which are self assembled drug delivery systems. Owing to the nanometric size of the droplets these systems have been widely used to enhance solubility and bioavailability of natural as well as synthetic molecules. The aim of the present study is to assess the effect of % age of surfactants on cell viability of Vero cells (African Green Monkeys’ Kidney epithelial cells) via MTT assay. Green tea catechin (Polyphenon 60) loaded ME employing low energy vortexing and NE employing high energy ultrasonication were prepared using same excipients (labrasol as oil, cremophor EL as surfactant and glycerol as co-surfactant) however, the % age of oil and surfactant needed to prepare the ME was higher as compared to NE. These formulations along with their excipients (oilME=13.3%, SmixME=26.67%; oilNE=10%, SmixNE=13.52%) were added to Vero cells for 24 hrs. The tetrazolium dye, 3-(4,5-dimethylthia/ol-2-yl)-2,5-diphi-iiyltclrazolium bromide (MTT), is reduced by live cells and this reaction is used as the end point to evaluate the cytoxicity level of a test formulation. Results of MTT assay indicated that oil at different percentages exhibited almost equal cell viability (oilME ≅ oilNE) while surfactant mixture had a significant difference in the cell viability values (SmixME < SmixNE). Polyphenon 60 loaded ME and its PlaceboME showed higher toxicity as compared to Polyphenon 60 loaded NE and its PlaceboNE that can be attributed to the higher concentration of surfactants present in MEs. Another probable reason for high % cell viability of Polyphenon 60 loaded NE might be due to the effective release of Polyphenon 60 from NE formulation that helps in the sustenance of Vero cells.

Keywords: Surfactants, Nanoemulsion, cell viability, MTT, ultrasonication, microemulsion

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10 The Effects of Nanoemulsions Based on Commercial Oils: Sunflower, Canola, Corn, Olive, Soybean, and Hazelnut Oils for the Quality of Farmed Sea Bass at 2±2°C

Authors: Fatih Ozogul, Yesim Özogul, Mustafa Durmuş, Esmeray Kuley Boğa, Yılmaz Uçar, Hatice Yazgan

Abstract:

The effects of oil-in-water nanoemulsions on the sensory, chemical (total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), peroxide value (PV) and free fatty acids (FFA), and microbiological qualities (total viable count (TVC), total psychrophilic bacteria, and total Enterbactericaea bacteria) of sea bream fillets stored at 2 ± 2°C were investigated. Physical properties of emulsions (viscosity, the particle size of droplet, thermodynamic stability, refractive index and surface tension) were determined. The results showed that the use of nanoemulsion extended the shelf life of fish 2 days when compared with the control. Treatment with nanoemulsions significantly (p<0.05) decreased the values of biochemical parameters during storage period. Bacterial growth was inhibited by the use of nanoemulsions. Based on the results, it can be concluded that nanoemulsions based on commercial oils extended the shelf life and improved the quality of sea bass fillets during storage period.

Keywords: Quality Parameters, Nanoemulsion, lipid oxidation, sea bass

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9 Propolis as Antioxidant Formulated in Nanoemulsion

Authors: Rachmat Mauludin, Irda Fidrianny, Dita Sasri Primaviri, Okti Alifiana

Abstract:

Natural products such as propolis, green tea and corncob are containing several compounds called antioxidant. Antioxidant can be used in topical application to protect skin against free radical, prevent skin cancer and skin aging. Previous study showed that the extract of propolis that has the highest antioxidant activity was ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP). It is important to make a dosage form that could keep the stability and could protect the effectiveness of antioxidant activity of the extracts. In this research, nanoemulsion (NE) was chosen to formulate those natural products. NE is a dispersion system between oil phase and water phase that formed by mechanical force with a lot amount of surfactants and has globule size below 100 nm. In pharmaceutical industries, NE was preferable for its stability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, its ease to be absorbed and eliminated, and for its use as carrier for lipophilic drugs. First, all of the natural products were extracted using reflux methods. Green tea and corncob were extracted using 96% ethanol while propolis using 70% ethanol. Then, the extracts were concentrated using rotavapor to obtain viscous extracts. The yield of EEP was 11.12%; green tea extract (GTE) was 23.37%; and corncob extract (CCE) was 17.23%. EEP contained steroid/triterpenoid, flavonoid and saponin. GTE contained flavonoid, tannin, and quinone while CCE contained flavonoid, phenol and tannin. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were then measured using DPPH scavenging capacity methods. The values of DPPH scavenging capacity were 61.14% for EEP; 97.16% for GTE; and 78.28% for CCE. The value of IC50 for EEP was 0.41629 ppm. After the extracts were evaluated, NE was prepared. Several surfactants and co-surfactants were used in many combinations and ratios in order to form a NE. Tween 80 and Kolliphor RH40 were used as surfactants while glycerin and propylene glycol were used as co-surfactants. The best NE consists of 26.25% of Kolliphor RH40; 8.75% of glycerin; 5% of rice bran oil; 3% of extracts; and 57% of water. EEP NE had globule size around 23.72 nm; polydispersity index below 0.5; and did not cause any irritation on rabbits. EEP NE was proven to be stable after passing stability test within 63 days at room temperature and 6 cycles of Freeze and Thaw test without separated. Based on TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) test, EEP NE had spherical structure with most of its size below 50 nm. The antioxidant activity of EEP NE was monitored for 6 weeks and showed no significant difference. The value of DPPH scavenging capacity for EEP NE was around 58%; for GTE NE was 96.75%; and for CCE NE was 55.69%.

Keywords: Nanoemulsion, propolis, antioxidant, corncob, green tea

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8 Nanoemulsion Formulation of Ethanolic Extracts of Propolis and Its Antioxidant Activity

Authors: Rachmat Mauludin, Irda Fidrianny, Dita Sasri Primaviri

Abstract:

Propolis contains several antioxidant compounds which can be used in topical application to protect skin against free radical, prevent skin cancer and skin aging. Previous study showed that 70% ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) provided the greatest antioxidant activity. Since EEP has very small solubility in water, the extract was prepared in nanoemulsion (NE). Nanoemulsion is chosen as cosmetic dosage forms according to its properties namely to decrease the risk of skin’s irritation, increase penetration, prolong its time to remain in our skin, and improve stability. Propolis was extracted using reflux methods and concentrated using rotavapor. EEP was characterized with several tests such as phytochemical screening, density, and antioxidant activity using DPPH method. Optimation of total surfactant, co-surfactant, oil, and amount of EEP that can be included in NE were required to get the best NE formulation. The evaluations included to organoleptic observation, globul size, polydispersity index, morphology using TEM, viscosity, pH, centrifuge, stability, Freeze and Thaw test, radical scavenging activity using DPPH method, and primary irritation test. The yield extracts was 11.12% from raw propolis contained of steroid/triterpenoid, flavonoid, and saponin based on phytochemical screening. EEP had the value of DPPH scavenging activity 61.14% and IC50 0.41629 ppm. The best NE formulation consisted of 26.25% Kolliphor RH40; 8.75% glycerine; 5% rice bran oil; and 3% EEP. NE was transparant, had globul size of 21.9 nm; polydispersity index of 0.338; and pH of 5.67. Based on TEM morphology, NE was almost spherical and has particle size below 50 nm. NE propolis revealed to be physically stable after stability test within 63 days at 25oC, centrifuged for 30 mins at 13.000 rpm, and passed 6 cycles of Freeze and Thaw test without separated. NE propolis reduced 58% of free radical DPPH similar to antioxidant activity of the original extracts. Antioxidant activity of NE propolis is relatively stable after stored for 6 weeks. NE Propolis was proven to be safe by primary irritation test with the value of primary irritation index (OECD) was 0. The best formulation for NE propolis contained of 26.25% Kolliphor RH40; 8.75% glycerine; 5% rice bran oil; and 3% EEP with globul size of 21.9 nm and polydispersity index of 0.338. NE propolis was stable and had antioxidant activity similar to EEP.

Keywords: Nanoemulsion, propolis, antioxidant, irritation test

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7 The Effects of Nanoemulsions Based on Commercial Oils for the Quality of Vacuum-Packed Sea Bass at 2±2°C

Authors: Fatih Ozogul, Yesim Özogul, Mustafa Durmuş, Ali Rıza Köşker, Esra Balıkcı, Saadet Gokdoğan, İlknur Yuvka

Abstract:

Food scientists and researchers have paid attention to develop new ways for improving the nutritional value of foods. The application of nanotechnology techniques to the food industry may allow the modification of food texture, taste, sensory attributes, coloring strength, processability, and stability during shelf life of products. In this research, the effects of nanoemulsions based on commercial oils for vacuum-packed sea bass fillets stored at 2±2°C were investigated in terms of the sensory, chemical (total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), peroxide value (PV) and free fatty acids (FFA), pH, water holding capacity (WHC)) and microbiological qualities (total anaerobic bacteria and total lactic acid bacteria). Physical properties of emulsions (viscosity, the particle size of droplet, thermodynamic stability, refractive index, and surface tension) were determined. Nanoemulsion preparation method was based on high energy principle, with ultrasonic homojenizator. Sensory analyses of raw fish showed that the demerit points of the control group were found higher than those of treated groups. The sensory score (odour, taste and texture) of the cooked fillets decreased with storage time, especially in the control. Results obtained from chemical and microbiological analyses also showed that nanoemulsions significantly (p<0.05) decreased the values of biochemical parameters and growth of bacteria during storage period, thus improving quality of vacuum-packed sea bass.

Keywords: Quality Parameters, Nanoemulsion, Shelf Life, sea bass, vacuum packing

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6 Radiation Skin Decontamination Formulation

Authors: Himanshu OJHA, Navneet Sharma, Dharam Pal Pathak, Rakesh Kumar Sharma

Abstract:

Radio-nuclides decontamination is an important task because any extra second of deposition leads to deleterious health effects. We had developed and characterise nanoemulsion of p-tertbutylcalix[4]arens using phase inversion temperature (PIT) method and evaluate its decontamination efficacy (DE). The solubility of the drug was determined in various oils and surfactants. Nanoemulsion developed with an HLB value of 11 and different ratios of the surfactants 10% (7:3, w/w), oil (20%, w/w), and double distilled water (70%) were selected. Formulation was characterised by multi-photon spectroscopy and parameters like viscosity, droplet size distribution, zeta potential and stability were optimised. In vitro and Ex vivo decontamination efficacy (DE) was evaluated against Technetium-99m, Iodine-131, and Thallium-201 as radio-contaminants applied over skin of Sprague-Dawley rat and human tissue equivalent model. Contaminants were removed using formulation soaked in cotton swabs at different time intervals and whole body imaging and static counts were recorded using SPECT gamma camera before and after decontamination attempt. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and was found to be significant (p <0.05). DE of the nanoemulsion loaded with p-tertbutylcalix[4]arens was compared with placebo and recorded to be 88±5%, 90±3% and 89±3% for 99mTc, 131I and 201Tl respectively. Ex-vivo complexation study of p-tertbutylcalix[4]arene nanoemulsion with surrogate nuclides of radioactive thallium and Iodine, were performed on rat skin mounted on Franz diffusion cell using high-resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (HR-SF-ICPMS). More than 90% complexation of the formulation with these nuclides was observed. Results demonstrate that the prepared nanoemulsion formulation was found efficacious for the decontamination of radionuclides from a large contaminated population.

Keywords: Nanoemulsion, iodine-131, p-tertbutylcalix[4]arens, skin decontamination, radiological emergencies, thallium-201

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5 Water-in-Diesel Fuel Nanoemulsions Prepared by Modified Low Energy: Emulsion Drop Size and Stability, Physical Properties, and Emission Characteristics

Authors: M. R. Noor El-Din, Marwa R. Mishrif, R. E. Morsi, E. A. El-Sharaky, M. E. Haseeb, Rania T. M. Ghanem

Abstract:

This paper studies the physical and rheological behaviours of water/in/diesel fuel nanoemulsions prepared by modified low energy method. Twenty of water/in/diesel fuel nanoemulsions were prepared using mixed nonionic surfactants of sorbitan monooleate and polyoxyethylene sorbitan trioleate (MTS) at Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) value of 10 and a working temperature of 20°C. The influence of the prepared nanoemulsions on the physical properties such as kinematic viscosity, density, and calorific value was studied. Also, nanoemulsion systems were subjected to rheological evaluation. The effect of water loading percentage (5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 wt.%) on rheology was assessed at temperatures range from 20 to 60°C with temperature interval of 10 for time lapse 0, 1, 2 and 3 months, respectively. Results show that all of the sets nanoemulsions exhibited a Newtonian flow character of low-shear viscosity in the range of 132 up to 191 1/s, and followed by a shear-thinning region with yield value (Non-Newtonian behaviour) at high shear rate for all water ratios (5 to 10 wt.%) and at all test temperatures (20 to 60°C) for time ageing up to 3 months. Also, the viscosity/temperature relationship of all nanoemulsions fitted well Arrhenius equation with high correlation coefficients that ascertain their Newtonian behavior.

Keywords: Nanoemulsion, surfactant, diesel fuel, alternative fuel

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4 Characterization of Nanoemulsion Incorporating Crude Cocoa Polyphenol

Authors: Suzannah Sharif, Aznie Aida Ahmad, Maznah Ismail

Abstract:

Cocoa bean is the raw material for products such as cocoa powder and chocolate. Cocoa bean contains polyphenol which has been shown in several clinical studies to confer beneficial health effects. However studies showed that cocoa polyphenol absorption in the human intestinal tracts are very low. Therefore nanoemulsion may be one way to increase the bioavailability of cocoa polyphenol. This study aim to characterize nanoemulsion incorporating crude cocoa polyphenol produced using high energy technique. Cocoa polyphenol was extracted from fresh freeze-dried cocoa beans from Malaysia. The particle distribution, particle size, and zeta potential were determined. The emulsion was also analysed using transmission electron microscope to visualize the particles. Solubilization study was conducted by titrating the nanoemulsion into distilled water or 1% surfactant solution. Result showed that the nanoemulsion contains particle which have narrow size distribution. The particles size average at 112nm with zeta potential of -45mV. The nanoemulsions behave differently in distilled water and surfactant solution.

Keywords: Nanoemulsion, cocoa, cocoa polyphenol, solubilisation study

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3 Synthesis of Ethoxylated Amide as Bactericide to Enhance the Storage Period of Diesel Fuel Nanoemulsions

Authors: M. R. Noor El-Din, S. M. Abd-Altwab

Abstract:

This paper aims to the synthesis of new ethoxylated amide as bactericides to prevent the growth of Gram +ve and –ve bacteria of water-in-diesel fuel nanoemulsions over a long period of time as three months. To realize it, eight kinetically stable water-in-diesel fuel nanoemulsions differing in surfactant concentrations and water contents ranging from 4 to 8 and 5 to 8 wt.,wt.,% of total weight of the nanoemulsions, respectively were formed at a temperature of 20 °C. The performance of this ethoxylated amide as bactericides agents against two strains of Gram-negative bacteria, namely, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, and two strains of Gram-positive bacteria namely, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, were evaluated as antimicrobial agents. The maximum and minimum antimicrobial activities were 85 and 71 % against S. aureus and E. coli, respectively, at a concentration of 5 mg/l, pH 7, and 37 °C.

Keywords: Nanoemulsion, diesel fuel, bacteriocide, emulsifier

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2 Effects of Type and Concentration Stabilizers on the Characteristics of Nutmeg Oil Nanoemulsions Prepared by High-Pressure Homogenization

Authors: Yuliani Aisyah, Sri Haryani, Novi Safriani

Abstract:

Nutmeg oil is one of the essential oils that have the ability as an antibacterial so it potentially uses to inhibit the growth of undesirable microbes in food. However, the essential oil that has low solubility in water, high volatile content, and strong aroma properties is difficult to apply in to foodstuffs. Therefore, the oil-in-water nanoemulsion system was used in this research. Gelatin, lecithin and tween 80 with 10%, 20%, 30% concentrations have been examined for the preparation of nutmeg oil nanoemulsions. The physicochemical properties and stability of nutmeg oil nanoemulsion were analyzed on viscosity, creaming index, emulsifying activity, droplet size, and polydispersity index. The results showed that the type and concentration stabilizer had a significant effect on viscosity, creaming index, droplet size and polydispersity index (P ≤ 0,01). The nanoemulsions stabilized with tween 80 had the best stability because the creaming index value was 0%, the emulsifying activity value was 100%, the droplet size was small (79 nm) and the polydispersity index was low (0.10) compared to the nanoemulsions stabilized with gelatin and lecithin. In brief, Tween 80 is strongly recommended to be used for stabilizing nutmeg oil nanoemulsions.

Keywords: Stability, Nanoemulsion, stabilizer, nutmeg oil

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1 Preparation and Evaluation of Citrus hystrix Nanoemulsion Formulation against Rice Weevil, Sitophilus oryzae

Authors: Elsayed Elmiligy, Dzolkhifili Omar, Norhayu Asib

Abstract:

Sitophilus oryzae is a primary destructive insect pest. A study on nanoemulsion formulation of C. hystrix peel oil and evaluation of its insecticidal effect on the adults of S. oryzae was held in toxicology laboratory at Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). Three nanoemulsion formulations (F1, F2, and F3) were prepared using C. hystrix peel oil (a.i), Tween 80 (surfactant), AMD 810 (carrier) and deionized water. The selected formulations have undergone stability tests, surface tension, zeta potential and particle size measurements. The formulations were tested for their contact and fumigant activity against the adults of S. oryzae. LC₅₀ values were obtained from Probit regressions using the Polo-PC program. All the formulations showed stability under storage temperature and centrifugation. They were characterized as nanoemulsions as they remained in the range of nanoscale 200 nm. The formulations revealed lower surface tension in the range of 29.5 to 30.4 mN/m. They showed stable of zeta potential values. The formulations showed the highest toxicity against the adults of S. oryzae. The order of decreasing toxicity was F1 > F2 > F3 with LC₅₀ values of 52.1, 58.5, and 61.7 µl/l for contact toxicity, and 71, 75.5, and 76.7 µl/l air for fumigant bioassay after 72 hours. Formulation of C. hystrix peel oil in a nanoemulsion enhance its effectiveness and reduce the amount of applied essential oil.

Keywords: Nanoemulsion, Sitophilus oryzae, contact toxicity, Citrus hystrix peel oil, Fumigant bioassay

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