Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Nanocrystals Related Abstracts

6 Optical Properties of Nanocrystalline Europium-Yttrium Titanate EuYTi2O7

Authors: J. Mrazek, R. Skala, S. Bysakh, Ivan Kasik


Lanthanide-doped yttrium titanium oxides, which crystallize in a pyrochlore structure with general formula (RExY1-x)2Ti2O7 (RE=rare earth element), have been extensively investigated in recent years for their interesting physical and chemical properties. Despite that the pure pyrochlore structure does not present luminescence ability, the presence of yttrium ions in the pyrochlore structure significantly improves the luminescence properties of the RE. Moreover, the luminescence properties of pyrochlores strongly depend on the size of formed nanocrystals. In this contribution, we present a versatile sol-gel synthesis of nanocrystalline EuYTi2O7pyrochlore. The nanocrystalline powders and thin films were prepared by the condensation of titanium(IV)butoxide with europium(III) chloride followed by the calcination. The introduced method leads to the formation of the highly-homogenous nanocrystalline EuYTi2O7 with tailored grain size ranging from 20 nm to 200 nm. The morphology and the structure of the formed nanocrystals are linked to the luminescence properties of Eu3+ ions incorporated into the pyrochlore lattice. The results of XRD and HRTEM analysis show that the Eu3+ and Y3+ ions are regularly distributed inside the lattice. The lifetime of Eu3+ ions in calcinated powders is regularly decreasing from 140 us to 68 us and the refractive index of prepared thin films regularly increases from 2.0 to 2.45 according to the calcination temperature. The shape of the luminescence spectra and the decrease of the lifetime correspond with the crystallinity of prepared powders. The results present fundamental information about the effect of the size of the nanocrystals to their luminescence properties. The promising application of prepared nanocrystals in the field of lasers and planar optical amplifiers is widely discussed in the contribution.

Keywords: Nanocrystals, Luminescence, europium, sol-gel

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5 Hysteresis Behavior and Microstructure in Nanostructured Alloys Cu-Fe and Cu-Fe-Co

Authors: Laslouni Warda, M. Azzaz


The intermetallic-based on transition metal compounds present interesting magnetic properties for the technological applications (permanent magnets, magnetic recording…). Cu70 Fe18Co12 and Cu70 Fe30 nanostructured with crystallite size vary from 10 a 12 nanometers have been developed by a mechanical milling method. For Cu-Fe samples, the iron and copper distribution was clear. The distribution showed a homogeneous distribution of iron and copper in a Cu-Fe obtained after 36 h milling. The structural properties have been performed with X-ray diffraction. With increasing milling times, Fe and Co diffuse into the Cu matrix, which accelerates the formation of the magnetic nanostructure Cu- Fe-Co and Cu-Fe alloys. The magnetic behavior is investigated using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The two alloys nanocrystals possess ferromagnetic character at room temperature

Keywords: Nanocrystals, SEM, VSM, hysteresis loops, Cu-Fe-Co, Cu-Fe, anisotropy theory

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4 Real-Space Mapping of Surface Trap States in Cigse Nanocrystals Using 4D Electron Microscopy

Authors: Riya Bose, Ashok Bera, Manas R. Parida, Anirudhha Adhikari, Basamat S. Shaheen, Erkki Alarousu, Jingya Sun, Tom Wu, Osman M. Bakr, Omar F. Mohammed


This work reports visualization of charge carrier dynamics on the surface of copper indium gallium selenide (CIGSe) nanocrystals in real space and time using four-dimensional scanning ultrafast electron microscopy (4D S-UEM) and correlates it with the optoelectronic properties of the nanocrystals. The surface of the nanocrystals plays a key role in controlling their applicability for light emitting and light harvesting purposes. Typically for quaternary systems like CIGSe, which have many desirable attributes to be used for optoelectronic applications, relative abundance of surface trap states acting as non-radiative recombination centre for charge carriers remains as a major bottleneck preventing further advancements and commercial exploitation of these nanocrystals devices. Though ultrafast spectroscopic techniques allow determining the presence of picosecond carrier trapping channels, because of relative larger penetration depth of the laser beam, only information mainly from the bulk of the nanocrystals is obtained. Selective mapping of such ultrafast dynamical processes on the surfaces of nanocrystals remains as a key challenge, so far out of reach of purely optical probing time-resolved laser techniques. In S-UEM, the optical pulse generated from a femtosecond (fs) laser system is used to generate electron packets from the tip of the scanning electron microscope, instead of the continuous electron beam used in the conventional setup. This pulse is synchronized with another optical excitation pulse that initiates carrier dynamics in the sample. The principle of S-UEM is to detect the secondary electrons (SEs) generated in the sample, which is emitted from the first few nanometers of the top surface. Constructed at different time delays between the optical and electron pulses, these SE images give direct and precise information about the carrier dynamics on the surface of the material of interest. In this work, we report selective mapping of surface dynamics in real space and time of CIGSe nanocrystals applying 4D S-UEM. We show that the trap states can be considerably passivated by ZnS shelling of the nanocrystals, and the carrier dynamics can be significantly slowed down. We also compared and discussed the S-UEM kinetics with the carrier dynamics obtained from conventional ultrafast time-resolved techniques. Additionally, a direct effect of the state trap removal can be observed in the enhanced photoresponse of the nanocrystals after shelling. Direct observation of surface dynamics will not only provide a profound understanding of the photo-physical mechanisms on nanocrystals’ surfaces but also enable to unlock their full potential for light emitting and harvesting applications.

Keywords: Optoelectronics, Surface Passivation, Nanocrystals, charge carrier dynamics, trap states

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3 Co-Precipitation Method for the Fabrication of Charge-Transfer Molecular Crystal Nanocapsules

Authors: Rabih Al-Kaysi


When quasi-stable solutions of 9-methylanthracene (pi-electron donor, 0.0005 M) and 1,2,4,5-Tetracyanobenzene (pi-electron acceptor, 0.0005 M) in aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, 0.025 M) were gently mixed, uniform-shaped rectangular charge-transfer nanocrystals precipitated out. These red colored charge-transfer (CT) crystals were composed of a 1:1-mole ratio of acceptor/ donor and are highly insoluble in water/SDS solution. The rectangular crystals morphology is semi hollow with symmetrical twin pockets reminiscent of nanocapsules. For a typical crop of nanocapsules, the dimensions are 21 x 6 x 0.5 microns with an approximate hollow volume of 1.5 x 105 nm3. By varying the concentration of aqueous SDS, mixing duration and incubation temperature, we can control the size and volume of the nanocapsules. The initial number of CT seed nanoparticles, formed by mixing the D and A solutions, determined the number and dimensions of the obtained nanocapsules formed after several hours of incubation under still conditions. Prolonged mixing of the donor and acceptor solutions resulted in plenty of initial seeds hence smaller nanocapsules. Short mixing times yields less seed formation and larger micron-sized capsules. The addition of Doxorubicin in situ with the quasi-stable solutions while mixing leads to the formation of CT nanocapsules with Doxorubicin sealed inside. The Doxorubicin can be liberated from the nanocapsules by cracking them using ultrasonication. This method can be extended to other binary CT complex crystals as well.

Keywords: Nanocrystals, Nanocapsules, doxorubicin, charge-transfer

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2 Optimization of Lercanidipine Nanocrystals Using Design of Experiments Approach

Authors: Dolly Gadhiya, Jayvadan Patel, Mihir Raval


Lercanidipine hydrochloride is a calcium channel blockers used for treating angina pectoris and hypertension. Lercanidipine is a BCS Class II drug having poor aqueous solubility. Absolute bioavailability of Lercanidipine is very low and the main reason ascribed for this is poor aqueous solubility of the drug. Design and formulatation of nanocrystals by media milling method was main focus of this study. In this present study preliminary optimization was carried out with one factor at a time (OFAT) approach. For this different parameters like size of milling beads, amount of zirconium beads, types of stabilizer, concentrations of stabilizer, concentrations of drug, stirring speeds and milling time were optimized on the basis of particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential. From the OFAT model different levels for above parameters selected for Plackett - Burman Design (PBD). Plackett-Burman design having 13 runs involving 6 independent variables was carried out at higher and lower level. Based on statistical analysis of PBD it was found that concentration of stabilizer, concentration of drug and stirring speed have significant impact on particle size, PDI, zeta potential value and saturation solubility. These experimental designs for preparation of nanocrystals were applied successfully which shows increase in aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of Lercanidipine hydrochloride.

Keywords: Nanocrystals, lercanidipine hydrochloride, OFAT, Plackett Burman

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1 CuIn₃Se₅ Colloidal Nanocrystals and Its Ink-Coated Films for Photovoltaics

Authors: H. Talaat, M. Ghali, M. Elnimr, G. F. Ali, A. M. Eissa


CuIn₃Se₅ material is indexed as ordered vacancy compounds having excellent matching properties with CuInGaSe (CIGS) solar absorber layer. For example, the valence band offset of CuIn₃Se₅ with CIGS is nearly 0.3 eV, and the lattice mismatch is less than 1%, besides the absence of discontinuity in their conduction bands. Thus, CuIn₃Se₅ can work as a passivation layer for repelling holes from CIGS/CdS interface and hence to reduce the interface carriers recombination and consequently enhancing the efficiency of CIGS/CdS solar cells. Theoretically, it was reported earlier that an improvement in the efficiency of p-CIGS-based solar cell with a thin ~100 nm of n-CuIn₃Se₅ layer is expected. Recently, a reported experiment demonstrated significant improvement in the efficiency of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) grown CIGS solar cells from 13.4 to 14.5% via inserting a thin layer of MBE-grown Cu(In,Ga)₃Se₅ layer at the CdS/CIGS interface. It should be mentioned that CuIn₃Se₅ material in either bulk or thin film form, are usually fabricated by high vacuum physical vapor deposition techniques (e.g., three-source co-evaporation, RF sputtering, flash evaporation, and molecular beam epitaxy). In addition, achieving photosensitive films of n-CuIn₃Se₅ material is important for new hybrid organic/inorganic structures, where inorganic photo-absorber layer, with n-type conductivity, can form n–p junction with organic p-type material (e.g., conductive polymers). A detailed study of the physical properties of CuIn₃Se₅ is still necessary for better understanding of device operation and further improvement of solar cells performance. Here, we report on the low-cost synthesis of CuIn₃Se₅ material in nano-scale size, with an average diameter ~10nm, using simple solution-based colloidal chemistry. In contrast to traditionally grown bulk tetragonal CuIn₃Se₅ crystals using high Vacuum-based technology, our colloidal CuIn₃Se₅ nanocrystals show cubic crystal structure with a shape of nanoparticles and band gap ~1.33 eV. Ink-coated thin films prepared from these nanocrystals colloids; display n-type character, 1.26 eV band gap and strong photo-responsive behavior with incident white light. This suggests the potential use of colloidal CuIn₃Se₅ as an active layer in all-solution-processed thin film solar cells.

Keywords: Optical Properties, Nanocrystals, thin film, CuInSe

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