Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

N-acetylcysteine Related Abstracts

4 Antioxidants Reveal Protection against the Biochemical Changes in Liver, Kidney, and Blood Profiles after Clindamycin/Ibuprofen Administration in Dental Patients

Authors: Gouda K. Helal, Marwa I. Shabayek, Heba A. El-Ramly, Heba A. Awida


The adverse effects of Clindamycin (Clind.) / Ibuprofen (Ibu.) combination on liver, kidney, blood elements and the significances of antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine and Zinc) against these effects were evaluated. The study includes: Group I; control n=30, Group II; patients on Clind.300mg/Ibu.400mg twice daily for a week n=30, Group III; patients on Clind.300mg/Ibu.400mg+N-acetylcysteine 200mg twice daily for a week n=15 and Group IV; patients on Clind.300mg/Ibu.400mg+Zinc50mg twice daily for a week n=15. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST), γ glutamyl transferase (GGT), creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured. Applying one way ANOVA followed by Tuckey Kramer post test, Group II showed significant increase in ALT, AST, GGT, BUN and decrease in Hb, RBCs, platelets than Group I. Group III showed significant decrease in ALT, AST, GGT, BUN than Group II. Moreover, Group IV showed significant decrease in ALT, AST, GGT and increase in Hb, RBCs, and platelets than Group II. Conclusively, Adding Zinc or N-acetylcysteine buffer the oxidative stress and improve the therapeutic outcome of Clindamycin/Ibuprofen combination.

Keywords: Adverse Effects, antioxidant, zinc, clindamycin, ibuprofen, N-acetylcysteine

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3 A Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial on N-Acetylcysteine for the Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Authors: Sara Ataei, Molouk Hadjibabaie, Amirhossein Moslehi, Maryam Taghizadeh-Ghehi, Asieh Ashouri, Elham Amini, Kheirollah Gholami, Alireza Hayatshahi, Mohammad Vaezi, Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh


Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and is associated with increased mortality. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a thiol compound with antioxidant and vasodilatory properties that has been investigated for the prevention of AKI in several clinical settings. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of intravenous NAC on the prevention of AKI in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted, and 80 patients were recruited to receive 100 mg/kg/day NAC or placebo as intermittent intravenous infusion from day -6 to day +15. AKI was determined on the basis of the Risk-Injury-Failure-Loss-Endstage renal disease and AKI Network criteria as the primary outcome. We assessed urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) on days -6, -3, +3, +9, and +15 as the secondary outcome. Moreover, transplant-related outcomes and NAC adverse reactions were evaluated during the study period. Statistical analysis was performed using appropriate parametric and non-parametric methods including Kaplan–Meier for AKI and generalized estimating equation for uNGAL. At the end of the trial, data from 72 patients were analyzed (NAC: 33 patients and placebo: 39 patients). Participants of each group were not different considering baseline characteristics. AKI was observed in 18% of NAC recipients and 15% of placebo group patients, and the occurrence pattern was not significantly different (p = 0.73). Moreover, no significant difference was observed between groups for uNGAL measures (p = 0.10). Transplant-related outcomes were similar for both groups, and all patients had successful engraftment. Three patients did not tolerate NAC because of abdominal pain, shortness of breath and rash with pruritus and were dropped from the intervention group before transplantation. However, the frequency of adverse reactions was not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, our findings could not show any clinical benefits from high-dose NAC particularly for AKI prevention in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients.

Keywords: Acute Kidney Injury, randomized controlled trial, N-acetylcysteine, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin

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2 Whey Protein: A Noval Protective Agent against Oto-Toxicity Induced by Cis-Platin in Male Rat

Authors: Eitedal Daoud, Reda M.Daoud, Khaled Abdel-Wahhab, Maha M.Saber, Lobna Saber


Background: Cis-platin is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug to treat many malignant disorders including head and neck malignancies. Oto-nephrotxicity is an important and dose - limiting side effect of cis - platin therapy. Nowadays, more attention had been paid to oto-toxicity caused with cis-platin. Aim of the Work: This study was designed to investigate the potential protective effect of Whey protein (WP) against cis-platin induced ototoxicity compared to the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in rats. Methodology: Male albino rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: untreated rats (control), rats orally treated with whey protein (1g/kg b.w/day) for seven executive days, rats treated orally with N-acetylcysteine (500 mg/kgb.w /day) for seven executive days, rates intoxicated intraperitoneal (ip) with cis- platin (10 mg/kgb.w. once), rats treated with whey protein (1g/kgb.w./day) for seven executive days) followed by one injection (ip) of cis-platin(10 mg/kg b.w.) one hour after the last oral administration of whey protein, rats treated with N- acetylcysteine (for seven executive days followed by one injection (ip) of cis-platin (10 mg/kgb.w) one hour after the last oral administration of N-acetylcysteine. The organ of Corti, the stria vascularis and spiral ganglia were visualized by light microscopy at different magnifications. Results: Cis-platin intoxicated animals showed a significant decrease in serum level of total antioxidant capacity (TAC),with inhibition in the activity of serum glutathione-s transferase(GST) and paraoxonnase-1 (PON-1) in comparison with control. Group treated with either NAC or WP with cis-platin showed significant elevation in the activity of both GST & PON-1 with increased serum level of TAC when compared with cis-platin intoxicated rats. Animals treated with NAC or WP with cis-platin compared to those treated with cis-platin alone showed marked degree of improvement towards control rats as there was significant drop in the serum level of cortecosterone, nitric oxide (NO), and melandialdehyde (MDA).Histopathologic, in NAC pretreated group there was no changes in stria vascularis or spiral ganglia. In group pretreated with WP, there was no histopathologic alteration detected in the organ of Corti and Reissers membrane but oedema and haemorrhage were founded in the stria vascularis in small focal manner. Conclusion: Our finding showed that Whey protein is a natural dietary supplement product proved its ability of protection of anti-oxidant system and the cochlea against cis-platin induced ototoxicity.

Keywords: Whey Protein, N-acetylcysteine, anti-oxidant, cis-platin, ototoxicity

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1 Raman Spectroscopic Detection of the Diminishing Toxic Effect of Renal Waste Creatinine by Its in vitro Reaction with Drugs N-Acetylcysteine and Taurine

Authors: Debraj Gangopadhyay, Moumita Das, Ranjan K. Singh, Poonam Tandon


Creatinine is a toxic chemical waste generated from muscle metabolism. Abnormally high levels of creatinine in the body fluid indicate possible malfunction or failure of the kidneys. This leads to a condition termed as creatinine induced nephrotoxicity. N-acetylcysteine is an antioxidant drug which is capable of preventing creatinine induced nephrotoxicity and is helpful to treat renal failure in its early stages. Taurine is another antioxidant drug which serves similar purpose. The kidneys have a natural power that whenever reactive oxygen species radicals increase in the human body, the kidneys make an antioxidant shell so that these radicals cannot harm the kidney function. Taurine plays a vital role in increasing the power of that shell such that the glomerular filtration rate can remain in its normal level. Thus taurine protects the kidneys against several diseases. However, taurine also has some negative effects on the body as its chloramine derivative is a weak oxidant by nature. N-acetylcysteine is capable of inhibiting the residual oxidative property of taurine chloramine. Therefore, N-acetylcysteine is given to a patient along with taurine and this combination is capable of suppressing the negative effect of taurine. Both N-acetylcysteine and taurine being affordable, safe, and widely available medicines, knowledge of the mechanism of their combined effect on creatinine, the favored route of administration, and the proper dose may be highly useful in their use for treating renal patients. Raman spectroscopy is a precise technique to observe minor structural changes taking place when two or more molecules interact. The possibility of formation of a complex between a drug molecule and an analyte molecule in solution can be explored by analyzing the changes in the Raman spectra. The formation of a stable complex of creatinine with N-acetylcysteinein vitroin aqueous solution has been observed with the help of Raman spectroscopic technique. From the Raman spectra of the mixtures of aqueous solutions of creatinine and N-acetylcysteinein different molar ratios, it is observed that the most stable complex is formed at 1:1 ratio of creatinine andN-acetylcysteine. Upon drying, the complex obtained is gel-like in appearance and reddish yellow in color. The complex is hygroscopic and has much better water solubility compared to creatinine. This highlights that N-acetylcysteineplays an effective role in reducing the toxic effect of creatinine by forming this water soluble complex which can be removed through urine. Since the drug taurine is also known to be useful in reducing nephrotoxicity caused by creatinine, the aqueous solution of taurine with those of creatinine and N-acetylcysteinewere mixed in different molar ratios and were investigated by Raman spectroscopic technique. It is understood that taurine itself does not undergo complexation with creatinine as no additional changes are observed in the Raman spectra of creatinine when it is mixed with taurine. However, when creatinine, N-acetylcysteine and taurine are mixed in aqueous solution in molar ratio 1:1:3, several changes occurring in the Raman spectra of creatinine suggest the diminishing toxic effect of creatinine in the presence ofantioxidant drugs N-acetylcysteine and taurine.

Keywords: creatinine, N-acetylcysteine, taurine, creatinine induced nephrotoxicity

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