Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

mushroom Related Abstracts

11 Solid Waste Management through Mushroom Cultivation: An Eco Friendly Approach

Authors: Mary Josephine

Abstract:

Waste of certain process can be the input source of other sectors in order to reduce environmental pollution. Today there are more and more solid wastes are generated, but only very small amount of those are recycled. So, the threatening of environmental pressure to public health is very serious. The methods considered for the treatment of solid waste are biogas tanks or processing to make animal feed and fertilizer, however, they did not perform well. An alternative approach is growing mushrooms on waste residues. This is regarded as an environmental friendly solution with potential economic benefit. The substrate producers do their best to produce quality substrate at low cost. Apart from other methods, this can be achieved by employing biologically degradable wastes used as the resource material component of the substrate. Mushroom growing is a significant tool for the restoration, replenishment and remediation of Earth’s overburdened ecosphere. One of the rational methods of waste utilization involves locally available wastes. The present study aims to find out the yield of mushroom grown on locally available waste for free and to conserve our environment by recycling wastes.

Keywords: Remediation, Environment, biodegradable, mushroom

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10 Bioactive, Nutritional and Heavy Metal Constituents of Some Edible Mushrooms Found in Abia State of Nigeria

Authors: I. C. Okwulehie, J. A. Ogoke

Abstract:

The phytocemical, mineral, proximate and heavy metals compositions of six edible and non-edible species of mushrooms were investigated. Fully fleshy mushrooms were used for the analysis. On the averagely, the bioactive constituents of the mushrooms were as follows Alkaloids 0.12 ± 0.02 – 1.01 ± 03 %, Tannins 0.44 ± 0.09 – 1.38 ± 0.6,). Phenols,(0.13 ± 0.01 – 0.26± 0.00, Saponins 0.14 ± 0.03 – 0.32 ± 0.04%, Flavonoids 0.08 ± 0.02 – 0.34 ± 0.02%. The result of proximate composition indicated that the mushroom contained (5.17 ± 0.06 – 12.28 ± 0.16% protein, 0.16 ± 0.02 – 0.67 ± 0.02% fats, 1.06 ± 0.03 – 8.49 ± 0.03 % fibre, (62.06 ± 0.52 – 80.01 ± 4.71% and carbohydrate. The mineral composition of the mushrooms were as follows, calcium 81.49 ± 2.32 - .914 ± 2.32mg/100g, Magnesium(8 ± 1.39-24 ± 2.40mg/100g, Potassium 64.54 ± 0.43 – 164.54 ± 1.23 mg/100g, sodium 9.47 ± 0.12 – 30.97 ± 0.16 mg/100g, and Phosphorus 22.19 ± 0.57-53.2± 0.44 mg/100g. Heavy metals concentration indicated Cadmium 0.7-0.94ppm. Zinc 27.82 – 70.98 ppm. Lead 0.66 – 2.86ppm and Copper 1.8-22.32ppm. The result obtained indicates that the mushrooms are of good sources of phytochemicals, proximate and minerals needed for maintenance of good health and can also be exploited in manufacture of drugs. Heavy metals obtained indicate that when consume intentionally in high content may cause liver, kidney damage and even death.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Bioactive, mushroom, nutritive

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9 Perception of Rural Dwellers on the Nutritional and Social Values of Mushroom in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: S. O. Odebode, O. E. Adelakun

Abstract:

The study assessed the perception of rural dwellers on the nutritional and social values of mushroom in Oyo state, Nigeria. One hundred and forty respondents were sampled and interviewed. Results showed that majority (84.9%) had below secondary education and 81.4 % were married, with fairly large (71.4%) household size (5–8). Also, 52.1% had favourable perception toward the nutritional values and 57.1% toward the social values of mushrooms in the study area. There was significant relationship between sex (X² = 4.673), educational level (X² = 11.969) and perception on the values of mushroom. The knowledge level of respondents on mushroom utilization and production is low in the study area. Farmers’ research field should be established to educate rural dwellers on mushroom farm practices and utilization.

Keywords: Nutritional Value, mushroom, rural dwellers, social value

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8 Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Mycelial Polysaccharides from Calocybe indica in Hyperlipidemic Rats Induced by High-Fat Diet

Authors: Govindan Sudha, Mathumitha Subramaniam, Alamelu Govindasamy, Sasikala Gunasekaran

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of Hypsizygus ulmarius polysaccharides (HUP) on reducing oxidative stress, cognitive impairment and neurotoxicity in D-galactose induced aging mice. Mice were subcutaneously injected with D-galactose (150 mg/kg per day) for 6 weeks and were administered HUP simultaneously. Aged mice receiving vitamin E (100 mg/kg) served as positive control. Chronic administration of D-galactose significantly impaired cognitive performance oxidative defence and mitochondrial enzymes activities as compared to control group. The results showed that HUP (200 and 400 mg/kg) treatment significantly improved the learning and memory ability in Morris water maze test. Biochemical examination revealed that HUP significantly increased the decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), mitochondrial enzymes-NADH dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase (MDH), isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), Na+K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ATPase activities, elevated the lowered total anti-oxidation capability (TAOC), glutathione (GSH), vitamin C and decreased the raised acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroperoxide (HPO), protein carbonyls (PCO), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) levels in brain of aging mice induced by D-gal in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, present study highlights the potential role of HUP against D-galactose induced cognitive impairment, biochemical and mitochondrial dysfunction in mice. In vitro studies on the effect of HUP on scavenging DPPH, ABTS, DMPD, OH radicals, reducing power, B-carotene bleaching and lipid peroxidation inhibition confirmed the free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of HUP. The results suggest that HUP possesses anti-aging efficacy and may have potential in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

Keywords: Aging, Antioxidants, mushroom, neurotoxicity

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7 Application of UV-C Irradiation on Quality and Textural Properties of Button Mushrooms

Authors: M. Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, S. H. Yoosefian. A. Mohammad- Razdari

Abstract:

The effect of 1.0 kJ/m2 Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light on pH, weight loss, color, and firmness of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) tissues during 21-days storage at 4 ºC was studied. UV-C irradiation enhanced pH, weight, color parameters, and firmness of mushroom during storage compared to control treatment. However, application of 1.0 kJ/m2 UV-C treatment could effectively induce the increase of weight loss, firmness, and pH to 14.53%, 49.82%, and 10.39%, respectively. These results suggest that the application of UV-C irradiation could be an effective method to maintain the postharvest quality of mushrooms.

Keywords: Quality, mushroom, polyethylene film, UV-c irradiation

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6 Comparison of Allelopathic Activity of Some Edible Mushroom and Wild Mushroom in Japan

Authors: Asma Osivand, Hossein Mardani, Hiroshi Araya, Yoshiharu Fujii

Abstract:

Wild mushrooms have always been considered as valuable source of bioactive compounds, while edible mushrooms have been known for their importance as food source. However, their interaction with plants through chemicals that could lead to find new biochemical have not been well undertaken. A special bioassay method (Sandwich method) was applied to compare eight common edible mushrooms (Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lentinula edodes, Grifola frondosa, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizygus tessellatus and Pholiota namako) with some wild species (Ganoderma appelanatum, Amanita pantherina, Artomyces pyxidatus, Morchella conica, Tricholosporum porphyrophyllum, Trametes hirsuta) for their phytotoxicity against lettuce. Among all tested edible mushrooms, application of 5 mg of P. ostreatus showed stronger allelopathic activity by inhibiting the growth of radicle and hypocotyl of lettuce by 84% and 63% respectively. Moreover, same amount of T. porphyrophyllum exerted 77% and 67% growth inhibition on radicle and hypocotyl of lettuce. In general, biochemicals contributed in tested mushrooms could be the main cause for their inhibitory activity and could lead to find new allelochemicals.

Keywords: Interaction, phytotoxicity, Allelopathy, mushroom, Pleurotus sp, sandwich method

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5 Change of Flavor Characteristics of Flavor Oil Made Using Sarcodon aspratus (Sarcodon aspratus Berk. S. Ito) According to Extraction Temperature and Extraction Time

Authors: Gyeong-Suk Jo, Soo-Hyun Ji, You-Seok Lee, Jeong-Hwa Kang

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To develop an flavor oil using Sarcodon aspratus (Sarcodon aspratus Berk. S. Ito), infiltration extraction method was used to add dried mushroom flavor of Sarcodon aspratus to base olive oil. Edible base oil used during infiltration extraction was pressed olive oil, and infiltration extraction was done while varying extraction temperature to 20, 30, 40 and 50(℃) extraction time to 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours. Amount of Sarcodon aspratus added to base oil was 20% compared to 100% of base oil. Production yield of Sarcodon aspratus flavor oil decreased with increasing extraction frequency. Aroma intensity was 2195~2447 (A.U./1㎖), and it increased with increasing extraction temperature and extraction time. Chromaticity of Sarcodon aspratus flavor oil was bright pale yellow with pH of 4.5, sugar content of 71~72 (°Brix), and highest average turbidity of 16.74 (Haze %) shown by the 40℃ group. In the aromatic evaluation, increasing extraction temperature and extraction time resulted in increase of cheese aroma, savory sweet aroma and beef jerky aroma, as well as spicy taste comprised of slight bitter taste, savory taste and slight acrid taste, to make aromatic oil with unique flavor.

Keywords: mushroom, Flavor Characteristics, Flavor Oil, Infiltration extraction method, Sarcodon aspratus (Sarcodon aspratus Berk. S. Ito)

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4 Anti-Proliferative Effect of Chanterelle (Cantharellus) Mushroom Extracts on Glioblastoma Multiforme Cell Line U87MG

Authors: Konrad Mielcarek, Renata Markiewicz-Zukowska, Anna Puscion-Jakubik, Maria H. Borawska, Justyna Moskwa, Patryk Nowakowski, Sylwia K. Naliwajko, Krystyna Gromkowska-Kepka

Abstract:

For centuries, mushrooms have been used in folk medicine; however, knowledge of the composition and properties of fungi comes from the last twenty years. Mushrooms show antibacterial, antioxidant, antitumor and immune-stimulating properties; however, there is a lack of reports, on anticancer treatment of brain gliomas. The aim of this study was to examine influence of Chanterelle mushroom (Cantharellus Adans. ex Fr.) ethanolic (CHE) and water (CHW) extracts, on glioblastoma multiforme cell line (U87MG). Anti-proliferative activity of CHE and CHW in concentration (50-1000 µg/mL) was determined by a cytotoxicity test and DNA binding by [³H]-thymidine incorporation after 24, 48 and 72h of incubation with U87MG glioblastoma cell line. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistica v. 13.0 software. Significant differences were assumed for p < 0.05. We examined that CHE extracts in all the tested concentrations (50, 100, 250, 500, 1000 µg/mL) after all hours of incubation significantly decreased cell viability (p < 0.05) on U87MG cell line, which was confirmed by the significant (p < 0.05) reduction of DNA synthesis. Our results suggest that only CHE extract a cytotoxic and anti-proliferation activities on U87MG cell line.

Keywords: Food, mushroom, anticancer, glioblastoma

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3 Anticancer Activity of Edible Coprinus Mushroom (Coprinus comatus) on Human Glioblastoma Cell Lines and Interaction with Temozolomide

Authors: Renata Markiewicz-Zukowska, Anna Puscion-Jakubik, Justyna Moskwa, Patryk Nowakowski, Sylwia K. Naliwajko, Krystyna Gromkowska-Kepka, Maria Borawska

Abstract:

Coprinus comatus (O. F. Müll.) Pers.) should not be confused with the common Ink Cap, which contains coprine and can induce coprine poisoning. We study the possibility of applying coprinus mushroom (Coprinus comatus), available in Poland, as food product supporting the treatment of human glioblastoma cells. The U87MG and T98 glioblastoma cell lines were exposed to water (CW) or ethanol 95° (CE) Cantharellus extracts (50-500 μg/ml), with or without temozolomide (TMZ) during 24, 48 or 72 hours. The cell division was examined by the H³-thymidine incorporation. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistica v. 13.0 software. Significant differences were assumed for p < 0.05. We found that both, CW and CE, administrated alone, had inhibitory effect on cell lines growth, but the CE extract had a higher degree of growth inhibition. The anti-tumor effect of TMZ (50 μM) on U87MG was enhanced by mushroom extracts, and the effect was lower to the effect after using Coprinus comatus extracts (CW and CE) alone. A significant decrease (p < 0.05) in pro-MMP2 (82.61 ± 6.3% of control) secretion in U87MG cells was observed after treated with CE (250 μg/ml). We conclude that extracts of Coprinus comatus, edible mushroom, present cytotoxic properties on U87MG and T98 cell lines and may cooperate with TMZ synergistically enhancing its growth inhibiting activity against glioblastoma U87MG cell line.

Keywords: mushroom, anticancer, glioma, temozolomide

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2 Characterization of Minerals, Elicitors in Spent Mushroom Substrate Extract and Effects on Growth, Yield and the Management of Massava Mosaic Diseases

Authors: Samuel E. Okere, Anthony E. Ataga

Abstract:

Introduction: This paper evaluated the mineral compositions, disease resistance elicitors in Pleurotus ostratus (POWESMS), and Pleurotus tuber-regium water extract spent mushroom substrate (PTWESMS) on the growth, yield, and management of cassava mosaic disease. Materials and Methods: The cassava plantlet (tms 98/0505) were generated through meristem tip culture at the Tissue Culture Laboratory, National Root Crop Research Institute, Umudike before they were transferred to the screen house, University of Port Harcourt Research Farm. The minerals and elicitors contained in the two spent mushroom substrates were evaluated using standard procedures. The treatments for this investigation comprised cassava plants treated with POWESMS, PTWESMS, and untreated cassava as control, which were inoculated with viral inoculum seven days after treatment application. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized block design with 3 replicates. The data generated were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). Means were separated using Fishers Least Significant Difference at p=0.05. Results: The results obtained revealed that POWESMS contained 19.3, 0.52, and 0.1g/200g substrate of carbohydrate polymers, glycoproteins, and lipid molecules elicitors respectively while it also contained 3.17, 212.1, 17.9,21.8, 58.8 and 111.0 mg/100g substrate for N, P, K, Na, Mg and Ca respectively. Further, PTWESMS contain 1.6, 0.04, and 0.2g/200g of the substrate as carbohydrate polymers, glycoprotein, and lipid respectively; the minerals contained in this substrate were 3.4, 204.8, 8.9, 24.2, 32.2 and 105.5 mg respectively for N, P, K, Na, and Ca. There were also significant differences in the mean values of the number of storage roots, root length, fresh root weight, fresh weight plant biomass, root girth, and whole plant dry biomass, but no significant difference was recorded for harvest index. The result also revealed significant differences in mean values of disease severity index evaluated at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28 weeks after inoculation (WAI). Conclusion: The aqueous extract of these spent mushrooms substrate have shown outstanding prospect in managing cassava mosaic disease and also improvement in growth and yield of cassava due to the high level of the minerals and elicitors they contain when compared with the control. However, more work is recommended, especially in understanding the mechanism of this induced resistance.

Keywords: Characterization, mushroom, mosaic, elicitors

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1 Characterization of the Microorganisms Associated with Pleurotus ostractus and Pleurotus tuber-Regium Spent Mushroom Substrate

Authors: Samuel E. Okere, Anthony E. Ataga

Abstract:

Introduction: The microbial ecology of Pleurotus osteratus and Pleurotus tuber–regium spent mushroom substrate (SMS) were characterized to determine other ways of its utilization. Materials and Methods: The microbiological properties of the spent mushroom substrate were determined using standard methods. This study was carried out at the Microbiology Laboratory University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Results: Quantitative microbiological analysis revealed that Pleurotus osteratus spent mushroom substrate (POSMS) contained 7.9x10⁵ and 1.2 x10³ cfu/g of total heterotrophic bacteria and total fungi count respectively while Pleurotus tuber-regium spent mushroom substrate (PTSMS) contained 1.38x10⁶ and 9.0 x10² cfu/g of total heterotrophic bacteria count and total fungi count respectively. The fungi species encountered from Pleurotus tuber-regium spent mushroom substrate (PTSMS) include Aspergillus and Cladosporum species, while Aspergillus and Penicillium species were encountered from Pleurotus osteratus spent mushroom substrate (POSMS). However, the bacteria species encountered from Pleurotus tuber-regium spent mushroom substrate include Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Actinobacter, and Pseudomonas species while Bacillus, Actinobacteria, Aeromonas, Lactobacillus and Aerococcus species were encountered from Pleurotus osteratus spent mushroom substrate (POSMS). Conclusion: Therefore based on the findings from this study, it can be concluded that spent mushroom substrate contain microorganisms that can be utilized both in bioremediation of oil-polluted soils as they contain important hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms such as Penicillium, Aspergillus and Bacillus species and also as sources of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Pseudomonas and Bacillus species which can induce resistance on plants. However, further studies are recommended, especially to molecularly characterize these microorganisms.

Keywords: Characterization, Microorganisms, mushroom, spent substrate

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