Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Musculoskeletal Disorders Related Abstracts

17 Model of MSD Risk Assessment at Workplace

Authors: K. Sekulová, M. Šimon


This article focuses on upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders risk assessment model at workplace. In this model are used risk factors that are responsible for musculoskeletal system damage. Based on statistic calculations the model is able to define what risk of MSD threatens workers who are under risk factors. The model is also able to say how MSD risk would decrease if these risk factors are eliminated.

Keywords: Ergonomics, Occupational diseases, Musculoskeletal Disorders, Risk Factors

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16 Development and Validation of Work Movement Task Analysis: Part 1

Authors: Mohd Zubairy Bin Shamsudin


Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorder (WMSDs) is one of the occupational health problems encountered by workers over the world. In Malaysia, there is increasing in trend over the years, particularly in the manufacturing sectors. Current method to observe workplace WMSDs is self-report questionnaire, observation and direct measurement. Observational method is most frequently used by the researcher and practitioner because of the simplified, quick and versatile when it applies to the worksite. However, there are some limitations identified e.g. some approach does not cover a wide spectrum of biomechanics activity and not sufficiently sensitive to assess the actual risks. This paper elucidates the development of Work Movement Task Analysis (WMTA), which is an observational tool for industrial practitioners’ especially untrained personnel to assess WMSDs risk factors and provide a basis for suitable intervention. First stage of the development protocol involved literature reviews, practitioner survey, tool validation and reliability. A total of six themes/comments were received in face validity stage. New revision of WMTA consisted of four sections of postural (neck, back, shoulder, arms, and legs) and associated risk factors; movement, load, coupling and basic environmental factors (lighting, noise, odorless, heat and slippery floor). For inter-rater reliability study shows substantial agreement among rater with K = 0.70. Meanwhile, WMTA validation shows significant association between WMTA score and self-reported pain or discomfort for the back, shoulder&arms and knee&legs with p<0.05. This tool is expected to provide new workplace ergonomic observational tool to assess WMSDs for the next stage of the case study.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Assessment, Musculoskeletal Disorders, observational tools

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15 Work Related and Psychosocial Risk Factors for Musculoskeletal Disorders among Workers in an Automated flexible Assembly Line in India

Authors: Rohin Rameswarapu, Sameer Valsangkar


Background: Globally, musculoskeletal disorders are the largest single cause of work-related illnesses accounting for over 33% of all newly reported occupational illnesses. Risk factors for MSD need to be delineated to suggest means for amelioration. Material and methods: In this current cross-sectional study, the prevalence of MSDs among workers in an electrical company assembly line, the socio-demographic and job characteristics associated with MSD were obtained through a semi-structured questionnaire. A quantitative assessment of the physical risk factors through the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) tool, and measurement of psychosocial risk factors through a Likert scale was obtained. Statistical analysis was conducted using Epi-info software and descriptive and inferential statistics including chi-square and unpaired t test were obtained. Results: A total of 263 workers consented and participated in the study. Among these workers, 200 (76%) suffered from MSD. Most of the workers were aged between 18–27 years and majority of the workers were women with 198 (75.2%) of the 263 workers being women. A chi square test was significant for association between male gender and MSD with a P value of 0.007. Among the MSD positive group, 4 (2%) had a grand score of 5, 10 (5%) had a grand score of 6 and 186 (93%) had a grand score of 7 on RULA. There were significant differences between the non-MSD and MSD group on five out of the seven psychosocial domains, namely job demand, job monotony, co-worker support, decision control and family and environment domains. Discussion: The current cross-sectional study demonstrates a high prevalence of MSD among assembly line works with inherent physical and psychosocial risk factors and recommends that not only physical risk factors, addressing psychosocial risk factors through proper ergonomic means is also essential to the well-being of the employee.

Keywords: Occupational Health, Musculoskeletal Disorders, India, Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA)

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14 Evaluation of Computer Usage and Related Health Hazards

Authors: B. O. Adegoke, B. O. Ola, D. T. Ademiluyi


This paper examines the use of computer and its related health hazard among computer users in South-Western zone of Nigeria. Two hundred and eighteen (218) computer users constituted the population used to evaluate association between posture, extensive computer use and related health hazard. The instruments for the study are a questionnaire on demographics, lifestyle, body features and work ability index while mean rating, standard deviation and t test were used for data analysis. Identified health related hazard include damages to the eyesight, bad posture, arthritis, musculoskeletal disorders, headache, stress and so on. The results showed that factors such as work demand, posture, closeness to computer screen and excessive working hours on computers constitute health hazards in both old and young computer users of various gender. It is therefore recommended that total number of hours spent with computer should be monitored and controlled.

Keywords: Musculoskeletal Disorders, computer-related health hazard, computer usage, work ability index

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13 The Study of Rapid Entire Body Assessment and Quick Exposure Check Correlation in an Engine Oil Company

Authors: Mohammadreza Ashouria, Majid Motamedzadeb


Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) and Quick Exposure Check (QEC) are two general methods to assess the risk factors of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). This study aimed to compare ergonomic risk assessment outputs from QEC and REBA in terms of agreement in distribution of postural loading scores based on analysis of working postures. This cross-sectional study was conducted in an engine oil company in which 40 jobs were studied. A trained occupational health practitioner observed all jobs. Job information was collected to ensure the completion of ergonomic risk assessment tools, including QEC, and REBA. The result revealed that there was a significant correlation between final scores (r=0.731) and the action levels (r =0.893) of two applied methods. Comparison between the action levels and final scores of two methods showed that there was no significant difference among working departments. Most of the studied postures acquired low and moderate risk level in QEC assessment (low risk=20%, moderate risk=50% and High risk=30%) and in REBA assessment (low risk=15%, moderate risk=60% and high risk=25%).There is a significant correlation between two methods. They have a strong correlation in identifying risky jobs and determining the potential risk for incidence of WMSDs. Therefore, there is a possibility for researchers to apply interchangeably both methods, for postural risk assessment in appropriate working environments.

Keywords: Musculoskeletal Disorders, observational method, QEC, REBA

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12 Combination of Work and Family Demands Correlated with the Severity of Wrist Musculoskeletal Disorders among Nurses

Authors: Hsien Hwa Kuo, Lin Wen Chun, Hsien Wen Kuo


Objective: Nurses represent an important occupational group frequently affected by wrist musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) due to a heavy workload, working shifts, poor posture, giving shots, making beds, lifting patients, bending their waist and insufficient rest time every day. However, lack of research reported nurses whether workload in household correlated with the severity of WMSDs. Methods: 550 nurses from a hospital in Taoyuan were interviewed using a modified standardized Nordic Musculoskeletal (NMQ) questionnaire including the demographic information, workplace condition and nine body parts of musculoskeletal disorders. Results: 17.9% and 23.9% of severity and symptoms in WMSDs among nurses with children were significant higher than among nurses without children (1​2.4% and 15.9%). Based on multiple logistic regression models adjusted for age, work duration, job title and body mass index (BMI), we found that heavy workload in hospital had higher odds ratio (OR) of the severity and symptoms of WMSD among nurses with children (OR= 8.67 and OR= 4.30, p<0.05) compared to nurses without children (OR= 1.94 and OR= 1.70). Conclusion: The severity and symptoms of WMSDs among nurses significantly correlated with workload in hospital among nurses with children. If women are at greater risk because of the combination of their work and family demands, synergistic effect of WMSDs was found among nurses. Comment: Women's domestic work, especially once they become mothers, they invest more time and energy caring for children, helping others, and doing housework. Thus domestic work, per se, may be a risk factor for wrist musculoskeletal problems, and, more importantly, it may constrain women's ability to protect themselves from the effects of their paid work. If nurses with more domestic work periodically make efforts to physical activity or modify inappropriate posture, their WMSDs symptoms will be alleviated.

Keywords: Musculoskeletal Disorders, nurse, NMQ, WMSDs

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11 Factors Affecting of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Nurses from a Taiwan Hospital

Authors: Hsien Wen Kuo, Hsien Hua Kuo, Wen Chun Lin, Chia Chi Hsu


Objective: Despite the high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among nurses, which has been consistently observed in the studies of Western countries, very little information regarding intensity of workload and work-related quality of life (WRQOL) related to MSDs among nurses is available in Taiwan. The objective of this study is to investigate the factors affecting musculoskeletal disorders in nurses from a hospital. Methods: 550 nurses from a hospital in Taoyuan were interviewed using a modified standardized Nordic Musculoskeletal (NMQ) questionnaire which contained the demographic information, workplace condition and musculoskeletal disorders. Results: Response rate of nurses were 92.5% from a teaching hospital. Based on medical diagnosis by physician, neck of musculoskeletal disorders had the highest percentage in nine body portions. The higher percentage of musculoskeletal disorders in nurses found from wards of internal and surgery. Severity and symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders diagnosed by self-reported questionnaire significantly correlated with WRQOL, job satisfaction and intensity of workload among nurses based on the logistic regression model. Conclusion: The severity and symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders among nurses showed a dose-dependent with WRQOL and workload. When work characteristics in hospital were modified, the severity of musculoskeletal disorders among nurses will be decreased and alleviated. Comment: Multifaceted ergonomic intervention programme to reduce the prevalence of MSDs among nurses was by encouraging nurses to do more physical activity which will make them more flexible and increase their strength. Therefore, the head nurse should encourage nurses to regularly physical activity and to modify unfitting ergonomic environment in order to reduce the prevalence of MSDs.

Keywords: Musculoskeletal Disorders, nurse, Job Satisfaction, WRQOL

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10 Psychosocial Factors in Relation to Musculoskeletal Disorders among Nursing Professionals in Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Authors: Karwan Khudhir


A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and psychosocial factors associated with it, among Kurdistan nursing professionals. Simple random sampling was used to select 220 nurses and data were collected by self-administrative questionnaire. Results of the study showed that the overall prevalence of MSDs among Kurdistan nurses was 74% in different body regions and, by body regions, neck pain was reported to be the highest complaint of twelve-month MSDs (48.4%) compared to other body parts. Logistic regression analysis indicated 6 variables that are significantly associated with musculoskeletal disorders: smoking (OR=19.472, 95% CI: 5.396, 70.273), BMI (OR= 5.106, 95% CI: 1.735, 15.025), physical activity (OR=8.639, 95% CI: 3.075, 24.271), psychological demand (OR=6.685, 95% CI: 3.318, 13.468), social support (OR=3.143, 95% CI: 1.202, 4.814) and job satisfaction (OR=2.44, 95% CI: 1.04, 5.63). Prevention strategies and health education which emphasizes on psychosocial risk factors and how to improve working conditions should be introduced.

Keywords: Musculoskeletal Disorders, Nurses, Iraq, Kurdistan Region, psycho-social factors

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9 The Effectiveness of Exercise Therapy on Decreasing Pain in Women with Temporomandibular Disorders and How Their Brains Respond: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Vaishali Sharma, Zenah Gheblawi, Susan Armijo-Olivo, Elisa B. Pelai, Musa Tashfeen, Angela Fung, Francisca Claveria


Due to physiological differences between men and women, pain is experienced differently between the two sexes. Chronic pain disorders, notably temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), disproportionately affect women in diagnosis, and pain severity in opposition of their male counterparts. TMDs are a type of musculoskeletal disorder that target the masticatory muscles, temporalis muscle, and temporomandibular joints, causing considerable orofacial pain which can usually be referred to the neck and back. Therapeutic methods are scarce, and are not TMD-centered, with the latest research suggesting that subjects with chronic musculoskeletal pain disorders have abnormal alterations in the grey matter of their brains which can be remedied with exercise, and thus, decreasing the pain experienced. The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of exercise therapy in TMD female patients experiencing chronic jaw pain and to assess the consequential effects on brain activity. In a randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of an exercise program to improve brain alterations and clinical outcomes in women with TMD pain will be tested. Women with chronic TMD pain will be randomized to either an intervention arm or a placebo control group. Women in the intervention arm will receive 8 weeks of progressive exercise of motor control training using visual feedback (MCTF) of the cervical muscles, twice per week. Women in the placebo arm will receive innocuous transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation during 8 weeks as well. The primary outcomes will be changes in 1) pain, measured with the Visual Analogue Scale, 2) brain structure and networks, measured by fractional anisotropy (brain structure) and the blood-oxygen level dependent signal (brain networks). Outcomes will be measured at baseline, after 8 weeks of treatment, and 4 months after treatment ends and will determine effectiveness of MCTF in managing TMD, through improved clinical outcomes. Results will directly inform and guide clinicians in prescribing more effective interventions for women with TMD. This study is underway, and no results are available at this point. The results of this study will have substantial implications on the advancement in understanding the scope of plasticity the brain has in regards with pain, and how it can be used to improve the treatment and pain of women with TMD, and more generally, other musculoskeletal disorders.

Keywords: Physical Therapy, Rehabilitation, Musculoskeletal Disorders, exercise therapy, tempomandibular disorders

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8 Detection of Biomechanical Stress for the Prevention of Disability Derived from Musculoskeletal Disorders

Authors: Leydi Noemi Peraza Gómez, Jose Álvarez Nemegyei, Damaris Francis Estrella Castillo


In order to have an epidemiological tool to detect biomechanical stress (ERGO-Mex), which impose physical labor or recreational activities, a questionnaire is constructed in Spanish, validated and culturally adapted to the Mayan indigenous population of Yucatan. Through the seven steps proposed by Guillemin and Beaton the procedure was: initial translation, synthesis of the translations, feed back of the translation. After that review by a committee of experts, pre-test of the preliminary version, and presentation of the results to the committee of experts and members of the community. Finally the evaluation of its internal validity (Cronbach's α coefficient) and external (intraclass correlation coefficient). The results for the validation in Spanish indicated that 45% of the participants have biomechanical stress. The ERGO-Mex correlation was 0.69 (p <0.0001). Subjects with high biomechanical stress had a higher score than subjects with low biomechanical stress (17.4 ± 8.9 vs.9.8 ± 2.8, p = 0.003). The Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.92; and for validation in Cronbach's α maya it was 0.82 and CCI = 0.70 (95% CI: 0.58-0.79; p˂0.0001); ERGO-Mex is suitable for performing early detection of musculoskeletal diseases and helping to prevent disability.

Keywords: Prevention, Disability, Musculoskeletal Disorders, biomechanical stress

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7 Assessment of Work Postures and Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders among Diamond Polishers in Botswana: A Case Study

Authors: Oanthata Jester Sealetsa, Richie Moalosi


Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) are reported to be amongst the leading contributing factors of low productivity in many industries across the world, and the most affected being New Emerging Economies (NEC) such as Botswana. This is due to lack of expertise and resources to deal with existing ergonomics challenges. This study was aimed to evaluate occupational postures and the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among diamond polishers in a diamond company in Botswana. A case study was conducted with about 106 diamond polishers in Gaborone, Botswana. A case study was chosen because it can investigate and explore an issue thoroughly and deeply, and record behaviour over time so changes in behaviour can be identified. The Corlett and Bishop Body Map was used to determine frequency of MSDs symptoms in different body parts of the workers. This was then followed by the use of the Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) to evaluate the occupational postural risks of MSDs. Descriptive statistics, chi square, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. The results of the study reveal that workers experienced pain in the upper back, lower back, shoulders, neck, and wrists with the most pain reported in the upper back (44.6%) and lower back (44.2%). However, the mean REBA score of 6.07 suggests that sawing, bruiting and polishing were the most dangerous processes in diamond polishing. The study recommends that a redesign of the diamond polishing workstations is necessary to accommodate the anthropometry characteristic of Batswana (people from Botswana) to prevent the development of MSDs.

Keywords: Ergonomics, Assessment, Musculoskeletal Disorders, Botswana, diamond polishing, occupational postural risks

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6 The Relationship between Functional Movement Screening Test and Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Emergency Nurse and Emergency Medical Services Staff Shiraz, Iran, 2017

Authors: Akram Sadat Jafari Roodbandi, Vafa Feyzi, Alireza Choobineh, Nazanin Hosseini


Introduction: Physical fitness and optimum functional movement are essential for efficiently performing job tasks without fatigue and injury. Functional Movement Screening (FMS) tests are used in screening of athletes and military forces. Nurses and emergency medical staff are obliged to perform many physical activities such as transporting patients, CPR operations, etc. due to the nature of their jobs. This study aimed to assess relationship between FMS test score and the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in emergency nurses and emergency medical services (EMS) staff. Methods: 134 male and female emergency nurses and EMS technicians participated in this cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study. After video tutorial and practical training of how to do FMS test, the participants carried out the test while they were wearing comfortable clothes. The final score of the FMS test ranges from 0 to 21. The score of 14 is considered weak in the functional movement base on FMS test protocol. In addition to the demographic data questionnaire, the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire was also completed for each participant. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis with a significance level of 0.05. Results: Totally, 49.3% (n=66) of the subjects were female. The mean age and work experience of the subjects were 35.3 ± 8.7 and 11.4 ± 7.7, respectively. The highest prevalence of MSDs was observed at the knee and lower back with 32.8% (n=44) and 23.1% (n=31), respectively. 26 (19.4%) health worker had FMS test score of 14 and less. The results of the Spearman correlation test showed that the FMS test score was significantly associated with MSDs (r=-0.419, p < 0.0001). It meant that MSDs increased with the decrease of the FMS test score. Age, sex, and MSDs were the remaining significant factors in linear regression logistic model with dependent variable of FMS test score. Conclusion: FMS test seems to be a usable screening tool in pre-employment and periodic medical tests for occupations that require physical fitness and optimum functional movements.

Keywords: Musculoskeletal Disorders, health care worker, functional movement, screening test

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5 Musculoskeletal Disorders among Employees of an Assembly Industrial Workshop: Biomechanical Constrain’s Semi-Quantitative Analysis

Authors: Lamia Bouzgarrou, Amira Omrane, Salma Kammoun, Haithem Kalel


Background: During recent decades, mechanical and electrical industrial sector has greatly expanded with a significant employability potential. However, this sector faces the increasing prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders with heavy consequences associated with direct and indirect costs. Objective: The current intervention was motivated by large musculoskeletal upper limbs and back disorders frequency among the operators of an assembly workshop in a leader company specialized in sanitary equipment and water and gas connections. We aimed to identify biomechanical constraints among these operators through activity and biomechanical exposures semi-quantitative analysis based on video recordings and MUSKA-TMS software. Methods: We conducted, open observations and exploratory interviews at first, in order to overall understand work situation. Then, we analyzed operator’s activity through systematic observations and interviews. Finally, we conducted a semi-quantitative biomechanical constraints analysis with MUSKA-TMS software after representative activity period video recording. The assessment of biomechanical constrains was based on different criteria; biomechanical characteristics (work positions), aggravating factor (cold, vibration, stress, etc.) and exposure time (duration and frequency of solicitations, recovery phase); with a synthetic score of risk level variable from 1 to 4 (1: low risk of developing MSD and 4: high risk). Results: Semi-quantitative analysis objective many elementary operations with higher biomechanical constrains like high repetitiveness, insufficient recovery time and constraining angulation of shoulders, wrists and cervical spine. Among these risky elementary operations we sited the assembly of sleeve with the body, the assembly of axis, and the control on testing table of gas valves. Transformation of work situations were recommended, covering both the redevelopment of industrial areas and the integration of new tools and equipment of mechanical handling that reduces operator exposure to vibration. Conclusion: Musculoskeletal disorders are complex and costly disorders. Moreover, an approach centered on the observation of the work can promote the interdisciplinary dialogue and exchange between actors with the objective to maximize the performance of a company and improve the quality of life of operators.

Keywords: Ergonomics, Musculoskeletal Disorders, biomechanical constrains, semi-quantitative analysis

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4 The Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Their Associated Factors among Nurses in Jordan

Authors: Khader A. Almhdawi, Hassan Alrabbaie


Background: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) represent a significant challenge for registered nurses. To our best knowledge, there is no published study that investigated the prevalence of MSDs among nurses and their associated factors comprehensively in Jordan. This study aimed to find the prevalence of MSDs, their possible predictors among registered nurses in Jordanian hospitals. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used. Outcome measures included Nordic Musculoskeletal Questioner (NMQ), Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), IPAQ, and sociodemographic data. Prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints was reported using descriptive analysis. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors of MSDs. Results: 597 nurses from different hospitals in Jordan participated in this study. Reported MSDs prevalence was the highest at neck (61.1%), followed by upper back (47.2%), shoulder (46.7%), wrist and hands (27.3%), and elbow (13.9%). Significant predictors of MSDs among Jordanian nurses included: being a female, poor sleep quality, high physical activity levels, poor ergonomics, increased workload, and mental stress. Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of MSDs among Jordanian nurses and identified their significant predictors. Future studies are needed to investigate the progressive nature of MSDs and their effective treatment strategies.

Keywords: Nursing, Musculoskeletal Disorders, Occupational Stress, ergonomic

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3 Real-Time Kinetic Analysis of Labor-Intensive Repetitive Tasks Using Depth-Sensing Camera

Authors: Sudip Subedi, Nipesh Pradhananga


The musculoskeletal disorders, also known as MSDs, are common in construction workers. MSDs include lower back injuries, knee injuries, spinal injuries, and joint injuries, among others. Since most construction tasks are still manual, construction workers often need to perform repetitive, labor-intensive tasks. And they need to stay in the same or an awkward posture for an extended time while performing such tasks. It induces significant stress to the joints and spines, increasing the risk of getting into MSDs. Manual monitoring of such tasks is virtually impossible with the handful of safety managers in a construction site. This paper proposes a methodology for performing kinetic analysis of the working postures while performing such tasks in real-time. Skeletal of different workers will be tracked using a depth-sensing camera while performing the task to create training data for identifying the best posture. For this, the kinetic analysis will be performed using a human musculoskeletal model in an open-source software system (OpenSim) to visualize the stress induced by essential joints. The “safe posture” inducing lowest stress on essential joints will be computed for different actions involved in the task. The identified “safe posture” will serve as a basis for real-time monitoring and identification of awkward and unsafe postural behaviors of construction workers. Besides, the temporal simulation will be carried out to find the associated long-term effect of repetitive exposure to such observed postures. This will help to create awareness in workers about potential future health hazards and encourage them to work safely. Furthermore, the collected individual data can then be used to provide need-based personalized training to the construction workers.

Keywords: Musculoskeletal Disorders, Real Time Monitoring, construction workers’ safety, depth sensing camera, human body kinetics, repetitive labor-intensive tasks

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2 Real-World Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Nigeria

Authors: F. Fatoye, C. E. Mbada, T. Gebrye, A. O. Ogunsola, C. Fatoye, O. Oyewole


Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a major cause of pain and disability. It is likely to become a greater economic and public health burden that is unnecessary. Thus, reliable prevalence figures are important for both clinicians and policy-makers to plan health care needs for those affected with the disease. This study estimated hospital based real-world prevalence of MSDs in Nigeria. A review of medical charts for adult patients attending Physiotherapy Outpatient Clinic at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Osun State, Nigeria between 2009 and 2018 was carried out to identify common MSDs including low back pain (LBP), cervical spondylosis (CSD), post immobilization stiffness (PIS), sprain, osteoarthritis (OA), and other conditions. Occupational class of the patients was determined using the International Labour Classification (ILO). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics of frequency and percentages. Overall, medical charts of 3,340 patients were reviewed within the span of ten years (2009 to 2018). Majority of the patients (62.8%) were in the middle class, and the remaining were in low class (25.1%) and high class (10.5%) category. An overall prevalence of 47.35% of MSD was found within the span of ten years. Of this, the prevalence of LBP, CSD, PIS, sprain, OA, and other conditions was 21.6%, 10%, 18.9%, 2%, 6.3%, and 41.3%, respectively. The highest (14.2%) and lowest (10.5%) prevalence of MSDs was recorded in the year of 2012 and 2018, respectively. The prevalence of MSDs is considerably high among Nigerian patients attending outpatient a physiotherapy clinic. The high prevalence of MSDs underscores the need for clinicians and decision makers to put in place appropriate strategies to reduce the prevalence of these conditions. In addition, they should plan and evaluate healthcare services to improve the health outcomes of patients with MSDs. Further studies are required to determine the economic burden of the condition and examine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of physiotherapy interventions for patients with MSDs.

Keywords: Musculoskeletal Disorders, Prevalence, Nigeria, real world

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1 Real-World Economic Burden of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Nigeria

Authors: F. Fatoye, C. E. Mbada, T. Gebrye, A. O. Ogunsola, C. Fatoye, O. Oyewole


Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) such as low back pain (LBP), cervical spondylosis (CSPD), sprain, osteoarthritis (OA), and post immobilization stiffness (PIS) have a major impact on individuals, health systems and society in terms of morbidity, long-term disability, and economics. This study estimated the direct and indirect costs of common MSDs in Osun State, Nigeria. A review of medical charts for adult patients attending Physiotherapy Outpatient Clinic at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Osun State, Nigeria between 2009 and 2018 was carried out. The occupational class of the patients was determined using the International Labour Classification (ILO). The direct and indirect costs were estimated using a cost-of-illness approach. Physiotherapy related health resource use, and costs of the common MSDs, including consultation fee, total fee charge per session, costs of consumables were estimated. Data were summarised using descriptive statistics mean and standard deviation (SD). Overall, 1582 (Male = 47.5%, Female = 52.5%) patients with MSDs population with a mean age of 47.8 ± 25.7 years participated in this study. The mean (SD) direct costs estimate for LBP, CSPD, PIS, sprain, OA, and other conditions were $18.35 ($17.33), $34.76 ($17.33), $32.13 ($28.37), $35.14 ($44.16), $37.19 ($41.68), and $15.74 ($13.96), respectively. The mean (SD) indirect costs estimate of LBP, CSPD, PIS, sprain, OA, and other MSD conditions were $73.42 ($43.54), $140.57 ($69.31), $128.52 ($113.46), sprain $140.57 ($69.31), $148.77 ($166.71), and $62.98 ($55.84), respectively. Musculoskeletal disorders contribute a substantial economic burden to individuals with the condition and society. The unacceptable economic loss of MSDs should be reduced using appropriate strategies. Further research is required to determine the clinical and cost effectiveness of strategies to improve health outcomes of patients with MSDs. The findings of the present study may assist health policy and decision makers to understand the economic burden of MSDs and facilitate efficient allocation of healthcare resources to alleviate the burden associated with these conditions in Nigeria.

Keywords: low back pain, Musculoskeletal Disorders, economic burden, real-world

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