Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

municipal solid waste Related Abstracts

18 Municipal Solid Waste Management Characteristics and Management Challenges in Bauchi Metropolitan Area, Nigeria

Authors: Haruna Abdu Usman, Bashir Usman Mohammed, Mohammed Umar Jamil


Municipal solid waste management constitutes a serious problem bedeviling environmental protection agencies in many cities of developing countries. Most agencies do not collect the totality of the waste generated in their cities. This study presents the current solid waste management practices and problems in Bauchi metropolis, Bauchi state Nigeria. The general feature is characterized by inefficient, insufficient and irrational collection and improper disposal alternatives. The consequent environmental effects of these problems depict clogged city drains, uncollected heap of waste on road sides of residential areas, vacant plots and uncompleted buildings and highways. This contributes immensely to flooding in the city. The major challenges facing the state environmental protection agency includes; lack of collection and disposal points, technical and institutional arrangements, financial resources and general attitude of the serving public among others. The study suggested a comprehensive and integrated approach to the solid waste management which recognizes and incorporates the interventionist role of the state government, the private formal and informal waste management operators and the serving public.

Keywords: Solid waste management, Waste Disposal, environmental protection agency, municipal solid waste, bauchi metropolitan area

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17 The Implementation of Incineration for Waste Reduction

Authors: Kong Wing Man


The purpose of this paper is to review the waste generation and management in different parts of the world. It is undeniable that waste generation and management has become an alarming environmental issue. Solid waste generation links inextricably to the degree of industrialization and economic development. Urbanization increases with the economic wealth of the countries. As the income of people and standard of living enhances, so does their consumption of goods and services, leading to a corresponding increase in waste generation. Based on the latest statistics from What A Waste Report published by World Bank (2012), it is estimated that the current global Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation levels are about 1.3 billion tonnes per year (1.2 kg per capita per day). By 2050, it is projected that the waste generation will be doubled. Although many waste collection practices have been implemented in various countries, the amount of waste generation keeps increasing. An integrated solid waste management is needed in order to reduce the continuous significant increase in waste generation rates. Although many countries have introduced and implemented the 3Rs strategy and landfill, however, these are only the ways to diverse waste, but cannot reduce the volume. Instead, the advanced thermal treatment technology, incineration, can reduce up to 90% volume of disposed waste prior to dispose at landfills is discussed. Sweden and Tokyo were chosen as case studies, which provide an overview of the municipal solid waste management system. With the condition of escalating amount of wastes generated, it is crucial to build incinerators to relief pressing needs of landfill. Two solutions are proposed to minimize waste generation, including one incineration in one city and several small incinerators in different cities. While taking into consideration of a sustainable model and the perspectives of all stakeholders, building several incinerators at different cities and different sizes would be the best option to reduce waste. Overall, the solution to the global solid waste management should be a holistic approach with the involvement of both government and citizens.

Keywords: Incineration, Thermal treatment, municipal solid waste, waste generation

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16 Use of Fault Tree Analysis for Technical Assessment of Waste-to-Energy Plants

Authors: Ying-Chu Chen


Waste to energy (WTE) technology is becoming increasingly important throughout the world. There are 24 WTE plants in operation in Taiwan that might be ranked the top in density (number of MSW incinerators/area) in the world. Many problems exist in WTE plants, such as low-quality construction, leakage of pipelines, irregular feedings, and lack of maintenance. These problems should be identified and analyzed for effective implementation and efficient operation of WTE plants. This research applies a fault tree analysis (FTA) to identify failures and evaluate their effects on the operation of WTE plants from a technical point of view. Five subsystems of a WTE plant were defined, including loading system, incineration system, effluent disposal system, structural components, and control system. This research results proved that FTA is suitable for WTE evaluation and is an effective analysis tool for technical evaluation in the field of WTE technology.

Keywords: Waste to Energy, municipal solid waste, delphi method, fault tree approach, WTE

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15 Municipal Solid Waste Generation Trend in the Metropolitan Cities of the Muslim World

Authors: Farzaneh Fakheri Raof, Abdolkhalegh vadian


One of the most important environmental issues in developing countries is municipal solid waste management. In this context, knowledge of the quantity and composition of solid waste provides the basic information for the optimal management of solid waste. Many studies have been conducted to investigate the impact of economic, social and cultural factors on generation trend of solid waste, however, few of these have addressed the role of religion in the matter. The present study is a field investigation on generation trend of solid waste in Mashhad, a metropolitan city in northeastern Iran. Accordingly, the religious rituals, quantity and composition of municipal solid waste were considered as independent and dependent variables, respectively. For this purpose, the quantity of the solid waste was initially determined. Afterwards, they were classified into 12 groups using the relevant standard methods. The results showed that the production rate of the municipal solid waste was 1,507 tons per day. Composing 65.2% of the whole; the organic materials constitute the largest share of the total municipal solid waste in Mashhad. The obtained results also revealed that there is a positive relationship between waste generation and the months of religious ceremonies so that the greatest amount of waste generated in the city was reported from Ramadan (as a religious month) in a way that it was significantly different from other months.

Keywords: Organic Waste, Mashhad, municipal solid waste, waste composition, religious months

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14 A Case Study at Lara's Landfill: Solid Waste Management and Energy Recovery

Authors: Kelly Danielly Da Silva Alcantara, Daniel Fernando Molina Junqueira, Graziella Colato Antonio


The Law No. 12,305/10, established by the National Solid Waste Policy (PNRS), provides major changes in the management and managing scenario of solid waste in Brazil. The PNRS established since changes from population behavior as environmental and the consciousness and commitment of the companies with the waste produced. The objective of this project is to conduct a benchmarking study of the management models of Waste Management Municipal Solid (MSW) in national and international levels emphasizing especially in the European Union (Portugal, France and Germany), which are reference countries in energy development, sustainability and consequently recovery of waste generated. The management that encompasses all stages that are included in this sector will be analyzed by benchmarking, as the collection, transportation, processing/treatment and final disposal of waste. Considering the needs to produce clean energy in Brazil, this study will allow the determination to the best treatment of the waste in order to reduce the amount of waste and increase the lifetime of the landfill. Finally, it intends to identify the energy recovery potential through a study analysis of economic viability, energy and sustainable based on a holistic approach.

Keywords: Benchmarking, Landfill, energy recovery, municipal solid waste

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13 Characterization and the Study of Energy Potential of Municipal Solid Waste Disposed in Bauchi Town and Environs

Authors: Aliyu Mohammed Lawal, Dahiru Yau Gital


The characterisation and the energy potential of the municipal solid wastes in Bauchi town and environs were studied. It was found that, 35,000 tonnes of waste was generated annually at 0.19 kg/capital/day of which, the combination of plastics, rubber, polyethene bags constituted about 33%, followed by textile materials, leathers, wood 26%, combination of papers, cartons 19%, crop stalks/grass 11% and the remaining incombustible materials 11%. The heating value or calorific value of the wastes was determined using a digital calorimeter to be 6.43 MJ/kg, almost one-third of the energy content of peat which has a value of 15.9 MJ/kg. The calorific value of the fuel was found to be significant; hence, the waste could be used for energy generation.

Keywords: Characterization, calorific value, municipal solid waste, digital calorimeter, incombustible

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12 Method of Estimating Absolute Entropy of Municipal Solid Waste

Authors: Francis Chinweuba Eboh, Peter Ahlström, Tobias Richards


Entropy, as an outcome of the second law of thermodynamics, measures the level of irreversibility associated with any process. The identification and reduction of irreversibility in the energy conversion process helps to improve the efficiency of the system. The entropy of pure substances known as absolute entropy is determined at an absolute reference point and is useful in the thermodynamic analysis of chemical reactions; however, municipal solid waste (MSW) is a structurally complicated material with unknown absolute entropy. In this work, an empirical model to calculate the absolute entropy of MSW based on the content of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, and chlorine on a dry ash free basis (daf) is presented. The proposed model was derived from 117 relevant organic substances which represent the main constituents in MSW with known standard entropies using statistical analysis. The substances were divided into different waste fractions; namely, food, wood/paper, textiles/rubber and plastics waste and the standard entropies of each waste fraction and for the complete mixture were calculated. The correlation of the standard entropy of the complete waste mixture derived was found to be somsw= 0.0101C + 0.0630H + 0.0106O + 0.0108N + 0.0155S + 0.0084Cl ( and the present correlation can be used for estimating the absolute entropy of MSW by using the elemental compositions of the fuel within the range of 10.3%  C 95.1%, 0.0%  H  14.3%, 0.0%  O  71.1%, 0.0  N  66.7%, 0.0%  S  42.1%, 0.0%  Cl  89.7%. The model is also applicable for the efficient modelling of a combustion system in a waste-to-energy plant.

Keywords: waste-to-energy, Irreversibility, municipal solid waste, absolute entropy

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11 Sustainable Recycling Practices to Reduce Health Hazards of Municipal Solid Waste in Patna, India

Authors: Papia Raj, Anupama Singh


Though Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is a worldwide problem, yet its implications are enormous in developing countries, as they are unable to provide proper Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) for the large volume of MSW. As a result, the collected wastes are dumped in open dumping at landfilling sites while the uncollected wastes remain strewn on the roadside, many-a-time clogging drainage. Such unsafe and inadequate management of MSW causes various public health hazards. For example, MSW directly on contact or by leachate contaminate the soil, surface water, and ground water; open burning causes air pollution; anaerobic digestion between the piles of MSW enhance the greenhouse gases i.e., carbon dioxide and methane (CO2 and CH4) into the atmosphere. Moreover, open dumping can cause spread of vector borne disease like cholera, typhoid, dysentery, and so on. Patna, the capital city of Bihar, one of the most underdeveloped provinces in India, is a unique representation of this situation. Patna has been identified as the ‘garbage city’. Over the last decade there has been an exponential increase in the quantity of MSW generation in Patna. Though a large proportion of such MSW is recyclable in nature, only a negligible portion is recycled. Plastic constitutes the major chunk of the recyclable waste. The chemical composition of plastic is versatile consisting of toxic compounds, such as, plasticizers, like adipates and phthalates. Pigmented plastic is highly toxic and it contains harmful metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cobalt, selenium, and cadmium. Human population becomes vulnerable to an array of health problems as they are exposed to these toxic chemicals multiple times a day through air, water, dust, and food. Based on analysis of health data it can be emphasized that in Patna there has been an increase in the incidence of specific diseases, such as, diarrhoea, dysentry, acute respiratory infection (ARI), asthma, and other chronic respiratory diseases (CRD). This trend can be attributed to improper MSWM. The results were reiterated through a survey (N=127) conducted during 2014-15 in selected areas of Patna. Random sampling method of data collection was used to better understand the relationship between different variables affecting public health due to exposure to MSW and lack of MSWM. The results derived through bivariate and logistic regression analysis of the survey data indicate that segregation of wastes at source, segregation behavior, collection bins in the area, distance of collection bins from residential area, and transportation of MSW are the major determinants of public health issues. Sustainable recycling is a robust method for MSWM with its pioneer concerns being environment, society, and economy. It thus ensures minimal threat to environment and ecology consequently improving public health conditions. Hence, this paper concludes that sustainable recycling would be the most viable approach to manage MSW in Patna and would eventually reduce public health hazards.

Keywords: Public Health, municipal solid waste, Patna, sustainable recycling

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10 Estimation and Utilization of Landfill Gas from Egyptian Municipal Waste: A Case Study

Authors: Ali A. Hashim Habib, Ahmed A. Abdel-Rehim


Assuredly, massive amounts of wastes that are not utilized and dumped in uncontrolled dumpsites will be one of the major sources of diseases, fires, and emissions. With easy steps and minimum effort, energy can be produced from these gases. The present work introduces an experimental and theoretical analysis to estimate the amount of landfill gas and the corresponding energy which can be produced based on actual Egyptian municipal wastes composition. Two models were utilized and compared, EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) model and CDM (Clean Development Mechanisms) model to estimate methane generation rates and total CH4 emissions based on a particular landfill. The results showed that for every ton of municipal waste, 140 m3 of landfill gas can be produced. About 800 kW of electricity for a minimum of 24 years can be generated form one million ton of municipal waste. A total amount of 549,025 ton of carbon emission can be avoided during these 24 years.

Keywords: Renewable Energy Sources, municipal solid waste, energy from landfill gases, landfill biogas, methane emission

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9 Water Re-Use Optimization in a Sugar Platform Biorefinery Using Municipal Solid Waste

Authors: Charles Banks, Sonia Heaven, Leo Paul Vaurs


Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a virtually unlimited source of lignocellulosic material in the form of a waste paper/cardboard mixture which can be converted into fermentable sugars via cellulolytic enzyme hydrolysis in a biorefinery. The extraction of the lignocellulosic fraction and its preparation, however, are energy and water demanding processes. The waste water generated is a rich organic liquor with a high Chemical Oxygen Demand that can be partially cleaned while generating biogas in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket bioreactor and be further re-used in the process. In this work, an experiment was designed to determine the critical contaminant concentrations in water affecting either anaerobic digestion or enzymatic hydrolysis by simulating multiple water re-circulations. It was found that re-using more than 16.5 times the same water could decrease the hydrolysis yield by up to 65 % and led to a complete granules desegregation. Due to the complexity of the water stream, the contaminant(s) responsible for the performance decrease could not be identified but it was suspected to be caused by sodium, potassium, lipid accumulation for the anaerobic digestion (AD) process and heavy metal build-up for enzymatic hydrolysis. The experimental data were incorporated into a Water Pinch technology based model that was used to optimize the water re-utilization in the modelled system to reduce fresh water requirement and wastewater generation while ensuring all processes performed at optimal level. Multiple scenarios were modelled in which sub-process requirements were evaluated in term of importance, operational costs and impact on the CAPEX. The best compromise between water usage, AD and enzymatic hydrolysis yield was determined for each assumed contaminant degradations by anaerobic granules. Results from the model will be used to build the first MSW based biorefinery in the USA.

Keywords: Anaerobic Digestion, Enzymatic Hydrolysis, municipal solid waste, water optimization

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8 Management Options and Life Cycle Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste in Madinah, KSA

Authors: Abdelkader T. Ahmed, Ayed E. Alluqmani


The population growth in the KSA beside the increase in the urbanization level and standard of living improvement have resulted in the rapid growth of the country’s Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation. Municipalities are managing the MSW system in the KSA by collecting and getting rid of it by dumping it in nearest open landfill sites. Solid waste management is one of the main critical issues considered worldwide due to its significant impact on the environment and the public health. In this study, municipal solid waste (MSW) generation, composition and collection of Madinah city, as one of largest cities in KSA, were examined to provide an overview of current state of MSW management, an analysis of existing problem in MSW management, and recommendations for improving the waste treatment and management system in this area. These recommendations would be not specific to Madinah region, but also would be applied to other cities in KSA or any other regions with similar features. The trend of waste generation showed that current waste generation would be increased as much as two to three folds in 2030. Approximately 25% of total generated waste is disposed to a sanitary landfill, while 75% is sent to normal dumpsites. This study also investigated the environmental impacts of MSW through the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of waste generations and related processes. LCA results revealed that among the seven scenarios, recycling and composting are the best scenario for the solid waste management in Madinah and similar regions.

Keywords: Waste Management, Life Cycle Assessment, municipal solid waste, waste recycling and land-filling

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7 Management of Municipal Solid Waste in Baghdad, Iraq

Authors: Ayad Sleibi Mustafa, Ahmed Abdulkadhim Mohsin, Layth Noori Ali


The deterioration of solid waste management in Baghdad city is considered as a great challenge in terms of human health and environment. Baghdad city is divided into thirteen districts which are distributed on both Tigris River banks. The west bank is Al-Karkh and the east bank is Al-Rusafa. Municipal Solid Waste Management is one of the most complicated problems facing the environment in Iraq. Population growth led to increase waste production and more load of the waste to the limited capacity infrastructure. The problems of municipal solid waste become more serious after the war in 2003. More waste is disposed in underground landfills in Baghdad with little or no concern for both human health and environment. The results showed that the total annually predicted solid waste is increasing for the period 2015-2030. Municipal solid waste in 2030 will be 6,427,773 tons in Baghdad city according to the population growth rate of 2.4%. This increase is estimated to be approximately 30%.

Keywords: Environment, Human Health, municipal solid waste, solid waste composition and characteristics, Baghdad city

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6 Sustainable Solid Waste Management Solutions for Asian Countries Using the Potential in Municipal Solid Waste of Indian Cities

Authors: Priyanka Kaushal, S. H. Babu Gurucharan


Majority of the world's population is expected to live in the Asia and Pacific region by 2050 and thus their cities will generate the maximum waste. India, being the second populous country in the world, is an ideal case study to identify a solution for Asian countries. Waste minimisation and utilisation have always been part of the Indian culture. During rapid urbanisation, our society lost the art of waste minimisation and utilisation habits. Presently, Waste is not considered as a resource, thus wasting an opportunity to tap resources. The technologies in vogue are not suited for effective treatment of large quantities of generated solid waste, without impacting the environment and the population. If not treated efficiently, Waste can become a silent killer. The article is trying to highlight the Indian municipal solid waste scenario as a key indicator of Asian waste management and recommend sustainable waste management and suggest effective solutions to treat the Solid Waste. The methods followed during the research were to analyse the solid waste data on characteristics of solid waste generated in Indian cities, then evaluate the current technologies to identify the most suitable technology in Indian conditions with minimal environmental impact, interact with the technology technical teams, then generate a technical process specific to Indian conditions and further examining the environmental impact and advantages/ disadvantages of the suggested process. The most important finding from the study was the recognition that most of the current municipal waste treatment technologies being employed, operate sub-optimally in Indian conditions. Therefore, the study using the available data, generated heat and mass balance of processes to arrive at the final technical process, which was broadly divided into Waste processing, Waste Treatment, Power Generation, through various permutations and combinations at each stage to ensure that the process is techno-commercially viable in Indian conditions. Then environmental impact was arrived through secondary sources and a comparison of environmental impact of different technologies was tabulated. The major advantages of the suggested process are the effective use of waste for resource generation both in terms of maximised power output or conversion to eco-friendly products like biofuels or chemicals using advanced technologies, minimum environmental impact and the least landfill requirement. The major drawbacks are the capital, operations and maintenance costs. The existing technologies in use in Indian municipalities have their own limitations and the shortlisted technology is far superior to other technologies in vogue. Treatment of Municipal Solid Waste with an efficient green power generation is possible through a combination of suitable environment-friendly technologies. A combination of bio-reactors and plasma-based gasification technology is most suitable for Indian Waste and in turn for Asian waste conditions.

Keywords: Landfill, Gas Fermentation, calorific value, municipal solid waste, syngas, plasma gasification

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5 A Method Development for Improving the Efficiency of Solid Waste Collection System Using Network Analyst

Authors: Dhvanidevi N. Jadeja, Daya S. Kaul, Anurag A. Kandya


Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) collection in a city is performed in less effective manner which results in the poor management of the environment and natural resources. Municipal corporation does not possess efficient waste management and recycling programs because of the complex task involving many factors. Solid waste collection system depends upon various factors such as manpower, number and size of vehicles, transfer station size, dustbin size and weight, on-road traffic, and many others. These factors affect the collection cost, energy and overall municipal tax for the city. Generally, different types of waste are scattered throughout the city in a heterogeneous way that poses changes for efficient collection of solid waste. Efficient waste collection and transportation strategy must be effectively undertaken which will include optimization of routes, volume of waste, and manpower. Being these optimized, the overall cost can be reduced as the fuel and energy requirements would be less and also the municipal waste taxes levied will be less. To carry out the optimization study of collection system various data needs to be collected from the Ahmedabad municipal corporation such as amount of waste generated per day, number of workers, collection schedule, road maps, number of transfer station, location of transfer station, number of equipment (tractors, machineries), number of zones, route of collection etc. The ArcGis Network Analyst is introduced for the best routing identification applied in municipal waste collection. The simulation consists of scenarios of visiting loading spots in the municipality of Ahmedabad, considering dynamic factors like network traffic changes, closed roads due to natural or technical causes. Different routes were selected in a particular area of Ahmedabad city, and present routes were optimized to reduce the length of the routes, by using ArcGis Network Analyst. The result indicates up to 35% length minimization in the routes.

Keywords: Optimization, Efficiency, municipal solid waste, collection routes

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4 A Preliminary End-Point Approach for Calculating Odorous Emissions in Life Cycle Assessment

Authors: A. M. Ferrari, M. Pini, G. M. Cappucci, C. Losi, P. Neri


Waste treatment and many production processes cause significant emissions of odors, thus typically leading to intense debate. The introduction of odorimetric units and their units of measurement, i.e., U.O. / m3, with the European regulation UE 13725 of 2003 designates the dynamic olfactometry as the official method for odorimetric analysis. Italy has filled the pre-existing legislative gap on the regulation of odorous emissions only recently, by introducing the Legislative Decree n°183 in 2017. The concentration of the odor to which a perceptive response occurs to 50% of the panel corresponds to the odorimetric unit of the sample under examination (1 U.O. / m3) and is equal to the threshold of perceptibility of the substance (O.T.). In particular, the treatment of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) by Mechanical-Biological Treatment (MBT) plants produces odorous emissions, typically generated by aerobic procedures, potentially leading to significant environmental burdens. The quantification of odorous emissions represents a challenge within a LCA study since primary data are often missing. The aim of this study is to present the preliminary findings of an ongoing study whose aim is to identify and quantify odor emissions from the Tre Monti MBT plant, located in Imola (Bologna, Italy). Particularly, the issues faced with odor emissions in the present work are: i) the identification of the components of the gaseous mixture, whose total quantification in terms of odorimetric units is known, ii) the distribution of the total odorimetric units among the single substances identified and iii) the quantification of the mass emitted for each substance. The environmental analysis was carried out on the basis of the amount of emitted substance. The calculation method IMPact Assessment of Chemical Toxics (IMPACT) 2002+ has been modified since the original one does not take into account indoor emissions. Characterization factors were obtained by adopting a preliminary method in order to calculate indoor human effects. The impact and damage assessments were performed without the identification of new categories, thus in accordance with the categories of the selected calculation method. The results show that the damage associated to odorous emissions is the 0.24% of the total damage, and the most affected damage category is Human Health, mainly as a consequence of ammonia emission (86.06%). In conclusion, this preliminary approach allowed identifying and quantifying the substances responsible for the odour impact, in order to attribute them the relative damage on human health as well as ecosystem quality.

Keywords: Waste treatment, Life Cycle Assessment, municipal solid waste, odorous emissions

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3 Factors Affecting Cost Efficiency of Municipal Waste Services in Tuscan Municipalities: An Empirical Investigation by Accounting for Different Management

Authors: María Molinos-Senante, Giulia Romano


This paper aims at investigating the effect of ownership in the efficiency assessment of municipal solid waste management. In doing so, the Data Envelopment Analysis meta-frontier approach integrating unsorted waste as undesirable output was applied. Three different clusters of municipalities have been created on the basis of the ownership type of municipal waste operators. In the second stage of analysis, the paper investigates factors affecting efficiency, in order to provide an outlook of levers to be used by policy and decision makers to improve efficiency, taking into account different management models in force. Results show that public waste management firms have better performance than mixed and private ones since their efficiency scores are significantly larger. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that the efficiency of waste management firms is statistically influenced by the age of population, population served, municipal size, population density and tourism rate. It evidences the importance of economies of scale on the cost efficiency of waste management. This issue is relevant for policymakers to define and implement policies aimed to improve the long-term sustainability of waste management in municipalities.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Efficiency, municipal solid waste, ownership, undesirable output

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2 Assessment of Waste Management Practices in Bahrain

Authors: T. Radu, R. Sreenivas, H. Albuflasa, A. Mustafa Khan, W. Aloqab


The Kingdom of Bahrain, a small island country in the Gulf region, is experiencing fast economic growth resulting in a sharp increase in population and greater than ever amounts of waste being produced. However, waste management in the country is still very basic, with landfilling being the most popular option. Recycling is still a scarce practice, with small recycling businesses and initiatives emerging in recent years. This scenario is typical for other countries in the region, with similar amounts of per capita waste being produced. In this paper, we are reviewing current waste management practices in Bahrain by collecting data published by the Government and various authors, and by visiting the country’s only landfill site, Askar. In addition, we have performed a survey of the residents to learn more about the awareness and attitudes towards sustainable waste management strategies. A review of the available data on waste management indicates that the Askar landfill site is nearing its capacity. The site uses open tipping as the method of disposal. The highest percentage of disposed waste comes from the building sector (38.4%), followed by domestic (27.5%) and commercial waste (17.9%). Disposal monitoring and recording are often based on estimates of weight and without proper characterization/classification of received waste. Besides, there is a need for assessment of the environmental impact of the site with systematic monitoring of pollutants in the area and their potential spreading to the surrounding land, groundwater, and air. The results of the survey indicate low awareness of what happens with the collected waste in the country. However, the respondents have shown support for future waste reduction and recycling initiatives. This implies that the education of local communities would be very beneficial for such governmental initiatives, securing greater participation. Raising awareness of issues surrounding recycling and waste management and systematic effort to divert waste from landfills are the first steps towards securing sustainable waste management in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

Keywords: Waste Management, Landfill, Survey, municipal solid waste

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1 Development of a Coupled Thermal-Mechanical-Biological Model to Simulate Impacts of Temperature on Waste Stabilization at a Landfill in Quebec, Canada

Authors: Simran Kaur, Paul J. Van Geel


A coupled Thermal-Mechanical-Biological (TMB) model was developed for the analysis of impacts of temperatures on waste stabilization at a Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfill in Quebec, Canada using COMSOL Multiphysics, a finite element-based software. For waste placed in landfills in Northern climates during winter months, it can take months or even years before the waste approaches ideal temperatures for biodegradation to occur. Therefore, the proposed model links biodegradation induced strain in MSW to waste temperatures and corresponding heat generation rates as a result of anaerobic degradation. This provides a link between the thermal-biological and mechanical behavior of MSW. The thermal properties of MSW are further linked to density which is tracked and updated in the mechanical component of the model, providing a mechanical-thermal link. The settlement of MSW is modelled based on the concept of viscoelasticity. The specific viscoelastic model used is a single Kelvin – Voight viscoelastic body in which the finite element response is controlled by the elastic material parameters – Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s ratio. The numerical model was validated with 10 years of temperature and settlement data collected from a landfill in Ste. Sophie, Quebec. The coupled TMB modelling framework, which simulates placement of waste lifts as they are placed progressively in the landfill, allows for optimization of several thermal and mechanical parameters throughout the depth of the waste profile and helps in better understanding of temperature dependence of MSW stabilization. The model is able to illustrate how waste placed in the winter months can delay biodegradation-induced settlement and generation of landfill gas. A delay in waste stabilization will impact the utilization of the approved airspace prior to the placement of a final cover and impact post-closure maintenance. The model provides a valuable tool to assess different waste placement strategies in order to increase airspace utilization within landfills operating under different climates, in addition to understanding conditions for increased gas generation for recovery as a green and renewable energy source.

Keywords: Landfill, Finite element modeling, Waste Stabilization, municipal solid waste, coupled model

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