Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Multiscale Related Abstracts

5 Computational Homogenization of Thin Walled Structures: On the Influence of the Global vs Local Applied Plane Stress Condition

Authors: M. Beusink, E. W. C. Coenen


The increased application of novel structural materials, such as high grade asphalt, concrete and laminated composites, has sparked the need for a better understanding of the often complex, non-linear mechanical behavior of such materials. The effective macroscopic mechanical response is generally dependent on the applied load path. Moreover, it is also significantly influenced by the microstructure of the material, e.g. embedded fibers, voids and/or grain morphology. At present, multiscale techniques are widely adopted to assess micro-macro interactions in a numerically efficient way. Computational homogenization techniques have been successfully applied over a wide range of engineering cases, e.g. cases involving first order and second order continua, thin shells and cohesive zone models. Most of these homogenization methods rely on Representative Volume Elements (RVE), which model the relevant microstructural details in a confined volume. Imposed through kinematical constraints or boundary conditions, a RVE can be subjected to a microscopic load sequence. This provides the RVE's effective stress-strain response, which can serve as constitutive input for macroscale analyses. Simultaneously, such a study of a RVE gives insight into fine scale phenomena such as microstructural damage and its evolution. It has been reported by several authors that the type of boundary conditions applied to the RVE affect the resulting homogenized stress-strain response. As a consequence, dedicated boundary conditions have been proposed to appropriately deal with this concern. For the specific case of a planar assumption for the analyzed structure, e.g. plane strain, axisymmetric or plane stress, this assumption needs to be addressed consistently in all considered scales. Although in many multiscale studies a planar condition has been employed, the related impact on the multiscale solution has not been explicitly investigated. This work therefore focuses on the influence of the planar assumption for multiscale modeling. In particular the plane stress case is highlighted, by proposing three different implementation strategies which are compatible with a first-order computational homogenization framework. The first method consists of applying classical plane stress theory at the microscale, whereas with the second method a generalized plane stress condition is assumed at the RVE level. For the third method, the plane stress condition is applied at the macroscale by requiring that the resulting macroscopic out-of-plane forces are equal to zero. These strategies are assessed through a numerical study of a thin walled structure and the resulting effective macroscale stress-strain response is compared. It is shown that there is a clear influence of the length scale at which the planar condition is applied.

Keywords: Multiscale, first-order computational homogenization, planar analysis, microstrucutures

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4 Multiscale Analysis of Shale Heterogeneity in Silurian Longmaxi Formation from South China

Authors: Xianglu Tang, Zhenxue Jiang, Zhuo Li


Characterization of shale multi scale heterogeneity is an important part to evaluate size and space distribution of shale gas reservoirs in sedimentary basins. The origin of shale heterogeneity has always been a hot research topic for it determines shale micro characteristics description and macro quality reservoir prediction. Shale multi scale heterogeneity was discussed based on thin section observation, FIB-SEM, QEMSCAN, TOC, XRD, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), and nitrogen adsorption analysis from 30 core samples in Silurian Longmaxi formation. Results show that shale heterogeneity can be characterized by pore structure and mineral composition. The heterogeneity of shale pore is showed by different size pores at nm-μm scale. Macropores (pore diameter > 50 nm) have a large percentage of pore volume than mesopores (pore diameter between 2~ 50 nm) and micropores (pore diameter < 2nm). However, they have a low specific surface area than mesopores and micropores. Fractal dimensions of the pores from nitrogen adsorption data are higher than 2.7, what are higher than 2.8 from MIP data, showing extremely complex pore structure. This complexity in pore structure is mainly due to the organic matter and clay minerals with complex pore network structures, and diagenesis makes it more complicated. The heterogeneity of shale minerals is showed by mineral grains, lamina, and different lithology at nm-km scale under the continuous changing horizon. Through analyzing the change of mineral composition at each scale, random arrangement of mineral equal proportion, seasonal climate changes, large changes of sedimentary environment, and provenance supply are considered to be the main reasons that cause shale minerals heterogeneity from microcosmic to macroscopic. Due to scale effect, the change of shale multi scale heterogeneity is a discontinuous process, and there is a transformation boundary between homogeneous and in homogeneous. Therefore, a shale multi scale heterogeneity changing model is established by defining four types of homogeneous unit at different scales, which can be used to guide the prediction of shale gas distribution from micro scale to macro scale.

Keywords: Heterogeneity, Shale, Multiscale, homogeneous unit

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3 Building and Tree Detection Using Multiscale Matched Filtering

Authors: Abdullah H. Özcan, Dilara Hisar, Yetkin Sayar, Cem Ünsalan


In this study, an automated building and tree detection method is proposed using DSM data and true orthophoto image. A multiscale matched filtering is used on DSM data. Therefore, first watershed transform is applied. Then, Otsu’s thresholding method is used as an adaptive threshold to segment each watershed region. Detected objects are masked with NDVI to separate buildings and trees. The proposed method is able to detect buildings and trees without entering any elevation threshold. We tested our method on ISPRS semantic labeling dataset and obtained promising results.

Keywords: Multiscale, building detection, local maximum filtering, matched filtering

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2 Multiscale Hub: An Open-Source Framework for Practical Atomistic-To-Continuum Coupling

Authors: Masoud Safdari, Jacob Fish


Despite vast amount of existing theoretical knowledge, the implementation of a universal multiscale modeling, analysis, and simulation software framework remains challenging. Existing multiscale software and solutions are often domain-specific, closed-source and mandate a high-level of experience and skills in both multiscale analysis and programming. Furthermore, tools currently existing for Atomistic-to-Continuum (AtC) multiscaling are developed with the assumptions such as accessibility of high-performance computing facilities to the users. These issues mentioned plus many other challenges have reduced the adoption of multiscale in academia and especially industry. In the current work, we introduce Multiscale Hub (MsHub), an effort towards making AtC more accessible through cloud services. As a joint effort between academia and industry, MsHub provides a universal web-enabled framework for practical multiscaling. Developed on top of universally acclaimed scientific programming language Python, the package currently provides an open-source, comprehensive, easy-to-use framework for AtC coupling. MsHub offers an easy to use interface to prominent molecular dynamics and multiphysics continuum mechanics packages such as LAMMPS and MFEM (a free, lightweight, scalable C++ library for finite element methods). In this work, we first report on the design philosophy of MsHub, challenges identified and issues faced regarding its implementation. MsHub takes the advantage of a comprehensive set of tools and algorithms developed for AtC that can be used for a variety of governing physics. We then briefly report key AtC algorithms implemented in MsHub. Finally, we conclude with a few examples illustrating the capabilities of the package and its future directions.

Keywords: Multiscale, coupling, continuum, atomistic

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1 Multiscale Modelization of Multilayered Bi-Dimensional Soils

Authors: I. Hosni, L. Bennaceur Farah, N. Saber, R Bennaceur


Soil moisture content is a key variable in many environmental sciences. Even though it represents a small proportion of the liquid freshwater on Earth, it modulates interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere, thereby influencing climate and weather. Accurate modeling of the above processes depends on the ability to provide a proper spatial characterization of soil moisture. The measurement of soil moisture content allows assessment of soil water resources in the field of hydrology and agronomy. The second parameter in interaction with the radar signal is the geometric structure of the soil. Most traditional electromagnetic models consider natural surfaces as single scale zero mean stationary Gaussian random processes. Roughness behavior is characterized by statistical parameters like the Root Mean Square (RMS) height and the correlation length. Then, the main problem is that the agreement between experimental measurements and theoretical values is usually poor due to the large variability of the correlation function, and as a consequence, backscattering models have often failed to predict correctly backscattering. In this study, surfaces are considered as band-limited fractal random processes corresponding to a superposition of a finite number of one-dimensional Gaussian process each one having a spatial scale. Multiscale roughness is characterized by two parameters, the first one is proportional to the RMS height, and the other one is related to the fractal dimension. Soil moisture is related to the complex dielectric constant. This multiscale description has been adapted to two-dimensional profiles using the bi-dimensional wavelet transform and the Mallat algorithm to describe more correctly natural surfaces. We characterize the soil surfaces and sub-surfaces by a three layers geo-electrical model. The upper layer is described by its dielectric constant, thickness, a multiscale bi-dimensional surface roughness model by using the wavelet transform and the Mallat algorithm, and volume scattering parameters. The lower layer is divided into three fictive layers separated by an assumed plane interface. These three layers were modeled by an effective medium characterized by an apparent effective dielectric constant taking into account the presence of air pockets in the soil. We have adopted the 2D multiscale three layers small perturbations model including, firstly air pockets in the soil sub-structure, and then a vegetable canopy in the soil surface structure, that is to simulate the radar backscattering. A sensitivity analysis of backscattering coefficient dependence on multiscale roughness and new soil moisture has been performed. Later, we proposed to change the dielectric constant of the multilayer medium because it takes into account the different moisture values of each layer in the soil. A sensitivity analysis of the backscattering coefficient, including the air pockets in the volume structure with respect to the multiscale roughness parameters and the apparent dielectric constant, was carried out. Finally, we proposed to study the behavior of the backscattering coefficient of the radar on a soil having a vegetable layer in its surface structure.

Keywords: Multilayer, Wavelets, Multiscale, SPM, bidimensional, backscattering, air pockets

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