Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Multiculturalism Related Abstracts

14 The Multi-Lingual Acquisition Patterns of Elementary, High School and College Students in Angeles City, Philippines

Authors: Dennis Infante, Leonora Yambao

Abstract:

The Philippines is a multilingual community. A Filipino learns at least three languages throughout his lifespan. Since languages are learned and picked up simultaneously in the environment, a student naturally develops a language system that combines features of at least three languages: the local language, English and Filipino. This study seeks to investigate this particular phenomenon and aspires to propose a theoretical framework of unique language acquisition in the elementary, high school and college in the three languages spoken and used in media, community, business and school: Kapampangan, the local language; Filipino, the national language; and English. The study randomly selects five students from three participating schools in order to acquire language samples. The samples were analyzed in the subsentential, sentential and suprasentential levels using grammatical theories. The data are classified to map out the pattern of substitution or shifting from one language to another.

Keywords: Language Acquisition, Multiculturalism, multilingual education, Mother Tongue

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13 The Assessment of Bilingual Students: How Bilingual Can It Really Be?

Authors: Serge Lacroix

Abstract:

The proposed study looks at the psychoeducational assessment of bilingual students, in English and French in this case. It will be the opportunity to look at language of assessment and specifically how certain tests can be administered in one language and others in another language. It is also a look into the questioning of the validity of the test scores that are obtained as well as the quality and generalizability of the conclusions that can be drawn. Bilingualism and multiculturalism, although in constant expansion, is not considered in norms development and remains a poorly understood factor when it is at play in the context of a psychoeducational assessment. Student placement, diagnoses, accurate measures of intelligence and achievement are all impacted by the quality of the assessment procedure. The same is true for questionnaires administered to parents and self-reports completed by bilingual students who, more often than not, are assessed in a language that is not their primary one or are compared to monolinguals not dealing with the same challenges or the same skills. Results show that students, when offered to work in a bilingual fashion, chooses to do so in a significant proportion. Recommendations will be offered to support educators aiming at expanding their skills when confronted with multilingual students in an assessment context.

Keywords: Multiculturalism, Intelligence, bilingualism, achievement, psychoeducational assessment

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12 Nationalism and Culturalism: Unification Education in South Korea Curriculum

Authors: Eun-Young Yoon

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to examine how unification with North Korea is being taught in South Korea classrooms. To analysis of the curriculum and textbooks about unification in South Korean classroom, this study uses nationalism and multiculturalism as major theoretical frameworks. Major findings show that curriculum and textbooks should describe unification with North Korea more detailed and complicated. And the balancing between ‘global citizenship’ and ‘national identity’ is needed.

Keywords: Multiculturalism, Nationalism, Global Citizenship, unification education

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11 Studying in Private Muslim Schools in Australia: Implications for Identity, Religiosity, and Adjustment

Authors: Hisham Motkal Abu-Rayya, Maram Hussein Abu-Rayya

Abstract:

Education in religious private schools raises questions regarding identity, belonging and adaptation in multicultural Australia. This research project aimed at examined cultural identification styles among Australian adolescent Muslims studying in Muslim schools, adolescents’ religiosity and the interconnections between cultural identification styles, religiosity, and adaptation. Two Muslim high school samples were recruited for the purposes of this study, one from Muslim schools in metropolitan Sydney and one from Muslim schools in metropolitan Melbourne. Participants filled in a survey measuring themes of the current study. Findings revealed that the majority of Australian adolescent Muslims showed a preference for the integration identification style (55.2%); separation was less prevailing (26.9%), followed by assimilation (9.7%) and marginalisation (8.3%). Supporting evidence suggests that the styles of identification were valid representation of the participants’ identification. A series of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that while adolescents’ preference for integration of their cultural and Australian identities was advantageous for a range of their psychological and socio-cultural adaptation measures, marginalisation was consistently the worst. Further hierarchical regression analyses showed that adolescent Muslims’ religiosity was better for a range of their adaptation measures compared to their preference for an integration acculturation style. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

Keywords: Identity, Multiculturalism, Adaptation, religious school education

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10 Cultural Snapshot: A Reflection on Project-Based Model of Cross-Cultural Understanding in Teaching and Learning

Authors: Kunto Nurcahyoko

Abstract:

The fundamental perception used in this study is that teaching and learning activities in Indonesian classroom have potentially generated individual’s sensitivity on cross-cultural understanding. This study aims at investigating Indonesian university students’ perception on cross-cultural understanding after doing Cultural Snapshot Project. The data was critically analyzed through multicultural ideology and diversity theories. The subjects were 30 EFL college students in one of colleges in Indonesia. Each student was assigned to capture a photo which depicted the existence of any cultural manifestation in their surrounding such as discrimination, prejudice and stereotype. Students were then requested asked to reflect on the picture by writing a short description on the picture and make an exhibition using their pictures. In the end of the project, students were instructed to fill in questionnaires to show their perception before and after the project. The result reveals that Cultural Snapshot Project has given the opportunity for the students to better realize cross-cultural understanding in their environment. In conclusion, the study shows that Cultural Snapshot Project has specifically enhanced students’ perception of multiculturalism in three major areas: cultural sensitivity and empathy, social tolerance, and understanding of diversity.

Keywords: Multiculturalism, Cross-cultural Understanding, cultural snapshot, students’ perception

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9 Language Politics and Identity in Translation: From a Monolingual Text to Multilingual Text in Chinese Translations

Authors: Chu-Ching Hsu

Abstract:

This paper focuses on how the government-led language policies and the political changes in Taiwan manipulate the languages choice in translations and what translation strategies are employed by the translator to show his or her language ideology behind the power struggles and decision-making. Therefore, framed by Lefevere’s theoretical concept of translating as rewriting, and carried out a diachronic and chronological study, this paper specifically sets out to investigate the language ideology and translator’s idiolect of Chinese language translations of Anglo-American novels. The examples drawn to explore these issues were taken from different versions of Chinese renditions of Mark Twain’s English-language novel The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in which there are several different dialogues originally written in the colloquial language and dialect used in the American state of Mississippi and reproduced in Mark Twain’s works. Also, adapted corpus methodology, many examples are extracted as instances from the translated texts and source text, to illuminate how the translators in Taiwan deal with the dialectal features encoded in Twain’s works, and how different versions of Chinese translations are employed by Taiwanese translators to confirm the language polices and to express their language identity textually in different periods of the past five decades, from the 1960s onward. The finding of this study suggests that the use of Taiwanese dialect and language patterns in translations does relate to the movement of the mother-tongue language and language ideology of the translator as well as to the issue of language identity raised in the island of Taiwan. Furthermore, this study confirms that the change of political power in Taiwan does bring significantly impact in language policy-- assimilationism, pluralism or multiculturalism, which also makes Taiwan from a monolingual to multilingual society, where the language ideology and identity can be revealed not only in people’s daily communication but also in written translations.

Keywords: Multiculturalism, mother-tongue, literary translation, language politics and policies, translator’s ideology

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8 The Rise of Populist Right-Wing Parties in Western Europe: A Case Study of the Front National in France

Authors: Jessica Da Silva

Abstract:

This paper examines France as a microcosm of the rise of right-wing populism in the broader European context. The attack on the Charlie Hebdo newspaper is arguably, a reaction to the aggressive European secularism spreading throughout Europe that sees its true enemy in the growth of extremist and violent interpretations of Islam. With each terrorist attack, the popularity of anti-immigrant policies and ideologies increases. What ultimately drives movements like the French National Front are the concepts of monoculture and ethnic identity. This paper analyses the character of right-wing populist parties using the National Front as a case study. Such parties generate anxiety and resentment by fomenting an irrational fear of the ‘other’. In this way, populists promote their identity on the basis of xenophobia, Islamophobia, and practices of social exclusion against targeted out-groups. They position immigrants and foreigners as ‘others’, claiming they are a threat to native cultures and a source of social and economic strife. Ultimately, right-wing populism exerts a negative influence over the democratic framework in Europe and opposes the European Union’s integration project. Right-wing populism attacks this supranational model because of its alleged inefficiency and departure from what it considers to be 'authentic' European traditions and citizenship. In this context, understanding the rise of radical right-wing populist parties is extremely important for the future of Europe, democracy and multiculturalism.

Keywords: Multiculturalism, Islamophobia, Integration, Cultural identity, Immigration, Nationalism, Xenophobia, Europeanization, front national, right-wing populist parties

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7 Australian Multiculturalism in Refugee Education

Authors: N. Coskun

Abstract:

Australia has received over 840,000 refugees since its establishment as a federation. Despite the long history of refugee intake, Australia appears to have prolonged problems in refugee education such as academic and social isolations of refugee background students (RBS), the discriminations towards RBS and the high number of RBS drop-outs. This paper examines the place of RBS in educational policies, which can help to identify the problems and set a foundation for solutions. This paper investigates the educational provisions for RBS in three stages. First, the paper identifies the needs of RBS through a comprehensive literature review, using the framework of Bronfenbrenner’s bio-ecological model. Second, the study explores the place of these needs in Australian national and state educational policies which are informed by multiculturalism. The findings conclude that social, academic and psychological needs of RBS hardly find a place in multicultural educational policies. The students and their specific needs are mostly invisible and are placed under a general category of newly arrived immigrants who learn English as a second language. Third, the study explores the possible reasons for the overlook on RBS and their needs with examining the general socio-political context surrounding refugees in Australia. The overall findings suggest that Australian multiculturalism policy in education are inadequate to address RBS' social, academic and psychological needs due to the disadvantaging socio-political context where refugees are placed.

Keywords: Multiculturalism, Australia, bio-ecological model, refugee education

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6 Attitude of Tertiary Students on Multiculturalism in Indonesia

Authors: Budi Annisa Sidi

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Present-day Indonesia maintains a narrative of a culturally plural but unified nation. At the same time, multicultural policies extend different degrees of recognition, accommodation, toleration and even discrimination towards different socio-cultural groups. In conjunction with different ethnographic landscapes across regions in Indonesia, this approach leads to a varied experience and understanding of national identity and multiculturalism among people. As a result, governments seeking to maintain national unity while practicing multiculturalism have to juggle different expectations. This situation is examined through the microcosms of university students using questionnaires followed up by focus group discussions and personal interviews. A comparison between university students across four different provinces in Indonesia (Aceh, Jakarta, West Java and the Moluccas) highlights the influence of one’s surroundings on their perception of multiculturalism. Students in the more heterogeneous areas generally show more acceptance towards diversity compared to students in primarily homogenous areas who have little actual experience in dealing with diversity. Regardless of their environment, students claim to have positive feelings and a strong sense of attachment to Indonesia but hold different ideas of what constitutes an ideal Indonesian national identity.

Keywords: Multiculturalism, Nationalism, National Identity, Indonesia

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5 Becoming a Good-Enough White Therapist: Experiences of International Students in Psychology Doctoral Programs

Authors: Mary T. McKinley

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As socio-economic globalization impacts education and turns knowledge into a commodity, institutions of higher education are becoming more intentional about infusing a global and intercultural perspective into education via the recruitment of international students. Coming from dissimilar cultures, many of these students are evaluated and held accountable to Euro-American values of independence, self-reliance, and autonomy. Not surprisingly, these students often experience culture shock with deleterious effects on their mental health and academic functioning. Thus, it is critical to understand the experiences of international students with the hope that such knowledge will keep the field of psychology from promulgating Eurocentric ideals and values and prevent the training of these students as good-enough White therapists. Using a critical narrative inquiry framework, this study elicits stories about the challenges encountered by international students as they navigate their clinical training in the presence of acculturative stress and potentially different worldviews. With its emphasis on story-telling as meaning making, narrative research design is hinged on the assumption that people are interpretive beings who make meaning of themselves and their world through the language of stories. Also, dominant socially-constructed narratives play a central role in creating and maintaining hegemonic structures that privilege certain individuals and ideologies at the expense of others. On this premise, narrative inquiry begins with an exploration of the experiences of participants in their lived stories. Bounded narrative segments were read, interpreted, and analyzed using a critical events approach. Throughout the process, issues of reliability and researcher bias were addressed by keeping a reflective analytic memo, as well as triangulating the data using peer-reviewers and check-ins with participants. The findings situate culture at the epicenter of international students’ acculturation challenges as well as their resiliency in psychology doctoral programs. It was not uncommon for these international students to experience ethical dilemmas inherent in learning content that conflicted with their cultural beliefs and values. Issues of cultural incongruence appear to be further exacerbated by visible markers for differences like speech accent and clothing attire. These stories also link the acculturative stress reported by international students to the experiences of perceived racial discrimination and lack of support from the faculty, administration, peers, and the society at large. Beyond the impact on the international students themselves, there are implications for internationalization in psychology with the goal of equipping doctoral programs to be better prepared to meet the needs of their international students. More than ever before, programs need to liaise with international students’ services and work in tandem to meet the unique needs of this population of students. Also, there exists a need for multiculturally competent supervisors working with international students with varying degrees of acculturation. In addition to making social justice and advocacy salient in students’ multicultural training, it may be helpful for psychology doctoral programs to be more intentional about infusing cross-cultural theories, indigenous psychotherapies, and/or when practical, the possibility for geographically cross-cultural practicum experiences in the home countries of international students while taking into consideration the ethical issues for virtual supervision.

Keywords: Multiculturalism, international students, decolonizing pedagogies, psychology doctoral programs

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4 Intercultural Competence among Jewish and Arab Students Studying Together in an Academic Institution in Israel

Authors: Orly Redlich

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Since the establishment of the state of Israel, and as a result of various events that led to it, Jewish citizens and Arab citizens of the state have been in constant conflict, which finds its expression in most levels of life. Therefore, the attitude of one group member to the other group members is mostly tense, loaded, and saturated with mutual suspicion. Within this reality, in many higher education institutions in Israel, Jews and Arabs meet with each other intensively and for several years. Sometimes this is the first and perhaps the last opportunity for meaningful cultural meetings between Jews and Arabs. These intercultural encounters, which allow positive interactions between members of different cultural groups, may contribute to the formation of 'intercultural competence' which means- long-term change in knowledge, attitudes, and behavior towards 'the other culture'. The current study examines the concept of the ‘other’ among Jewish and Arab students studying together in order to find if there is intercultural competence. The study also examines whether there is a difference in the perception of the ‘other’ between students studying in different academic disciplines, and between students taking academic courses on multiculturalism. This quantitative study was conducted among Arab and Jewish students studying together, for bachelor's or master's degree, in various academic disciplines at the Israel college of Ramat-gan. The background data of the participants are varied, in terms of- religion, origin, religiosity, employment status, living area, and marital status. The main hypothesis is that academic, social, and intercultural encounters between Jewish and Arab students, who attend college together will be a significant factor in building intercultural competence. The dependent variables were measured by a self-report questionnaire, using the components of 'intercultural competence' among students, which are; 1. cognitive knowledge of the ‘others’, 2. feelings towards the ‘others’, 3. attitudes and behavior towards the ‘others’. The importance of the research lies in finding the means to develop intercultural competence among Jewish and Arab students, which may reduce prejudice and stereotypes towards the other culture and may even prevent occurrences of alienation and violence in cross-cultural encounters in Israel.

Keywords: Multiculturalism, intercultural competence, cross-cultural learning, Jewish and Arab students

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3 Enhancing African Students’ Learning Experience by Creating Multilingual Resources at a South African University of Technology

Authors: Lisa Graham, Kathleen Grant

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South Africa is a multicultural country with eleven official languages, yet most of the formal education at institutions of higher education in the country is in English. It is well known that many students, irrespective of their home language, struggle to grasp difficult scientific concepts and the same is true for students enrolled in the Extended Curriculum Programme at the Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT), studying biomedical sciences. Today we are fortunate in that there is a plethora of resources available to students to research and better understand subject matter online. For example, the students often use YouTube videos to supplement the formal education provided in our course. Unfortunately, most of this material is presented in English. The rationale behind this project lies in that it is well documented that students think and grasp concepts easier in their home language and addresses the fact that the lingua franca of instruction in the field of biomedical science is English. A project aimed at addressing the lack of available resources in most of the South African languages is planned, where students studying Bachelor of Health Science in Medical Laboratory Science will collaborate with those studying Film and Video Technology to create educational videos, explaining scientific concepts in their home languages. These videos will then be published on our own YouTube channel, thereby making them accessible to fellow students, future students and anybody with interest in the subject. Research will be conducted to determine the benefit of the project as well as the published videos to the student community. It is suspected that the students engaged in making the videos will benefit in such a way as to gain further understanding of their course content, a broader appreciation of the discipline, an enhanced sense of civic responsibility, as well as greater respect for the different languages and cultures in our classes. Indeed, an increase in student engagement has been shown to play a central role in student success, and it is well noted that deeper learning and more innovative solutions take place in collaborative groups. We aim to make a meaningful contribution towards the production and repository of knowledge in multilingual teaching and learning for the benefit of the diverse student population and staff. This would strengthen language development, multilingualism, and multiculturalism at CPUT and empower and promote African languages as languages of science and education at CPUT, in other institutions of higher learning, and in South Africa as a whole.

Keywords: Multilingualism, Multiculturalism, Student Engagement, educational videos

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2 Attitude to Cultural Diversity and Inclusive Pedagogical Practices in the Classroom: A Correlational Study

Authors: Laura M. Espinoza, Karen A. Hernández, Diana B. Ledezma

Abstract:

Currently, in Chile, migratory movements are generated, where the country receives constantly people from Latin America such as Colombia, Peru, Venezuela, Haiti, among others. This phenomenon has reached the schools of Chile, where immigrant children and adolescents are educated in a context of cultural diversity. However, education professionals face this recent phenomenon without prior preparation to carry out their pedagogical practices in the classroom. On the other hand, research on how to understand and guide the processes of cultural diversity especially within the school is even scarce and recent in Latin America and specifically in Chile. The general purpose of the study is to analyze the relationships between teaching efforts towards multiculturalism and inclusive pedagogical practices in the schools of the city of La Serena and Coquimbo, in Chile. The study refers to a quantitative approach, with a correlational design. The selection of the participants was not intentional probabilistic. It comprises 88 teachers of preschool, primary, secondary and special education, who work in two schools with similar characteristics. For the collection of information on the independent variable, the attitude scale towards Immigration and the attitude scale towards Multiculturalism in the school are applied. To obtain information on the independent variable, the guide for the evaluation of inclusive practices in the classroom is applied. Both instruments have statistical validation. A Spearman correlation analysis was made to achieve the objective of the study. Among the main findings, we will find the relationships between the positive perceptions of multiculturalism at school and inclusive practices such as the physical conditions of the classroom, planning, methodology, use of time and evaluation. These findings are relevant to the teaching and learning processes of students in Chilean classrooms and contribute to literature for the understanding of educational processes in contexts of cultural diversity.

Keywords: Multiculturalism, Immigration, Cultural Diversity, inclusive pedagogical practices

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1 Diversity Strands in Library and Information Science Graduate Curricula

Authors: Bibi Alajmi, Israa Alshammari

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This study investigates diversity strands covered in courses offered by library and information sciences (LIS) graduate programs. It aims to identify the extent to which these programs prepare students to work in diverse communities. Information was collected from 17 ALA-accredited MLIS programs. Diversity-related topics were identified and categorized. The methodology consisted of content analysis of course syllabi. The findings show that coverage of diversity-related content in LIS graduate curricula is increasing at a slow but significant rate, and is often a low priority. Apart from LIS graduate courses for future librarians and information professionals in public libraries, school libraries, and museums providing services to young adults and children, there is not enough interest in the provision of services to diverse communities.

Keywords: Gender, Diversity, Equality, Inclusion, Multiculturalism

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