Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

MRSA Related Abstracts

11 Minimum Biofilm Inhibitory Concentration of Lysostaphin on Clinical Isolates of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

Authors: N. Nagalakshmi, Indira Bairy, M. Atulya, Jesil Mathew

Abstract:

S. aureus has the ability to colonize and form biofilms on implanted biomaterials, which is difficult to disrupt, and current antimicrobial therapies for biofilms have largely proven unsuccessful in complete eradication of biofilm. The present study is aimed to determine the lysostaphin activity against biofilm producing MRSA clinical strains. The minimum biofilm inhibition activity of lysostaphin was studied against twelve strong biofilm producing isolates. The biofilm was produced in 96-wells micro-titer plate and biofilm was treated with lysostaphin (0.5 to 16 µg/ml), vancomycin (0.5 to 64 µg/ml) and linezolid (0.5 to 64 µg/ml). The biofilm inhibitory concentration of lysostaphin was found between 4 to 8 µg/ml whereas vancomycin and linezolid inhibited at concentration between 32 to 64 µg/ml. Results indicate that lysostaphin as potential antimicrobial activity against biofilm at lower concentration is comparable with routine antibiotics like vancomycin and linezolid.

Keywords: Biofilm, lysostaphin, MRSA, minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration

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10 Emergence of Vancomycin Resistant and Methcillin Resistant Staphylococus aureus in Patients with Different Clinical Manifestations in Khartoum State, Sudan

Authors: Maimona A. E. Elimam, Suhair Rehan, Miskelyemen A. Elmekki, Mogahid M. Elhassan

Abstract:

Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. aureus), a major cause of potentially life-threatening infections acquired in healthcare and community settings, has developed resistance to most classes of antimicrobial agents as determined by the dramatic increase. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of MRSA, and VRSA in patients with different clinical manifestations in Khartoum state. The study population (n, 426) were males and females with different age categories, suffering either from wound infections (105), ear infections (121), or UTI (101), in addition to nasal carriers of medical staff (100). Cultures, Gram staining, and other biochemical tests were performed for conventional identification. Modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was applied and DNA was extracted from MRSA and VRSA isolates and PCR was then performed for amplification of arc, mecA, VanA, and VanB genes. The results confirmed the existence of Staph. aureus in 49/426 (11.5%) cases among which MRSA were isolated from 34/49 (69.4%) when modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was applied. Ten out of these 34 MRSA were confirmed as VRSA by cultures on BHI agar containing 6μg/ml vancomycin according to NCCLS criteria. PCR revealed that out of the 34 MRSA isolates, 26 were mecA positive (76.5%) while 8 (23.5%) were arcC positive. No vanA or VanB genes were detected. Molecular method confirmed the results for MRSA through the presence of either arcC or mecA genes while it failed to approve the occurrence of VRSA since neither VanA or VanB genes were detected. Thus, VRSA may be attributed to other factors.

Keywords: Antibiotic Resistance, Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, sudan, VRSA, Khartoum

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9 Development of a Novel Nanobiosystem for the Selective Nanophotothermolysis of Meticilin Resistant Staphyloccocous Aureus Using Anti-MRSA Antibody Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles

Authors: Lucian Mocan, Cristian Matea, Flaviu A. Tabaran, Teodora Mocan, Cornel Iancu

Abstract:

Introduction: Due to antibiotic resistance, systemic infections caused by Meticilin resistant Staphyloccocous Aureus (MRSA) are the main cause of millions of deaths each year. Development of new active biomolecules that are highly effective and refractory to antibiotic resistance may open new avenues in the field of antimicrobial therapy. In this research, we have focused on the development of a novel nanobiosystem with high affinity for MRSA microorganism to mediate its selective laser thermal ablation. Materials and Methods: Gold nanoparticles (15nm in diameter) linked to a specific antibody against MRSA surface were selectively delivered (at various concentrations and incubation times) and internalized into MRSA microorganism following the treatment these multidrug-resistant bacteria were irradiated using a 2w, 808 nm LASER. Results and Discussions: The post-irradiation necrotic rate ranged from 51.2% (for 1 mg/L) to 87.3% (for 50 mg/L) at 60 seconds (p<0.001), while at 30 minute the necrotic rate increased from 64.3% (1 mg/L) to 92.1% (50 mg/L), p value<0.001. Significantly lower apoptotic rates were obtained in irradiated MRSA treated with GNPs only (control) treated for 60 seconds and 30 minutes at concentrations ranging from 1 mg/L to 50 mg/L. We show here that the optimal LASER mediated the necrotic effect of MRSA after incubation with anti-MRSA-Ab was obtained at a concentration of 50 mg/L. Conclusion: In the presented research, we obtained a very efficacious pulse laser mode treatment of individual MRSA agents with minimal effects on the surrounding medium, providing highly localized destruction only for MRSA microorganism.

Keywords: Antibiotic Resistance, gold nanoparticles, MRSA, photothermolysis

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8 The Equality Test of Ceftriaxone Anti-Bacterial Effect and Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant (Myermecodia pendens Merr. and L. M Perry) to MRSA

Authors: Rifa’ah Mahmudah Bulu’

Abstract:

MRSA is an important nosocomial pathogen in the world. Therefore, the prevention and effort to control MRSA is still very important to conduct. One of the preventions of MRSA, which have been reported by several studies, is Cefriaxone and Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant. This research is an experimental test to determine the potency of MRSA’s anti-bacterial with Cefriaxone (30 μg) and Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant (13 mg/ml) based on inhibition zone on LAB (Lempeng Agar Biasa). The size of inhibition zone that is formed on Cefriaxone is adjusted with CSLI criteria, which ≥ 21 mm of inhibition zone is called sensitive; ≤13 mm is called resistance and between 14-20 mm is called intermediate. This research is conducted three times. Comparative test between Cefriaxone and Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant is analyzed by Maan Whitney’s statistic method. The Result of Cefriaxone anti-bacterial potency shows the variety of inhibition zone. Cefriaxone forms approximately 16,5-20 mm with average 18,22mm of inhibition zone that make Cefriaxone’s criteria to MRSA’s inhibition is intermediate. Anti-bacterial potency of Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant is about 0,5-2 mm with average 1,17 mm of inhibition zone that prove MRSA is sensitive to Ant Plant. The conclusion of this research shows that Cefriaxone is intermediate to MRSA’s inhibition, while MRSA is sensitive to Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant, which at the end; it creates different potency of anti-bacterial between Cefriaxone and Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant.

Keywords: MRSA, cefriaxone, ant plant, CSLI, mann whitney

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7 Investigation of Clusters of MRSA Cases in a Hospital in Western Kenya

Authors: Lillian Musila, Valerie Oundo, Daniel Erwin, Willie Sang

Abstract:

Staphylococcus aureus infections are a major cause of nosocomial infections in Kenya. Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections are a significant burden to public health and are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. At a hospital in Western Kenya two clusters of MRSA cases emerged within short periods of time. In this study we explored whether these clusters represented a nosocomial outbreak by characterizing the isolates using phenotypic and molecular assays and examining epidemiological data to identify possible transmission patterns. Specimens from the site of infection of the subjects were collected, cultured and S. aureus isolates identified phenotypically and confirmed by APIStaph™. MRSA were identified by cefoxitin disk screening per CLSI guidelines. MRSA were further characterized based on their antibiotic susceptibility patterns and spa gene typing. Characteristics of cases with MRSA isolates were compared with those with MSSA isolated around the same time period. Two cases of MRSA infection were identified in the two week period between 21 April and 4 May 2015. A further 2 MRSA isolates were identified on the same day on 7 September 2015. The antibiotic resistance patterns of the two MRSA isolates in the 1st cluster of cases were different suggesting that these were distinct isolates. One isolate had spa type t2029 and the other had a novel spa type. The 2 isolates were obtained from urine and an open skin wound. In the 2nd cluster of MRSA isolates, the antibiotic susceptibility patterns were similar but isolates had different spa types: one was t037 and the other a novel spa type different from the novel MRSA spa type in the first cluster. Both cases in the second cluster were admitted into the hospital but one infection was community- and the other hospital-acquired. Only one of the four MRSA cases was classified as an HAI from an infection acquired post-operatively. When compared to other S. aureus strains isolated within the same time period from the same hospital only one spa type t2029 was found in both MRSA and non-MRSA strains. None of the cases infected with MRSA in the two clusters shared any common epidemiological characteristic such as age, sex or known risk factors for MRSA such as prolonged hospitalization or institutionalization. These data suggest that the observed MRSA clusters were multi strain clusters and not an outbreak of a single strain. There was no clear relationship between the isolates by spa type suggesting that no transmission was occurring within the hospital between these cluster cases but rather that the majority of the MRSA strains were circulating in the community. There was high diversity of spa types among the MRSA strains with none of the isolates sharing spa types. Identification of disease clusters in space and time is critical for immediate infection control action and patient management. Spa gene typing is a rapid way of confirming or ruling out MRSA outbreaks so that costly interventions are applied only when necessary.

Keywords: Cluster, Kenya, MRSA, spa typing

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6 Characterization of Screening Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Harboring mecA Genes among Intensive Care Unit Patients from Tertiary Care Hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia

Authors: Delly C. Lestari, Linosefa, Ardiana Kusumaningrum, Andi Yasmon, Anis Karuniawati

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) harboring mecA genes from screening isolates among intensive care unit (ICU) patients. All MRSA screening isolates from ICU’s patients of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital during 2011 and 2014 were included in this study. Identification and susceptibility test was performed using Vitek2 system (Biomereux®). PCR was conducted to characterize the SCCmec of S. aureus harboring the mecA gene on each isolate. Patient’s history of illness was traced through medical record. 24 isolates from 327 screening isolates were MRSA positive (7.3%). From PCR, we found 17 (70.8%) isolates carrying SCCmec type I, 3 (12.5%) isolates carrying SCCmec type III, and 2 (8.3%) isolates carrying SCCmec type IV. In conclusion, SCCmec type I is the most prevalent MRSA colonization among ICU patients in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital.

Keywords: colonization, MRSA, ICU, mecA genes

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5 Anti-Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Compounds from Bauhinia kockiana Korth and Their Mechanism of Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Yik Ling Chew, Adlina Maisarah Mahadi, Joo Kheng Goh

Abstract:

Bauhinia kockiana originates from Peninsular Malaysia, and it is grown as a garden ornamental plant. However, it is used as medicinal plant by Malaysia ‘Kelabit’ ethic group in treating various diseases and illnesses. This study focused on the assessment of the antibacterial activity of B. kockiana towards MRSA, to purify and identify the antibacterial compounds, and to determine the mechanism of antibacterial activity. Antibacterial activity of B. kockiana flower is evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively using disc diffusion assay and microbroth dilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of extracts. Phytochemical analysis is performed to determine the classes of phytochemicals in the extracts. Bioactivity-guided isolation is performed to purify the antibacterial agents and identified the chemical structures via various spectroscopy methods. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique is adopted to evaluate the antibacterial mechanism of extract and compounds isolated. B. kockiana flower is found to exhibit fairly strong antibacterial activity towards both strains of MRSA bacteria. Gallic acid and its ester derivatives are purified from ethyl acetate extract and the antibacterial activity is evaluated. SEM has revealed the mechanism of the extracts and compounds isolated.

Keywords: Scanning Electron Microscopy, MRSA, alkyl gallates, Bauhinia kockiana

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4 Evaluation of Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Staphlyococci Isolated from Various Clinical Specimens

Authors: Recep Kesli, Merih Simsek, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz

Abstract:

Objective: Goal of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated at Medical Microbiology Laboratory of ANS Application and Research Hospital, Afyon Kocatepe University, Turkey. Methods: S. aureus strains isolated between October 2012 and September 2016, from various clinical specimens were evaluated retrospectively. S. aureus strains were identified by both the conventional methods and automated identification system -VITEK 2 (bio-Mérieux, Marcy l’etoile, France), and Meticillin resistance was verified using oxacillin disk with disk-diffusion method. Antibiotic resistance testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI criteria, and intermediate susceptible strains were considered as resistant. Results: Seven hundred S.aureus strains which were isolated from various clinical specimens were included in this study. These strains were mostly isolated from blood culture, tissue, wounds and bronchial aspiration. All of 306 (43,7%) were oxacillin resistant. While all the S.aureus strains were found to be susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin and linezolid, 38 (9.6 %), 77 (19.5 %), 116 (29.4 %), 152 (38.6 %) and 28 (7.1 %) were found to be resistant aganist to clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, retrospectively. Conclusions: Comparing to the Methicillin sensitive staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains, increased resistance rates of, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline were observed among the MRSA strains. In this study, the most effective antibiotic on the total of strains was found to be trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, the least effective antibiotic on the total of strains was found to be tetracycline.

Keywords: Antibiotic Resistance, Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, VITEK 2

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3 Synthesis of a Hybrid of PEG-b-PCL and G1-PEA Dendrimer Based Six-Armed Star Polymer for Nano Delivery of Vancomycin

Authors: Calvin A. Omolo, Rahul S. Kalhapure, Mahantesh Jadhav, Sanjeev Rambharose, Chunderika Mocktar, Thirumala Govender

Abstract:

Treatment of infections is compromised by limitations of conventional dosage forms and drug resistance. Nanocarrier system is a strategy to overcome these challenges and improve therapy. Thus, the development of novel materials for drug delivery via nanocarriers is essential. The aim of the study was to synthesize a multi-arm polymer (6-mPEPEA) for enhanced activity of vancomycin (VM) against susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The synthesis steps of the star polymer followed reported procedures. The synthesized 6-mPEPEA was characterized by FTIR, ¹H and ¹³CNMR and MTT assays. VM loaded micelles were prepared from 6-mPEPEA and characterized for size, polydispersity index (PI) and surface charge (ZP) (Dynamic Light Scattering), morphology by TEM, drug loading (UV Spectrophotometry), drug release (dialysis bag), in vitro and in vivo efficacy against sensitive and resistant S. aureus. 6-mPEPEA was synthesized, and its structure was confirmed. MTT assays confirmed its nontoxic nature with a high cell viability (77%-85%). Unimolecular spherical micelles were prepared. Size, PI, and ZP was 52.48 ± 2.6 nm, 0.103 ± 0.047, -7.3 ± 1.3 mV, respectively and drug loading was 62.24 ± 3.8%. There was a 91% drug release from VCM-6-mPEPEA after 72 hours. In vitro antibacterial test revealed that VM-6-mPEPEA had 8 and 16-fold greater activity against S. aureus and MRSA when compared to bare VM. Further investigations using flow cytometry showed that VM-6-mPEPEA had 99.5% killing rate of MRSA at the MIC concentration. In vivo antibacterial activity revealed that treatment with VM-6-mPEPEA had a 190 and a 15-fold reduction in the MRSA load in untreated and VM treated respectively. These findings confirmed the potential of 6-mPEPEA as a promising bio-degradable nanocarrier for antibiotic delivery to improve treatment of bacterial infections.

Keywords: Resistance, MRSA, nanocarrier, biosafe, unimolecular-micelles

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2 Development of Gold Nanoparticles-Antibody System for the Selective Photothermal Destruction of Multidrug Resistant Bacteria

Authors: Teodora Mocan, Lucian Mocan, Cornel Iancu, Flaviu A. Tabaran, Bartos Dana, Matea Cristian

Abstract:

Antimicrobial resistance, which threatens the efficacy of the existing antibiotics represents a worldwide public health issue. At the current time, vancomycin is the only responsive treatment although has significant cytotoxicity, is partially effective and it is poorly retained by infected tissues. From a clinical point of view, attractive alternative approaches for treating such Meticillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) strains would be using agents that cause physical damage to the bacteria. Modular nanopharmaceuticals systems are being designed to address all of these multifunctional capabilities for the ideal bacterial treatment, with the ability to mix and match appropriate functions. Here we present a novel method of selective laser photothermal ablation of MRSA bacteria mediated by gold nanoparticles bound to PBP antibody against PBP protein located on the MRSA surface.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, laser, Antibody, MRSA

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1 Anti Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Action of Thermophilic Fungi Acrophialophora levis IBSD19 and Determination of Its Mode of Action Using Electron Microscopy

Authors: Shivankar Agrawal, Indira Sarangthem

Abstract:

Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains one of the major causes of healthcare-associated and community-onset infections worldwide. Hence the search for non-toxic natural compounds having antibacterial activity has intensified for future drug development. The exploration of less studied niches of Earth can highly increase the possibility to discover novel bioactive compounds. Therefore, in this study, the cultivable fraction of fungi from the sediments of natural hot springs has been studied to mine potential fungal candidates with antibacterial activity against the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. We isolated diverse strains of thermophilic fungi from a collection of samples from sediment. Following a standard method, we isolated a promising thermophilic fungus strain IBSD19, identified as Acrophialophora levis, possessing the potential to produce an anti-Staphylococcus aureus agent. The growth conditions were optimized and scaled to fermentation, and its produced extract was subjected to chemical extraction. The ethyl acetate fraction was found to display significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.5 mg/ml and 4 mg/ml, respectively. The cell membrane integrity assay and SEM suggested that the fungal metabolites cause bacteria clustering and further lysis of the cell.

Keywords: Fungi, Thermophiles, antibacterial activity, antioxidant, Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA

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