Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

MRI Related Abstracts

36 HR MRI CS Based Image Reconstruction

Authors: Krzysztof Malczewski

Abstract:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) reconstruction algorithm using compressed sensing is presented in this paper. It is exhibited that the offered approach improves MR images spatial resolution in circumstances when highly undersampled k-space trajectories are applied. Compressed Sensing (CS) aims at signal and images reconstructing from significantly fewer measurements than were conventionally assumed necessary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a fundamental medical imaging method struggles with an inherently slow data acquisition process. The use of CS to MRI has the potential for significant scan time reductions, with visible benefits for patients and health care economics. In this study the objective is to combine super-resolution image enhancement algorithm with CS framework benefits to achieve high resolution MR output image. Both methods emphasize on maximizing image sparsity on known sparse transform domain and minimizing fidelity. The presented algorithm considers the cardiac and respiratory movements.

Keywords: MRI, Super-resolution, compressed sensing, Image Enhancement, sparse-sense

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35 Destruction of Atherosclerotic Plaque Using Pulse Ultrasound with a Planar Rectangular Ultrasound Transducer

Authors: Christakis Damianou, Christos Christofi, Nicos Mylonas

Abstract:

The aim of the proposed study was to evaluate mechanical mode ultrasound using a flat rectangular (3x10 mm2) MRI compatible transducer operating at 5 MHz for destroying atherosclerotic plaque. The system was tested initially in a Hydroxyapatite-polyalactide (HA/PLA) model. An optimized protocol was decided and then applied in atherosclerotic plaque of a rabbit. The plaque in the rabbit was created using a high cholesterol diet. The atherosclerotic plaque was imaged using MRI. This study shows that the destruction of atherosclerotic plaque is feasible.

Keywords: Ultrasound, MRI, atherosclerotic, plaque, pulse

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34 Performance Evaluation of Various Segmentation Techniques on MRI of Brain Tissue

Authors: U.V. Suryawanshi, S.S. Chowhan, U.V Kulkarni

Abstract:

Accuracy of segmentation methods is of great importance in brain image analysis. Tissue classification in Magnetic Resonance brain images (MRI) is an important issue in the analysis of several brain dementias. This paper portraits performance of segmentation techniques that are used on Brain MRI. A large variety of algorithms for segmentation of Brain MRI has been developed. The objective of this paper is to perform a segmentation process on MR images of the human brain, using Fuzzy c-means (FCM), Kernel based Fuzzy c-means clustering (KFCM), Spatial Fuzzy c-means (SFCM) and Improved Fuzzy c-means (IFCM). The review covers imaging modalities, MRI and methods for noise reduction and segmentation approaches. All methods are applied on MRI brain images which are degraded by salt-pepper noise demonstrate that the IFCM algorithm performs more robust to noise than the standard FCM algorithm. We conclude with a discussion on the trend of future research in brain segmentation and changing norms in IFCM for better results.

Keywords: MRI, Image Segmentation, FCM, preprocessing, KFCM, SFCM, IFCM

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33 Evaluation of 18F Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography, MRI, and Ultrasound in the Assessment of Axillary Lymph Node Metastases in Patients with Early Stage Breast Cancer

Authors: Byung Joo Song, Wooseok Byon, Eunyoung Kim, Junseong Kwon, Chan Heun Park

Abstract:

Purpose: 18F Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) is a noninvasive imaging modality that can identify nodal metastases in women with primary breast cancer. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of FDG-PET with MRI and sonography scanning to determine axillary lymph node status in patients with breast cancer undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection. Patients and Methods: Between January and December 2012, ninety-nine patients with breast cancer and clinically negative axillary nodes were evaluated. All patients underwent FDG-PET, MRI, ultrasound followed by sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Results: Using axillary lymph node assessment as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET were 51.4% (95% CI, 41.3% to 65.6%) and 92.2% (95% CI, 82.7% to 97.4%) respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI and ultrasound were 57.1% (95% CI, 39.4% to 73.7%), 67.2% (95% CI, 54.3% to 78.4%) and 42.86% (95% CI, 26.3% to 60.7%), 92.2% (95% CI, 82.7% to 97.4%). Stratification according to hormone receptor status showed an increase in specificity when negative (FDG-PET: 42.3% to 77.8%, MRI 50% to 77.8%, ultrasound 34.6% to 66.7%). Also, positive HER2 status was associated with an increase in specificity (FDG-PET: 42.9% to 85.7%, MRI 50% to 85.7%, ultrasound 35.7% to 71.4%). Conclusions: The sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET compared with MRI and ultrasound was high. However, FDG-PET is not sufficiently accurate to appropriately identify lymph node metastases. This study suggests that FDG-PET scanning cannot replace histologic staging in early-stage breast cancer, but might have a role in evaluating axillary lymph node status in hormone receptor negative or HER-2 overexpressing subtypes.

Keywords: Ultrasound, MRI, axillary lymph node metastasis, FDG-PET

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32 Pregnant Women with Dental Amalgam Fillings Limiting Their Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields to Prevent the Toxic Effects of Mercury in Their Fetuses

Authors: S. M. J. Mortazavi, Ghazal Mortazavi

Abstract:

Although seems to be ultra-conservative, it has recently been suggested that whenever it is possible, pregnant women should postpone dental amalgam restorations to avoid the toxic effect of mercury on the foetus. Dental amalgam fillings cause significant exposure to elemental mercury vapour in the general population. Over the past several years, our lab has focused on the health effects of exposure of laboratory animals and humans to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as mobile phones and their base stations, mobile phone jammers, laptop computers, radars, dentistry cavitrons and MRI. Today, substantial evidence indicates that mercury even at low doses may lead to toxicity. Increased release of mercury from dental amalgam fillings after exposure to MRI or microwave radiation emitted by mobile phones has been previously shown by our team. Moreover, our recent studies on the effects of stronger magnetic fields entirely confirmed our previous findings. From the other point of view, we have also shown that papers which reported no increased release of mercury after MRI, may have some methodological flaws. As a strong positive correlation between maternal and cord blood mercury levels has been found in some studies, our findings regarding the effect of exposure to electromagnetic fields on the release of mercury from dental amalgam fillings lead us to this conclusion that pregnant women with dental amalgam fillings should limit their exposure to electromagnetic fields to prevent toxic effects of mercury in their foetuses.

Keywords: pregnancy, MRI, Electromagnetic Fields, Mobile Phones, foetus, mercury release, dental amalgam

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31 Rasagiline Improves Metabolic Function and Reduces Tissue Injury in the Substantia Nigra in Parkinson's Disease: A Longitudinal In-Vivo Advanced MRI Study

Authors: Omar Khan, Fen Bao, Edwin George, Navid Seraji-Bozorgzad, Veronica Gorden, Christina Caon, Shana Krstevska, NP-C, Carla Santiago, Imad Zak

Abstract:

Objective: To quantify cellular injury in the substantia nigra (SN) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to examine the effect of rasagiline of tissue injury in the SN in patients with PD. Background: N-acetylaspartate (NAA) quantified with MRS is a reliable marker of neuronal metabolic function. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) obtained with DTI, characterize tissue alignment and integrity. Rasagline, has been shown to exert anti-apototic effect. We applied these advanced MRI techniques to examine: (i) the effect of rasagiline on cellular injury and metabolism in patients with early PD, and (ii) longitudinal changes seen over time in PD. Methods: We conducted a prospective longitudinal study in patients with mild PD, naive to dopaminergic treatment. The imaging protocol included multi-voxel proton-MRS and DTI of the SN, acquired on a 3T scanner. Scans were performed at baseline and month 3, during which the patient was on no treatment. At that point, rasagiline 1 mg orally daily was initiated and MRI scans are were obtained at 6 and 12 months after starting rasagiline. The primary objective was to compare changes during the 3-month period of “no treatment” to the changes observed “on treatment” with rasagiline at month 12. Age-matched healthy controls were also imaged. Image analysis was performed blinded to treatment allocation and period. Results: 25 patients were enrolled in this study. Compared to the period of “no treatment”, there was significant increase in the NAA “on treatment” period (-3.04 % vs +10.95 %, p= 0.0006). Compared to the period of “no treatment”, there was significant increase in following 12 month in the FA “on treatment” (-4.8% vs +15.3%, p<0.0001). The MD increased during “no treatment” and decreased in “on treatment” (+2.8% vs -7.5%, p=0.0056). Further analysis and clinical correlation are ongoing. Conclusions: Advanced MRI techniques quantifying cellular injury in the SN in PD is a feasible approach to investigate dopaminergic neuronal injury and could be developed as an outcome in exploratory studies. Rasagiline appears to have a stabilizing effect on dopaminergic cell loss and metabolism in the SN in PD, that warrants further investigation in long-term studies.

Keywords: Biomarker, MRI, parkinson's disease, substantia nigra, neuronal loss

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30 Assessment of Frying Material by Deep-Fat Frying Method

Authors: Brinda Sharma, Saakshi S. Sarpotdar

Abstract:

Deep-fat frying is popular standard method that has been studied basically to clarify the complicated mechanisms of fat decomposition at high temperatures and to assess their effects on human health. The aim of this paper is to point out the application of method engineering that has been recently improved our understanding of the fundamental principles and mechanisms concerned at different scales and different times throughout the process: pretreatment, frying, and cooling. It covers the several aspects of deep-fat drying. New results regarding the understanding of the frying method that are obtained as a results of major breakthroughs in on-line instrumentation (heat, steam flux, and native pressure sensors), within the methodology of microstructural and imaging analysis (NMR, MRI, SEM) and in software system tools for the simulation of coupled transfer and transport phenomena. Such advances have opened the approach for the creation of significant information of the behavior of varied materials and to the event of latest tools to manage frying operations via final product quality in real conditions. Lastly, this paper promotes an integrated approach to the frying method as well as numerous competencies like those of chemists, engineers, toxicologists, nutritionists, and materials scientists also as of the occupation and industrial sectors.

Keywords: MRI, Cooling, deep-fat frying, frying, imaging analysis (NMR, SEM)

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29 Functionalized SPIO Conjugated with Doxorubicin for Tumor Diagnosis and Chemotherapy Enhanced by Applying Magnetic Fields

Authors: Wen-Yuan Hsieh, Po-Chin Liang, Yung-Chu Chen, Chi-Feng Chiang, Yun-Ping Lin, Win-Li Lin

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to develop super paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nano-particles comprised of a magnetic Fe3O4 core and a shell of aqueous stable self-doped polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a high loading of doxorubicin (SPIO-PEG-D) for tumor theranostics. The in-vivo MRI study showed that there was a stronger T2-weighted signal enhancement for the group under a magnetic field, and hence it indicated that this group had a better accumulation of SPIO-PEG than the group without a magnetic field. In the anticancer evaluation of SPIO-PEG-D, the group with a magnetic field displayed a significantly smaller tumor size than the group without. The overall results show that SPIO-PEG-D nanoparticles have the potential for the application of MRI/monitoring chemotherapy and the therapy can be locally enhanced by applying an external magnetic field.

Keywords: Chemotherapy, MRI, Magnetic Fields, doxorubicin, super paramagnetic iron oxide nano particles

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28 Comparison of Dose Rate and Energy Dependence of Soft Tissue Equivalence Dosimeter with Electron and Photon Beams Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Karim Adinehvand, Bakhtiar Azadbakht, Amin Sahebnasagh

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The purpose of this study was to evaluate dependence of PAGAT polymer gel dosimeter 1/T2 on different electron and photon energies as well as on different mean dose rates for a standard clinically used Co-60 therapy unit and an ELECTA linear accelerator. A multi echo sequence with 32 equidistant echoes was used for the evaluation of irradiated polymer gel dosimeters. The optimal post-manufacture irradiation and post imaging times were both determined to be one day. The sensitivity of PAGAT polymer gel dosimeter with irradiation of photon and electron beams was represented by the slope of calibration curve in the linear region measured for each modality. The response of PAGAT gel with photon and electron beams is very similar in the lower dose region. The R2-dose response was linear up to 30Gy. In electron beams the R2-dose response for doses less than 3Gy is not exact, but in photon beams the R2-dose response for doses less than 2Gy is not exact. Dosimeter energy dependence was studied for electron energies of 4, 12 and 18MeV and photon energies of 1.25, 4, 6 and 18MV. Dose rate dependence was studied in 6MeV electron beam and 6MV photon beam with the use of dose rates 80, 160, 240, 320, 400, and 480cGy/min. Evaluation of dosimeters were performed on Siemens Symphony, Germany 1.5T Scanner in the head coil. In this study no trend in polymer-gel dosimeter 1/T2 dependence was found on mean dose rate and energy for electron and photon beams.

Keywords: MRI, Polymer Gels, PAGAT gel, electron and photon beams

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27 Temporal Profile of T2 MRI and 1H-MRS in the MDX Mouse Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Authors: P. J. Sweeney, T. Ahtoniemi, J. Puoliväli, T. Laitinen, K.Lehtimäki, A. Nurmi, D. Wells

Abstract:

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked, lethal muscle wasting disease for which there are currently no treatment that effectively prevents the muscle necrosis and progressive muscle loss. DMD is among the most common of inherited diseases affecting around 1/3500 live male births. MDX (X-linked muscular dystrophy) mice only partially encapsulate the disease in humans and display weakness in muscles, muscle damage and edema during a period deemed the “critical period” when these mice go through cycles of muscular degeneration and regeneration. Although the MDX mutant mouse model has been extensively studied as a model for DMD, to-date an extensive temporal, non-invasive imaging profile that utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) has not been performed.. In addition, longitudinal imaging characterization has not coincided with attempts to exacerbate the progressive muscle damage by exercise. In this study we employed an 11.7 T small animal MRI in order to characterize the MRI and MRS profile of MDX mice longitudinally during a 12 month period during which MDX mice were subjected to exercise. Male mutant MDX mice (n=15) and male wild-type mice (n=15) were subjected to a chronic exercise regime of treadmill walking (30 min/ session) bi-weekly over the whole 12 month follow-up period. Mouse gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles were profiled with baseline T2-MRI and 1H-MRS at 6 weeks of age. Imaging and spectroscopy was repeated again at 3 months, 6 months, 9 months and 12 months of age. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) level measurements were coincided with time-points for T2-MRI and 1H-MRS, but also after the “critical period” at 10 weeks of age. The results obtained from this study indicate that chronic exercise extends dystrophic phenotype of MDX mice as evidenced by T2-MRI and1H-MRS. T2-MRI revealed extent and location of the muscle damage in gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles as hyperintensities (lesions and edema) in exercised MDX mice over follow-up period.. The magnitude of the muscle damage remained stable over time in exercised mice. No evident fat infiltration or cumulation to the muscle tissues was seen at any time-point in exercised MDX mice. Creatine, choline and taurine levels evaluated by 1H-MRS from the same muscles were found significantly decreased in each time-point, Extramyocellular (EMCL) and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) did not change in exercised mice supporting the findings from anatomical T2-MRI scans for fat content. Creatine kinase levels were found to be significantly higher in exercised MDX mice during the follow-up period and importantly CK levels remained stable over the whole follow-up period. Taken together, we have described here longitudinal prophile for muscle damage and muscle metabolic changes in MDX mice subjected to chronic exercised. The extent of the muscle damage by T2-MRI was found to be stable through the follow-up period in muscles examined. In addition, metabolic profile, especially creatine, choline and taurine levels in muscles, was found to be sustained between time-points. The anatomical muscle damage evaluated by T2-MRI was supported by plasma CK levels which remained stable over the follow-up period. These findings show that non-invasive imaging and spectroscopy can be used effectively to evaluate chronic muscle pathology. These techniques can be also used to evaluate the effect of various manipulations, like here exercise, on the phenotype of the mice. Many of the findings we present here are translatable to clinical disease, such as decreased creatine, choline and taurine levels in muscles. Imaging by T2-MRI and 1H-MRS also revealed that fat content or extramyocellar and intramyocellular lipids, respectively, are not changed in MDX mice, which is in contrast to clinical manifestation of the Duchenne’s muscle dystrophy. Findings show that non-invasive imaging can be used to characterize the phenotype of a MDX model and its translatability to clinical disease, and to study events that have traditionally been not examined, like here rigorous exercise related sustained muscle damage after the “critical period”. The ability for this model to display sustained damage beyond the spontaneous “critical period“ and in turn to study drug effects on this extended phenotype will increase the value of the MDX mouse model as a tool to study therapies and treatments aimed at DMD and associated diseases.

Keywords: MRI, muscular dystrophy, mouse model

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26 Quantification of Dispersion Effects in Arterial Spin Labelling Perfusion MRI

Authors: Rutej R. Mehta, Michael A. Chappell

Abstract:

Introduction: Arterial spin labelling (ASL) is an increasingly popular perfusion MRI technique, in which arterial blood water is magnetically labelled in the neck before flowing into the brain, providing a non-invasive measure of cerebral blood flow (CBF). The accuracy of ASL CBF measurements, however, is hampered by dispersion effects; the distortion of the ASL labelled bolus during its transit through the vasculature. In spite of this, the current recommended implementation of ASL – the white paper (Alsop et al., MRM, 73.1 (2015): 102-116) – does not account for dispersion, which leads to the introduction of errors in CBF. Given that the transport time from the labelling region to the tissue – the arterial transit time (ATT) – depends on the region of the brain and the condition of the patient, it is likely that these errors will also vary with the ATT. In this study, various dispersion models are assessed in comparison with the white paper (WP) formula for CBF quantification, enabling the errors introduced by the WP to be quantified. Additionally, this study examines the relationship between the errors associated with the WP and the ATT – and how this is influenced by dispersion. Methods: Data were simulated using the standard model for pseudo-continuous ASL, along with various dispersion models, and then quantified using the formula in the WP. The ATT was varied from 0.5s-1.3s, and the errors associated with noise artefacts were computed in order to define the concept of significant error. The instantaneous slope of the error was also computed as an indicator of the sensitivity of the error with fluctuations in ATT. Finally, a regression analysis was performed to obtain the mean error against ATT. Results: An error of 20.9% was found to be comparable to that introduced by typical measurement noise. The WP formula was shown to introduce errors exceeding 20.9% for ATTs beyond 1.25s even when dispersion effects were ignored. Using a Gaussian dispersion model, a mean error of 16% was introduced by using the WP, and a dispersion threshold of σ=0.6 was determined, beyond which the error was found to increase considerably with ATT. The mean error ranged from 44.5% to 73.5% when other physiologically plausible dispersion models were implemented, and the instantaneous slope varied from 35 to 75 as dispersion levels were varied. Conclusion: It has been shown that the WP quantification formula holds only within an ATT window of 0.5 to 1.25s, and that this window gets narrower as dispersion occurs. Provided that the dispersion levels fall below the threshold evaluated in this study, however, the WP can measure CBF with reasonable accuracy if dispersion is correctly modelled by the Gaussian model. However, substantial errors were observed with other common models for dispersion with dispersion levels similar to those that have been observed in literature.

Keywords: MRI, Dispersion, arterial spin labelling, perfusion

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25 Lennox-gastaut Syndrome Associated with Dysgenesis of Corpus Callosum

Authors: A. Bruce Janati, Muhammad Umair Khan, Naif Alghassab, Ibrahim Alzeir, Assem Mahmoud, M. Sammour

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Rationale: Lennox-Gastaut syndrome(LGS) is an electro-clinical syndrome composed of the triad of mental retardation, multiple seizure types, and the characteristic generalized slow spike-wave complexes in the EEG. In this article, we report on two patients with LGS whose brain MRI showed dysgenesis of corpus callosum(CC). We review the literature and stress the role of CC in the genesis of secondary bilateral synchrony(SBS). Method: This was a clinical study conducted at King Khalid Hospital. Results: The EEG was consistent with LGS in patient 1 and unilateral slow spike-wave complexes in patient 2. The MRI showed hypoplasia of the splenium of CC in patient 1, and global hypoplasia of CC combined with Joubert syndrome in patient 2. Conclusion: Based on the data, we proffer the following hypotheses: 1-Hypoplasia of CC interferes with functional integrity of this structure. 2-The genu of CC plays a pivotal role in the genesis of secondary bilateral synchrony. 3-Electrodecremental seizures in LGS emanate from pacemakers generated in the brain stem, in particular the mesencephalon projecting abnormal signals to the cortex via thalamic nuclei. 4-Unilateral slow spike-wave complexes in the context of mental retardation and multiple seizure types may represent a variant of LGS, justifying neuroimaging studies.

Keywords: MRI, eeg, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, corpus callosum

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24 Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Correctly Diagnosed by EUS but nor CT or MRI

Authors: Yousef Reda

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Pancreatic cancer has an overall dismal prognosis. CT, MRI and Endoscopic Ultrasound are most often used to establish the diagnosis. We present a case of a patient found on abdominal CT and MRI to have an 8 mm cystic lesion within the head of the pancreas which was thought to be a benign intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). Further evaluation by EUS demonstrated a 1 cm predominantly solid mass that was proven to be an adenocarcinoma by EUS-guided FNA. The patient underwent a Whipple procedure. The final pathology confirmed a 1 cm pT1 N0 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Case: A 63-year-old male presented with left upper quadrant pain and an abdominal CT demonstrated an 8 mm lesion within the head of the pancreas that was thought to represent a side branch IPMN. An MRI also showed similar findings. Four months later due to ongoing symptoms an EUS was performed to re-evaluate the pancreatic lesion. EUS revealed a predominantly solid hypoechoic, homogeneous mass measuring 12 mm x 9 mm. EUS-guided FNA was performed and was positive for adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent a Whipple procedure that confirmed it to be a ductal adenocarcinoma, pT1N0. The solid mass was noted to be adjacent to a cystic dilation with no papillary architecture and scant epithelium. The differential diagnosis resided between cystic degeneration of a primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma versus malignant degeneration within a side-branch IPMN. Discussion: The reported sensitivity of CT for pancreatic cancer is approximately 90%. For pancreatic tumors, less than 3 cm the sensitivity of CT is reduced ranging from 67-77%. MRI does not significantly improve overall detection rates compared to CT. EUS, however is superior to CT in the detection of pancreatic cancer, in particular among lesions smaller than 3 cm. EUS also outperforms CT and MRI in distinguishing neoplastic from non-neoplastic cysts. In this case, both MRI and CT failed to detect a small pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The addition of EUS and FNA to abdominal imaging can increase overall accuracy for the diagnosis of neoplastic pancreatic lesions. It may be prudent that when small lesions although appearing as a benign IPMN should further be evaluated by EUS as this would lead to potentially identifying earlier stage pancreatic cancers and improve survival in a disease which has a dismal prognosis.

Keywords: MRI, IPMN, EUS

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23 Application of MRI in Radioembolization Imaging and Dosimetry

Authors: Salehi Zahabi Saleh, Rajabi Hosaien, Rasaneh Samira

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Yttrium-90 (90Y) radioembolisation(RE) is increasingly used for the treatment of patients with unresectable primary or metastatic liver tumours. Image-based approaches to assess microsphere distribution after RE have gained interest but are mostly hampered by the limited imaging possibilities of the Isotope 90Y. Quantitative 90Y-SPECT imaging has limited spatial resolution because it is based on 90Y Bremsstrahlung whereas 90Y-PET has better spatial resolution but low sensitivity. As a consequence, new alternative methods of visualizing the microspheres have been investigated, such as MR imaging of iron-labelled microspheres. It was also shown that MRI combines high sensitivity with high spatial and temporal resolution and with superior soft tissue contrast and thus can be used to cover a broad range of clinically interesting imaging parameters.The aim of the study in this article was to investigate the capability of MRI to measure the intrahepatic microsphere distribution in order to quantify the absorbed radiation dose in RE.

Keywords: Dosimetry, Imaging, MRI, radioembolisation

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22 Development of a Novel Clinical Screening Tool, Using the BSGE Pain Questionnaire, Clinical Examination and Ultrasound to Predict the Severity of Endometriosis Prior to Laparoscopic Surgery

Authors: Marlin Mubarak

Abstract:

Background: Endometriosis is a complex disabling disease affecting young females in the reproductive period mainly. The aim of this project is to generate a diagnostic model to predict severity and stage of endometriosis prior to Laparoscopic surgery. This will help to improve the pre-operative diagnostic accuracy of stage 3 & 4 endometriosis and as a result, refer relevant women to a specialist centre for complex Laparoscopic surgery. The model is based on the British Society of Gynaecological Endoscopy (BSGE) pain questionnaire, clinical examination and ultrasound scan. Design: This is a prospective, observational, study, in which women completed the BSGE pain questionnaire, a BSGE requirement. Also, as part of the routine preoperative assessment patient had a routine ultrasound scan and when recto-vaginal and deep infiltrating endometriosis was suspected an MRI was performed. Setting: Luton & Dunstable University Hospital. Patients: Symptomatic women (n = 56) scheduled for laparoscopy due to pelvic pain. The age ranged between 17 – 52 years of age (mean 33.8 years, SD 8.7 years). Interventions: None outside the recognised and established endometriosis centre protocol set up by BSGE. Main Outcome Measure(s): Sensitivity and specificity of endometriosis diagnosis predicted by symptoms based on BSGE pain questionnaire, clinical examinations and imaging. Findings: The prevalence of diagnosed endometriosis was calculated to be 76.8% and the prevalence of advanced stage was 55.4%. Deep infiltrating endometriosis in various locations was diagnosed in 32/56 women (57.1%) and some had DIE involving several locations. Logistic regression analysis was performed on 36 clinical variables to create a simple clinical prediction model. After creating the scoring system using variables with P < 0.05, the model was applied to the whole dataset. The sensitivity was 83.87% and specificity 96%. The positive likelihood ratio was 20.97 and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.17, indicating that the model has a good predictive value and could be useful in predicting advanced stage endometriosis. Conclusions: This is a hypothesis-generating project with one operator, but future proposed research would provide validation of the model and establish its usefulness in the general setting. Predictive tools based on such model could help organise the appropriate investigation in clinical practice, reduce risks associated with surgery and improve outcome. It could be of value for future research to standardise the assessment of women presenting with pelvic pain. The model needs further testing in a general setting to assess if the initial results are reproducible.

Keywords: Endometriosis, Ultrasound, MRI, Minimally Invasive, deep endometriosis

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21 Minimal Incision Cochlear Implantation in Congenital Abnormality: A Case Report

Authors: Munish Saroch, Amit Saini

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Introduction: Many children with congenital malformation of inner ear have undergone cochlear implant (CI) surgery. The results for cochlear implant surgery in these children are very encouraging and provide a ray of hope for these patients. Objective: The main objective of this presentation is to prove that even in Mondini’s deformity Minimal incision cochlear implantation improves cosmesis, reduces post-operative infection and earliest switch on of device. Methods: We report a case of two-year-old child suffering from Mondini’s deformity who underwent CI with minimal incision cochlear implantation (MICI). MICI has been developed with the aims of reducing the impact of surgery on the patient without any preoperative shaving of hairs. Results: Patient after surgery with MICI showed better looking postauricular scar, low post-operative morbidity in comparison to conventional wider access approach and hence earliest switch on of device (1st post operative day). Conclusion: We are of opinion that MICI is safe and successful in Mondini’s deformity.

Keywords: MRI, Magnetic resonance imaging, SCI, Hearing loss, Cochlear implant, MICI, Minimal Incision Cochlear Implantation, HRCT, High Resolution Computer Tomography, Standard cochlear implantation

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20 A Comparison between Different Segmentation Techniques Used in Medical Imaging

Authors: Ibtihal D. Mustafa, Mawia A. Hassan

Abstract:

Tumor segmentation from MRI image is important part of medical images experts. This is particularly a challenging task because of the high assorting appearance of tumor tissue among different patients. MRI images are advance of medical imaging because it is give richer information about human soft tissue. There are different segmentation techniques to detect MRI brain tumor. In this paper, different procedure segmentation methods are used to segment brain tumors and compare the result of segmentations by using correlation and structural similarity index (SSIM) to analysis and see the best technique that could be applied to MRI image.

Keywords: correlation, Segmentation, MRI, structural similarity

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19 2D Convolutional Networks for Automatic Segmentation of Knee Cartilage in 3D MRI

Authors: Ananya Ananya, Karthik Rao

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Accurate segmentation of knee cartilage in 3-D magnetic resonance (MR) images for quantitative assessment of volume is crucial for studying and diagnosing osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, one of the major causes of disability in elderly people. Radiologists generally perform this task in slice-by-slice manner taking 15-20 minutes per 3D image, and lead to high inter and intra observer variability. Hence automatic methods for knee cartilage segmentation are desirable and are an active field of research. This paper presents design and experimental evaluation of 2D convolutional neural networks based fully automated methods for knee cartilage segmentation in 3D MRI. The architectures are validated based on 40 test images and 60 training images from SKI10 dataset. The proposed methods segment 2D slices one by one, which are then combined to give segmentation for whole 3D images. Proposed methods are modified versions of U-net and dilated convolutions, consisting of a single step that segments the given image to 5 labels: background, femoral cartilage, tibia cartilage, femoral bone and tibia bone; cartilages being the primary components of interest. U-net consists of a contracting path and an expanding path, to capture context and localization respectively. Dilated convolutions lead to an exponential expansion of receptive field with only a linear increase in a number of parameters. A combination of modified U-net and dilated convolutions has also been explored. These architectures segment one 3D image in 8 – 10 seconds giving average volumetric Dice Score Coefficients (DSC) of 0.950 - 0.962 for femoral cartilage and 0.951 - 0.966 for tibia cartilage, reference being the manual segmentation.

Keywords: Segmentation, MRI, Convolutional Neural Networks, dilated convolutions, fully automated, knee cartilage, U-net

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18 Clinical and Radiological Features of Adenomyosis and Its Histopathological Correlation

Authors: Parul Garg, Surabhi Agrawal Kohli, Sunita Gupta, Esha Khanuja, P. Gupta

Abstract:

Background: Adenomyosis is a common gynaecological condition that affects the menstruating women. Uterine enlargement, dysmenorrhoea, and menorrhagia are regarded as the cardinal clinical symptoms of adenomyosis. Classically it was thought, compared with ultrasonography, when adenomyosis is suspected, MRI enables more accurate diagnosis of the disease. Materials and Methods: 172 subjects were enrolled after an informed consent that had complaints of HMB, dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea, and chronic pelvic pain. Detailed history of the enrolled subjects was taken, followed by a clinical examination. These patients were then subjected to TVS where myometrial echo texture, presence of myometrial cysts, blurring of endomyometrial junction was noted. MRI was followed which noted the presence of junctional zone thickness and myometrial cysts. After hysterectomy, histopathological diagnosis was obtained. Results: 78 participants were analysed. The mean age was 44.2 years. 43.5% had parity of 4 or more. heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) was present in 97.8% and dysmenorrhea in 93.48 % of HPE positive patient. Transvaginal sonography (TVS) and MRI had a sensitivity of 89.13% and 80.43%, specificity of 90.62% and 84.37%, positive likelihood ratio of 9.51 and 5.15, negative likelihood ratio of 0.12 and 0.23, positive predictive value of 93.18% and 88.1%, negative predictive value of 85.29% and 75% and a diagnostic accuracy of 89.74% and 82.5%. Comparison of sensitivity (p=0.289) and specificity (p=0.625) showed no statistically significant difference between TVS and MRI. Conclusion: Prevalence of 30.23%. HMB with dysmenorrhoea and chronic pelvic pain helps in diagnosis. TVS (Endomyometrial junction blurring) is both sensitive and specific in diagnosing adenomyosis without need for additional diagnostic tool. Both TVS and MRI are equally efficient, however because of certain additional advantages of TVS over MRI, it may be used as the first choice of imaging. MRI may be used additionally in difficult cases as well as in patients with existing co-pathologies.

Keywords: MRI, TVs, adenomyosis, heavy menstrual bleeding

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17 Fast Tumor Extraction Method Based on Nl-Means Filter and Expectation Maximization

Authors: Sandabad Sara, Sayd Tahri Yassine, Hammouch Ahmed

Abstract:

The development of science has allowed computer scientists to touch the medicine and bring aid to radiologists as we are presenting it in our article. Our work focuses on the detection and localization of tumors areas in the human brain; this will be a completely automatic without any human intervention. In front of the huge volume of MRI to be treated per day, the radiologist can spend hours and hours providing a tremendous effort. This burden has become less heavy with the automation of this step. In this article we present an automatic and effective tumor detection, this work consists of two steps: the first is the image filtering using the filter Nl-means, then applying the expectation maximization algorithm (EM) for retrieving the tumor mask from the brain MRI and extracting the tumor area using the mask obtained from the second step. To prove the effectiveness of this method multiple evaluation criteria will be used, so that we can compare our method to frequently extraction methods used in the literature.

Keywords: Tumor, Brain, MRI, EM algorithm, Nl-means

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16 Brain Stem Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome in Nephrotic Syndrome

Authors: S. H. Jang

Abstract:

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is characterized by acute neurologic symptoms (visual loss, headache, altered mentality and seizures) and by typical imaging findings (bilateral subcortical and cortical edema with predominatly posterior distribution). Nephrotic syndrome is a syndrome comprising signs of proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and edema. It is well known that hypertension predispose patient with nephrotic syndrome to PRES. A 45-year old male was referred for suddenly developed vertigo, disequilibrium. He had previous history of nephrotic syndrome. His medical history included diabetes controlled with medication. He was hospitalized because of generalized edema a few days ago. His vital signs were stable. On neurologic examination, his mental state was alert. Horizontal nystagmus to right side on return to primary position was observed. He showed good grade motor weakness and ataxia in right upper and lower limbs without other sensory abnormality. Brain MRI showed increased signal intensity in FLAIR image, decreased signal intensity in T1 image and focal enhanced lesion in T1 contrast image at whole midbrain, pons and cerebellar peduncle symmetrically, which was compatible with vasogenic edema. Laboratory findings showed severe proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia. He was given intravenous dexamethasone and diuretics to reduce vasogenic edema and raise the intra-vascular osmotic pressure. Nystagmus, motor weakness and limb ataxia improved gradually over 2 weeks; He recovered without any neurologic symptom and sign. Follow-up MRI showed decreased vasogenic edema fairly. We report a case of brain stem PRES in normotensive, nephrotic syndrome patient.

Keywords: MRI, Nephrotic syndrome, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, vasogenic brain edema

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15 Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanoparticles as MRI Contrast Agents

Authors: Suhas Pednekar, Prashant Chavan, Ramesh Chaughule, Deepak Patkar

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Iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are one of the most attractive nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. An important potential medical application of polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) is as imaging agents. Composition, size, morphology and surface chemistry of these nanoparticles can now be tailored by various processes to not only improve magnetic properties but also affect the behavior of nanoparticles in vivo. MNPs are being actively investigated as the next generation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. Also, there is considerable interest in developing magnetic nanoparticles and their surface modifications with therapeutic agents. Our study involves the synthesis of biocompatible cancer drug coated with iron oxide nanoparticles and to evaluate their efficacy as MRI contrast agents. A simple and rapid microwave method to prepare Fe3O4 nanoparticles has been developed. The drug was successfully conjugated to the Fe3O4 nanoparticles which can be used for various applications. The relaxivity R2 (reciprocal of the spin-spin relaxation time T2) is an important factor to determine the efficacy of Fe nanoparticles as contrast agents for MRI experiments. R2 values of the coated magnetic nanoparticles were also measured using MRI technique and the results showed that R2 of the Fe complex consisting of Fe3O4, polymer and drug was higher than that of bare Fe nanoparticles and polymer coated nanoparticles. This is due to the increase in hydrodynamic sizes of Fe NPs. The results with various amounts of iron molar concentrations are also discussed. Using MRI, it is seen that the R2 relaxivity increases linearly with increase in concentration of Fe NPs in water.

Keywords: MRI, magnetic nanoparticles, Cancer Drug, hydrodynamic size

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14 18F-Fluoro-Ethyl-Tyrosine-Positron Emission Tomography in Gliomas: Comparison with Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography

Authors: Habib Alah Dadgar, Nasim Norouzbeigi

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The precise definition margin of high and low-grade gliomas is crucial for treatment. We aimed to assess the feasibility of assessment of the resection legions with post-operative positron emission tomography (PET) using [18F]O-(2-[18F]-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ([18F]FET). Four patients with the suspicion of high and low-grade were enrolled. Patients underwent post-operative [18F]FET-PET, pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and CT for clinical evaluations. In our study, three patients had negative response to recurrence and progression and one patient indicated positive response after surgery. [18F]FET-PET revealed a legion of increased radiotracer uptake in the dura in the craniotomy site for patient 1. Corresponding to the patient history, the study was negative for recurrence of brain tumor. For patient 2, there was a lesion in the right parieto-temporal with slightly increased uptake in its posterior part with SUVmax = 3.79, so the study was negative for recurrence evaluation. In patient 3 there was no abnormal uptake with negative result for recurrence of brain tumor. Intense radiotracer uptake in the left parietal lobe where in the MRI there was a lesion with no change in enhancement in the post-contrast image is indicated in patient 4. Assessment of the resection legions in high and low-grade gliomas with [18F]FET-PET seems to be useful.

Keywords: MRI, glioma, FET-PET

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13 Development of a Computer Aided Diagnosis Tool for Brain Tumor Extraction and Classification

Authors: Fathi Kallel, Abdulelah Alabd Uljabbar, Abdulrahman Aldukhail, Abdulaziz Alomran

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The brain is an important organ in our body since it is responsible about the majority actions such as vision, memory, etc. However, different diseases such as Alzheimer and tumors could affect the brain and conduct to a partial or full disorder. Regular diagnosis are necessary as a preventive measure and could help doctors to early detect a possible trouble and therefore taking the appropriate treatment, especially in the case of brain tumors. Different imaging modalities are proposed for diagnosis of brain tumor. The powerful and most used modality is the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). MRI images are analyzed by doctor in order to locate eventual tumor in the brain and describe the appropriate and needed treatment. Diverse image processing methods are also proposed for helping doctors in identifying and analyzing the tumor. In fact, a large Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) tools including developed image processing algorithms are proposed and exploited by doctors as a second opinion to analyze and identify the brain tumors. In this paper, we proposed a new advanced CAD for brain tumor identification, classification and feature extraction. Our proposed CAD includes three main parts. Firstly, we load the brain MRI. Secondly, a robust technique for brain tumor extraction is proposed. This technique is based on both Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). DWT is characterized by its multiresolution analytic property, that’s why it was applied on MRI images with different decomposition levels for feature extraction. Nevertheless, this technique suffers from a main drawback since it necessitates a huge storage and is computationally expensive. To decrease the dimensions of the feature vector and the computing time, PCA technique is considered. In the last stage, according to different extracted features, the brain tumor is classified into either benign or malignant tumor using Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm. A CAD tool for brain tumor detection and classification, including all above-mentioned stages, is designed and developed using MATLAB guide user interface.

Keywords: classification, MRI, Feature Extraction, CAD, brain tumor, PCA, SVM, DWT

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12 Memory Types in Hemodialysis (HD) Patients; A Study Based on Hemodialysis Duration, Zahedan: South East of Iran

Authors: N. M. Bakhshani, Behnoush Sabayan, Ali Alidadi, Saeid Ebarhimi

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Hemodialysis (HD) patients are at a high risk of atherosclerotic and vascular disease; also little information is available for the HD impact on brain structure of these patients. We studied the brain abnormalities in HD patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long term HD on brain structure of HD patients. Non-contrast MRI was used to evaluate imaging findings. Our study included 80 HD patients of whom 39 had less than six months of HD and 41 patients had a history of HD more than six months. The population had a mean age of 51.60 years old and 27.5% were female. According to study, HD patients who have been hemodialyzed for a long time (median time of HD was up to 4 years) had small vessel ischemia than the HD patients who underwent HD for a shorter term, which the median time was 3 to 5 months. Most of the small vessel ischemia was located in pre-ventricular, subcortical and white matter (1.33± .471, 1.23± .420 and 1.39±.490). However, the other brain damages like: central pons abnormality, global brain atrophy, thinning of corpus callosum and frontal lobe atrophy were found (P<0.01). The present study demonstrated that HD patients who were under HD for a longer time had small vessel ischemia and we conclude that this small vessel ischemia might be a causative mechanism of brain atrophy in chronic hemodialysis patients. However, additional researches are needed in this area.

Keywords: MRI, hemodialysis patients, duration of hemodialysis, Zahedan

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11 Radiomics: Approach to Enable Early Diagnosis of Non-Specific Breast Nodules in Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: N. D'Amico, E. Grossi, B. Colombo, F. Rigiroli, M. Buscema, D. Fazzini, G. Cornalba, S. Papa

Abstract:

Purpose: To characterize, through a radiomic approach, the nature of nodules considered non-specific by expert radiologists, recognized in magnetic resonance mammography (MRm) with T1-weighted (T1w) sequences with paramagnetic contrast. Material and Methods: 47 cases out of 1200 undergoing MRm, in which the MRm assessment gave uncertain classification (non-specific nodules), were admitted to the study. The clinical outcome of the non-specific nodules was later found through follow-up or further exams (biopsy), finding 35 benign and 12 malignant. All MR Images were acquired at 1.5T, a first basal T1w sequence and then four T1w acquisitions after the paramagnetic contrast injection. After a manual segmentation of the lesions, done by a radiologist, and the extraction of 150 radiomic features (30 features per 5 subsequent times) a machine learning (ML) approach was used. An evolutionary algorithm (TWIST system based on KNN algorithm) was used to subdivide the dataset into training and validation test and to select features yielding the maximal amount of information. After this pre-processing, different machine learning systems were applied to develop a predictive model based on a training-testing crossover procedure. 10 cases with a benign nodule (follow-up older than 5 years) and 18 with an evident malignant tumor (clear malignant histological exam) were added to the dataset in order to allow the ML system to better learn from data. Results: NaiveBayes algorithm working on 79 features selected by a TWIST system, resulted to be the best performing ML system with a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 78% and a global accuracy of 87% (average values of two training-testing procedures ab-ba). The results showed that in the subset of 47 non-specific nodules, the algorithm predicted the outcome of 45 nodules which an expert radiologist could not identify. Conclusion: In this pilot study we identified a radiomic approach allowing ML systems to perform well in the diagnosis of a non-specific nodule at MR mammography. This algorithm could be a great support for the early diagnosis of malignant breast tumor, in the event the radiologist is not able to identify the kind of lesion and reduces the necessity for long follow-up. Clinical Relevance: This machine learning algorithm could be essential to support the radiologist in early diagnosis of non-specific nodules, in order to avoid strenuous follow-up and painful biopsy for the patient.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Breast, MRI, radiomics

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10 Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Breast MRI Examinations: Clinical Use and Technical Challenges

Authors: Janet Wing-Chong Wai, Alex Chiu-Wing Lee, Hailey Hoi-Ching Tsang, Jeffrey Chiu, Kwok-Wing Tang

Abstract:

Background: Mammography has limited sensitivity and specificity though it is the primary imaging technique for detection of early breast cancer. Ultrasound imaging and contrast-enhanced MRI are useful adjunct tools to mammography. The advantage of breast MRI is high sensitivity for invasive breast cancer. Therefore, indications for and use of breast magnetic resonance imaging have increased over the past decade. Objectives: 1. Cases demonstration on different indications for breast MR imaging. 2. To review of the common artifacts and pitfalls in breast MR imaging. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study including all patients underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI examination in our centre, performed from Jan 2011 to Dec 2017. The clinical data and radiological images were retrieved from the EPR (electronic patient record), RIS (Radiology Information System) and PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System). Results and Discussion: Cases including (1) Screening of the contralateral breast in patient with a new breast malignancy (2) Breast augmentation with free injection of unknown foreign materials (3) Finding of axillary adenopathy with an unknown site of primary malignancy (4) Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy: before, during, and after chemotherapy to evaluate treatment response and extent of residual disease prior to operation. Relevant images will be included and illustrated in the presentation. As with other types of MR imaging, there are different artifacts and pitfalls that can potentially limit interpretation of the images. Because of the coils and software specific to breast MR imaging, there are some other technical considerations that are unique to MR imaging of breast regions. Case demonstration images will be available in presentation. Conclusion: Breast MR imaging is a highly sensitive and reasonably specific method for the detection of breast cancer. Adherent to appropriate clinical indications and technical optimization are crucial for achieving satisfactory images for interpretation.

Keywords: Cancer, Breast, Clinical, MRI

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9 Leveraging Multimodal Neuroimaging Techniques to in vivo Address Compensatory and Disintegration Patterns in Neurodegenerative Disorders: Evidence from Cortico-Cerebellar Connections in Multiple Sclerosis

Authors: Efstratios Karavasilis, Foteini Christidi, Georgios Velonakis, Agapi Plousi, Kalliopi Platoni, Nikolaos Kelekis, Ioannis Evdokimidis, Efstathios Efstathopoulos

Abstract:

Introduction: Advanced structural and functional neuroimaging techniques contribute to the study of anatomical and functional brain connectivity and its role in the pathophysiology and symptoms’ heterogeneity in several neurodegenerative disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Aim: In the present study, we applied multiparametric neuroimaging techniques to investigate the structural and functional cortico-cerebellar changes in MS patients. Material: We included 51 MS patients (28 with clinically isolated syndrome [CIS], 31 with relapsing-remitting MS [RRMS]) and 51 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) who underwent MRI in a 3.0T MRI scanner. Methodology: The acquisition protocol included high-resolution 3D T1 weighted, diffusion-weighted imaging and echo planar imaging sequences for the analysis of volumetric, tractography and functional resting state data, respectively. We performed between-group comparisons (CIS, RRMS, HC) using CAT12 and CONN16 MATLAB toolboxes for the analysis of volumetric (cerebellar gray matter density) and functional (cortico-cerebellar resting-state functional connectivity) data, respectively. Brainance suite was used for the analysis of tractography data (cortico-cerebellar white matter integrity; fractional anisotropy [FA]; axial and radial diffusivity [AD; RD]) to reconstruct the cerebellum tracts. Results: Patients with CIS did not show significant gray matter (GM) density differences compared with HC. However, they showed decreased FA and increased diffusivity measures in cortico-cerebellar tracts, and increased cortico-cerebellar functional connectivity. Patients with RRMS showed decreased GM density in cerebellar regions, decreased FA and increased diffusivity measures in cortico-cerebellar WM tracts, as well as a pattern of increased and mostly decreased functional cortico-cerebellar connectivity compared to HC. The comparison between CIS and RRMS patients revealed significant GM density difference, reduced FA and increased diffusivity measures in WM cortico-cerebellar tracts and increased/decreased functional connectivity. The identification of decreased WM integrity and increased functional cortico-cerebellar connectivity without GM changes in CIS and the pattern of decreased GM density decreased WM integrity and mostly decreased functional connectivity in RRMS patients emphasizes the role of compensatory mechanisms in early disease stages and the disintegration of structural and functional networks with disease progression. Conclusions: In conclusion, our study highlights the added value of multimodal neuroimaging techniques for the in vivo investigation of cortico-cerebellar brain changes in neurodegenerative disorders. An extension and future opportunity to leverage multimodal neuroimaging data inevitably remain the integration of such data in the recently-applied mathematical approaches of machine learning algorithms to more accurately classify and predict patients’ disease course.

Keywords: MRI, Multiple Sclerosis, cerebellum, advanced neuroimaging techniques

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8 Computational Study on Traumatic Brain Injury Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based 3D Viscoelastic Model

Authors: Harikrishnan N. Unni, Tanu Khanuja

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Head is the most vulnerable part of human body and may cause severe life threatening injuries. As the in vivo brain response cannot be recorded during injury, computational investigation of the head model could be really helpful to understand the injury mechanism. Majority of the physical damage to living tissues are caused by relative motion within the tissue due to tensile and shearing structural failures. The present Finite Element study focuses on investigating intracranial pressure and stress/strain distributions resulting from impact loads on various sites of human head. This is performed by the development of the 3D model of a human head with major segments like cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem, CSF (cerebrospinal fluid), and skull from patient specific MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). The semi-automatic segmentation of head is performed using AMIRA software to extract finer grooves of the brain. To maintain the accuracy high number of mesh elements are required followed by high computational time. Therefore, the mesh optimization has also been performed using tetrahedral elements. In addition, model validation with experimental literature is performed as well. Hard tissues like skull is modeled as elastic whereas soft tissues like brain is modeled with viscoelastic prony series material model. This paper intends to obtain insights into the severity of brain injury by analyzing impacts on frontal, top, back, and temporal sites of the head. Yield stress (based on von Mises stress criterion for tissues) and intracranial pressure distribution due to impact on different sites (frontal, parietal, etc.) are compared and the extent of damage to cerebral tissues is discussed in detail. This paper finds that how the back impact is more injurious to overall head than the other. The present work would be helpful to understand the injury mechanism of traumatic brain injury more effectively.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, MRI, traumatic brain injury, dynamic impact analysis, intracranial pressure, von Misses stress

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7 Gadolinium-Based Polymer Nanostructures as Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents

Authors: Franca De Sarno, Alfonso Maria Ponsiglione, Enza Torino

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Recent advances in diagnostic imaging technology have significantly contributed to a better understanding of specific changes associated with diseases progression. Among different imaging modalities, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) represents a noninvasive medical diagnostic technique, which shows low sensitivity and long acquisition time and it can discriminate between healthy and diseased tissues by providing 3D data. In order to improve the enhancement of MRI signals, some imaging exams require intravenous administration of contrast agents (CAs). Recently, emerging research reports a progressive deposition of these drugs, in particular, gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs), in the body many years after multiple MRI scans. These discoveries confirm the need to have a biocompatible system able to boost a clinical relevant Gd-chelate. To this aim, several approaches based on engineered nanostructures have been proposed to overcome the common limitations of conventional CAs, such as the insufficient signal-to-noise ratios due to relaxivity and poor safety profile. In particular, nanocarriers, labeling or loading with CAs, capable of carrying high payloads of CAs have been developed. Currently, there’s no a comprehensive understanding of the thermodynamic contributions enable of boosting the efficacy of conventional CAs by using biopolymers matrix. Thus, considering the importance of MRI in diagnosing diseases, here it is reported a successful example of the next generation of these drugs where the commercial gadolinium chelate is incorporate into a biopolymer nanostructure, formed by cross-linked hyaluronic acid (HA), with improved relaxation properties. In addition, they are highlighted the basic principles ruling biopolymer-CA interactions in the perspective of their influence on the relaxometric properties of the CA by adopting a multidisciplinary experimental approach. On the basis of these discoveries, it is clear that the main point consists in increasing the rigidification of readily-available Gd-CAs within the biopolymer matrix by controlling the water dynamics, the physicochemical interactions, and the polymer conformations. In the end, the acquired knowledge about polymer-CA systems has been applied to develop of Gd-based HA nanoparticles with enhanced relaxometric properties.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Biopolymers, MRI, contrast agent

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