Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

motor skills Related Abstracts

7 Sports for the Children with Autism

Authors: Mohamed A. Abdelnaby


Relevance of the research: A few people known about Autism and also about Sports for Autism. Children with Autism have difficult experience with sport that makes many problems during the sports activities. There are several areas of motor skills development essential for participating daily life and several sports activities. The object of the research is describe the program for the sports activities for children with Autism, and the aim is to improving their movement skills, motor skills and social skills. Research methods and organization: Twenty-five children with Autism perceived barriers to sports activities participation, and functioning. All the program inside the Pegasus Dreamland Sports Club and all the facilities available for the research. Results and discussion: Standard, children were reported to meet or exceeded general PA occurrence guidelines, belonged to active participated in a variety of sports activities. We identified several barriers to optimal sports activities for their children. Conclusions: Children with Autism can achieve optimal sports activities. Exposure to a variety of sports activities opportunities and experiences aids in identifying the model activity for each individual child.

Keywords: autism, sports activates, movement skills, motor skills

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6 The Impact of Motor Predispositions of Pilot-Cadets on Results in Aviation Synthetic Efficiency Test

Authors: Zbigniew Wochynski, Justyna Skrzynska, Robert Jedrys, Zdzislaw Kobos


The aim of the study is to determine the types of motor skills and their impact on achieving results while undergoing Aviation Synthetic Efficiency Test (ASET). The study involved 59 cadets, 21 years-old on average, who are studying on first year for a pilot. The average weight of the respondents is 73.8 kg. The subjects were divided into two groups by weight: up to 73.8 kg -group A (n-30) and above 73,8kg -group B (n-29). All subjects underwent the following tests: running at 40m, 100m, 1000m, 2000m, pull-ups, ASET. In both groups, the cadets were divided into two motor skills types taking into advance 40 m running, pull-ups, 2000 meters running and then subjected to do ASET. There has been shown statistically significant increase in group B in body height, weight and BMI with p <0.0003, p <0.0001, p <0.0001 compared to group A. The results indicate that the dominant motor type in all subjects is the endurance-strength model, which reached the speed V = 1,42m/s in overcoming ASET. This is confirmed by the correlation between 2000m and pull-ups r = 0.37 (p <0.05). In group A, the results indicate that the dominant type of motor is a high-speed-endurance model (26.6%), which reached speed V = 1,42m/s in overcoming ASET. In Group B, there was type of motor speed-strength (20.6%), which reached speed of V = 1.45m/s in overcoming ASET. This confirms the correlation between ASET and pull-ups r = 0.56 (p <0.005). Examined cadets who were having one dominant characteristic achieved worse results is ASET. The best results from all examined cadets in overcoming ASET had the type of motor endurance-strength, in group A endurance-speed model and in group B type of speed-strength

Keywords: Physical Tests, motor skills, ASET, Aviation Synthetic Efficiency Test, pilot-cadets

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5 Examining the Impact of Intelligence Quotients on Balance and Coordination in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Bilge B. Calik, Ummuhan B. Aslan, Suat Erel, Sehmus Aslan


Objective: Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. The aim of this study was to evaluate the balance and coordination performance determined between mild and moderate ID adolescents who regularly play sport. Methods: The study comprised a total of 179 participants, of which 135 were male adolescents with mild and moderate-level ID who regularly play sports (16.52 ± 2.17 years) and 44 age-matched male adolescents with typical development without ID who do not do any sports (16.52 ± 0.99 years). The participants with ID were students of Special Education Schools for the mentally disabled and had been diagnosed with ID at a Ministry of Health Hospital. The adolescents with mild and moderate ID had been playing football in their school teams at least 2 days a week, for at least one year. Balance and coordination of adolescents were assessed by Bilateral coordination and balance subtests of Short Form Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2 SF). Results: As a result of the evaluations comparing coordination and balance scores significant differences were determined between all three groups in favor of the peers without ID (p<0.05). Conclusions: It was observed that balance and coordination levels of adolescents with mild ID were better than those of adolescents with moderate-level ID but lower than those of peers without ID. These results indicate a relationship between IQ level and motor performance. Further comparative studies are needed on individuals with ID who play and do not play sports in order to examine the impact of participation in sports on the motor skills of individuals with ID.

Keywords: Sport, coordination, Intellectual Disability, Balance, motor skills

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4 Reliability of Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 Age Band 3 Using Multiple Testers

Authors: Jernice S. Y. Tan


Introduction: Reliability within and between testers is vital to ensure the accuracy of any motor assessment instrument. However, reliability checks of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2) age band 3 using multiple testers assigned to different MABC-2 tasks for the same group of participants are uncommon. Multiple testers were not stated as a choice in the MABC-2 manual. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-tester reliability for using multiple testers to administer the test protocols of MABC-2 age band 3. Methods: Thirty volunteered adolescents (n = 30; 15 males, 15 females; age range: 13 – 16 years) performed the eight tasks in a randomised sequence at three different test stations for the MABC-2 task components (Manual Dexterity, Aiming and Catching, Balance). Ethics approval and parental consent were obtained. The participants were videotaped while performing the test protocols of MABC-2 age band 3. Five testers were involved in the data collection process. They were Sports Science graduating students doing their final year project and were supervised by experienced motor assessor. Inter- and intra-tester reliability checks using intra-class coefficient (ICC) were carried out using the videotaped data. Results: The inter-tester reliability between the five testers for the eight tasks ranged from rᵢcc = 0.705 to rᵢcc = 0.995. This suggests that the average agreement between them was considered good to excellent. With the exception of one tester who had rᵢcc = 0.687 for one of the eight tasks (i.e. zip-zap hopping), the intra-tester reliability within each tester ranged from rᵢcc = 0.728 to rᵢcc = 1.000, and this also suggested good to excellent consistency within testers. Discussion: The use of multiple testers with good intra-tester reliability for different test stations is feasible. This method allows several participants to be assessed concurrently at different test stations and saves overall data collection time. Therefore, it is recommended that the administering of MABC-2 with multiple testers should be extended to other age bands ensuring the feasibility of such method for other age bands.

Keywords: Reliability, Adolescents, motor skills, MABC, motor assessment

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3 The Effectiveness of Therapeutic Exercise on Motor Skills and Attention of Male Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Masoume Pourmohamadreza-Tajrishi, Parviz Azadfallah


Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) involve myriad aberrant perceptual, cognitive, linguistic, and social behaviors. The term spectrum emphasizes that the disabilities associated with ASD fall on a continuum from relatively mild to severe. People with ASD may display stereotyped behaviors such as twirling, spinning objects, flapping the hands, and rocking. The individuals with ASD exhibit communication problems due to repetitive/restricted behaviors. Children with ASD who lack the motivation to learn, who do not enjoy physical challenges, or whose sensory perception results in confusing or unpleasant feedback from movement may not become sufficiently motivated to practice motor activities. As a result, they may show both a delay in developing certain motor skills. Additionally, attention is an important component of learning. As far as children with ASD have problems in joint attention, many education-based programs are needed to consider some aspects of attention and motor activities development for students with ASD. These programs focus on the basic movement skills that are crucial for the future development of the more complex skills needed in games, dance, sports, gymnastics, active play, and recreational physical activities. The purpose of the present research was to determine the effectiveness of therapeutic exercise on motor skills and attention of male students with ASD. This was an experimental study with a control group. The population consisted of 8-10 year-old male students with ASD and 30 subjects were selected randomly from an available center suitable for the children with ASD. They were evaluated by the Basic Motor Ability Test (BMAT) and Persian version of computerized Stroop color-word test and randomly assigned to an experimental and control group (15 students in per group). The experimental group participated in 16 therapeutic exercise sessions and received therapeutic exercise program (twice a week; each lasting for 45 minutes) designed based on the Spark motor program while the control group did not. All subjects were evaluated by BMAT and Stroop color-word test after the last session again. The collected data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). The results of MANCOVA showed that experimental and control groups had a significant difference in motor skills and at least one of the components of attention (correct responses, incorrect responses, no responses, the reaction time of congruent words and reaction time of incongruent words in the Stroop test). The findings showed that the therapeutic exercise had a significant effect on motor skills and all components of attention in students with ASD. We can conclude that the therapeutic exercise led to promote the motor skills and attention of students with ASD, so it is necessary to design or plan such programs for ASD students to prevent their communication or academic problems.

Keywords: Attention, therapeutic exercise, Autism spectrum disorder, motor skills

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2 Comparison of Sedentary Behavior and Physical Activity between Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Controls

Authors: Abdulrahman M. Alhowikan, Nadra E. Elamin, Sarah S. Aldayel, Sara A. AlSiddiqi, Fai S. Alrowais, Laila Y. Al-Ayadhi


Background: A growing body of research has suggested that physical activities (PA) have important implications for improving the performance of ASD children. They revealed that the physiological, cognitive, psychological, and behavioral functioning had improved after performing some physical activities. Methods: We compared the sedentary behavior and physical activities between children with autism spectrum disorder (n=21) and age-matched control group (n=30), using the ActiGraph GT3X+ for the assessments. Results: Our results revealed that the total time spent in sedentary activity and the total sedentary activity counts were highly significant in the control group compared to the ASD group (p < 0.001, p=0.001, respectively). ASD spent a significantly longer time than the controls engaging on vigorous physical activity (VPA) (p=0.017). The results also indicated that there were no significant differences between both groups for the total counts and time spent in light physical activity (LPA) and moderate physical activity (MPA). Conclusion: The finding highlights the importance of physical activity intervention for ASD children, using accurate and precise measurement tools to record all activities.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Autism Spectrum Disorders, motor skills, ActiGraph GT3X+, moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activity

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1 A Systematic Review of Sensory Processing Patterns of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Authors: Ala’a F. Jaber, Bara’ah A. Bsharat, Noor T. Ismael


Background: Sensory processing is a fundamental skill needed for the successful performance of daily living activities. These skills are impaired as parts of the neurodevelopmental process issues among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This systematic review aimed to summarize the evidence on the differences in sensory processing and motor characteristic between children with ASD and children with TD. Method: This systematic review followed the guidelines of the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis. The search terms included sensory, motor, condition, and child-related terms or phrases. The electronic search utilized Academic Search Ultimate, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, ERIC, MEDLINE, MEDLINE Complete, Psychology, and Behavioral Sciences Collection, and SocINDEX with full-text databases. The hand search included looking for potential studies in the references of related studies. The inclusion criteria included studies published in English between years 2009-2020 that included children aged 3-18 years with a confirmed ASD diagnosis, according to the DSM-V criteria, included a control group of typical children, included outcome measures related to the sensory processing and/or motor functions, and studies available in full-text. The review of included studies followed the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine guidelines, and the Guidelines for Critical Review Form of Quantitative Studies, and the guidelines for conducting systematic reviews by the American Occupational Therapy Association. Results: Eighty-eight full-text studies related to the differences between children with ASD and children with TD in terms of sensory processing and motor characteristics were reviewed, of which eighteen articles were included in the quantitative synthesis. The results reveal that children with ASD had more extreme sensory processing patterns than children with TD, like hyper-responsiveness and hypo-responsiveness to sensory stimuli. Also, children with ASD had limited gross and fine motor abilities and lower strength, endurance, balance, eye-hand coordination, movement velocity, cadence, dexterity with a higher rate of gait abnormalities than children with TD. Conclusion: This systematic review provided preliminary evidence suggesting that motor functioning should be addressed in the evaluation and intervention for children with ASD, and sensory processing should be supported among children with TD. More future research should investigate whether how the performance and engagement in daily life activities are affected by sensory processing and motor skills.

Keywords: Occupational therapy, Children, Sensory processing, motor skills

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