Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

mosquitoes Related Abstracts

3 Solid Waste and Its Impact on the Human Health

Authors: Waseem Akram, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan

Abstract:

Unplanned urbanization together with change in life from simple to more technologically advanced style with flow of rural masses to urban areas has played a vital role in pilling loads of solid wastes in our environment. The cities and towns have expanded beyond boundaries. Even the uncontrolled population expansion has caused the overall environmental burden. Thus, today the indifference remains as one of the biggest trash that has come up due to the non-responsive behavior of the people. Everyday huge amount of solid waste is thrown in the streets, on the roads, parks, and in all those places that are frequently and often visited by the human beings. This behavior based response in many countries of the world has led to serious health concerns and environmental issues. Over 80% of our products that are sold in the market are packed in plastic bags. None of the bags are later recycled but simply become a permanent environment concern that flies, choke lines or are burnt and release toxic gases in the environment or form dumps of heaps. Lack of classification of the daily waste generated from houses and other places lead to worst clogging of the sewerage lines and formation of ponding areas which ultimately favor vector borne disease and sometimes become a cause of transmission of polio virus. Solid waste heaps were checked at different places of the cities. All of the wastes on visual assessments were classified into plastic bags, papers, broken plastic pots, clay pots, steel boxes, wrappers etc. All solid waste dumping sites in the cities and wastes that were thrown outside of the trash containers usually contained wrappers, plastic bags, and unconsumed food products. Insect populations seen in these sites included the house flies, bugs, cockroaches and mosquito larvae breeding in water filled wrappers, containers or plastic bags. The population of the mosquitoes, cockroaches and houseflies were relatively very high in dumping sites close to human population. This population has been associated with cases like dengue, malaria, dysentery, gastro and also to skin allergies during the monsoon and summer season. Thus, dumping of the huge amount of solid wastes in and near the residential areas results into serious environmental concerns, bad smell circulation, and health related issues. In some places, the same waste is burnt to get rid of mosquitoes through smoke which ultimately releases toxic material in the atmosphere. Therefore, a proper environmental strategy is needed to minimize environmental burden and promote concepts of recycled products and thus, reduce the disease burden.

Keywords: mosquitoes, disease burden, solid waste accumulation, vector borne diseases

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2 Entomological Survey of Mosquitoes Responsible for the Transmission of Lymphatic Filariasis in Biase Cross River State, Nigeria

Authors: Maurice Mbah

Abstract:

Entomological survey of mosquitoes responsible for the transmission of lymphatic filariasis in Biase Local Government area of Cross River State, Nigeria within March and June 2017. Lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-borne parasitic disease that is caused by three species of tissue dwelling filaroids (Wuchereria bancrofti; Brugia malayi; Brugia timori): Wuchereria bancrofti is responsible for 90% of cases and is found throughout the tropics and in some sub-tropical areas worldwide. The mosquitoes were caught using human landing catches, and pyrethrum spray catches method. The entomological analysis of mosquitoes which include speciating into genus and dissecting them to unveil any microfilaria in the thoracic region, abdomen, and mouth parts of the mosquitoes. Entomological analysis shows that, from the 1296 mosquitoes caught 795 (61.3%) were Culex species, 342 (26.4%) Anopheles species, 102 (7.9%) Aedes species, and 57 (4.4%) of other Genera. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of mosquitoes caught in the dry and rainy season (X²=0.62, P < 0.05). Out of 1213 mosquitoes dissected, 24(0.02%) contained developed stages (L₁ – L₃) of W. bancrofti larvae. 13 (0.01%) of the infected mosquitoes were of Culex species, and Anopheles species accounted for the other 11 (0.009%). There was a statistically significant difference in the infection rate between the two seasons (X²=0.87, P < 0.05). The correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between the infection rate among mosquitoes in the dry and rainy season (r=0.85, P < 0.05). The entomological studies showed that Anopheles species and the Culex species are the vectors of lymphatic filariasis in the study area.

Keywords: mosquitoes, lymphatic filariasis, entomological survey, biase

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1 In vitro Control of Aedes aegypti Larvae Using Beauveria bassiana

Authors: R. O. B. Bitencourt, F. S. Farias, M. C. Freitas, C. J. R. Balduino, E.S. Mesquita, A. R. C. Corval, P. S. Gôlo, E. G. Pontes, V. R. E. P. Bittencourt, I. C. Angelo

Abstract:

Aedes aegypti larval survival rate was assessed after exposure to blastopores or conidia (mineral oil-in-water formulation or aqueous suspension) of Beauveria bassiana CG 479 propagules (blastospores or conidia). Here, mineral oil was used in the fungal formulation to control Aedes aegypti larvae. 1%, 0.5% or 0.1% mineral oil-in-water solutions were used to evaluate mineral oil toxicity for mosquito larvae. In the oil toxicity test, 0.1% mineral oil solution reduced only 4.5% larval survival; accordingly, this concentration was chosen for fungal oil-in-water formulations. Aqueous suspensions were prepared using 0.01% Tween 80® in sterile dechlorinated water. A. aegypti larvae (L2) were exposed in aqueous suspensions or mineral oil-in-water fungal formulations at 1×107 propagules mL-1; the survival rate (assessed daily, for 7 days) and the median survival time (S50) were calculated. Seven days after the treatment, mosquito larvae survival rates were 8.56%, 16.22%, 58%, and 42.56% after exposure to oil-in-water blastospores, oil-in-water conidia, blastospores aqueous suspension and conidia aqueous suspension (respectively). Larvae exposed to 0.01% Tween 80® had 100% survival rate and the ones treated with 0.1% mineral oil-in-water had 95.11% survival rate. Larvae treated with conidia (regardless the presence of oil) or treated with blastospores formulation had survival median time (S50) ranging from one to two days. S50 was not determined (ND) when larvae were exposed to blastospores aqueous suspension, 0.01% Tween 80® (aqueous control) or 0.1% mineral oil-in-water formulation (oil control). B. bassiana conidia and blastospores (mineral oil-in-water formulated or suspended in water) had potential to control A. aegypti mosquito larvae, despite mineral oil-in-water formulation yielded better results in comparison to aqueous suspensions. Here, B. bassiana CG 479 isolate is suggested as a potential biocontrol agent of A. aegypti mosquito larvae.

Keywords: mosquitoes, Formulation, conidia, blastospores

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