Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

morphometrics Related Abstracts

3 Effects of the Food Colour Erythrosine on Thyroid Gland Function in Experimental Rats

Authors: Eitedal Daoud, Maha M.Saber, Moetazza M. Alshafei, Lobna M. Abd El-Latif


Children in the third world consumes many food products colored red like sweets and soft drink without knowing its effect on health or the type of color used in these products Erythrosine (ER,FD & C Red No.3) is one of the most common coloring agent used in these products and in coloring cherry in compotes. The possible adverse effect of erythrosine ER on the thyroid gland function is investigated in albino rats. Forty-five adult male albino rats were divided to three groups two groups will receive ER orally in doses 68 and I36mg/kg respectively. Third group will receive distilled water for three months Sections of thyroid glands were examined for histopathological, morphometric analysis and MIB-I Ki67 (proliferative marker). Serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxin (T4) and thyrotrophin (TSH) were determined, results showed histological changes in the two treatment groups versus control group in the group with 68mg/kg dose show vaculation of the cytoplasm of follicular cells and pleomorphism of their nuclei. While the other treated group {136mg /kg} showed congestion of blood vessels, hyperplasia of the interstitial cells and increased multilayer of the follicular cells. Highly significant increase in the mean area of the thyroid follicles in both treated groups compared to control group.Erythrosine treated groups showed a very highly significant decrease (P < 0.001) in serum concentration of T3 and T 4 while TSH showed a very highly significant increase versus control.

Keywords: Thyroid, erythrosine, morphometrics, proliferative marker

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2 Measuring Fluctuating Asymmetry in Human Faces Using High-Density 3D Surface Scans

Authors: O. Ekrami, P. Claes, S. Van Dongen


Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) has been studied for many years as an indicator of developmental stability or ‘genetic quality’ based on the assumption that perfect symmetry is ideally the expected outcome for a bilateral organism. Further studies have also investigated the possible link between FA and attractiveness or levels of masculinity or femininity. These hypotheses have been mostly examined using 2D images, and the structure of interest is usually presented using a limited number of landmarks. Such methods have the downside of simplifying and reducing the dimensionality of the structure, which will in return increase the error of the analysis. In an attempt to reach more conclusive and accurate results, in this study we have used high-resolution 3D scans of human faces and have developed an algorithm to measure and localize FA, taking a spatially-dense approach. A symmetric spatially dense anthropometric mask with paired vertices is non-rigidly mapped on target faces using an Iterative Closest Point (ICP) registration algorithm. A set of 19 manually indicated landmarks were used to examine the precision of our mapping step. The protocol’s accuracy in measurement and localizing FA is assessed using simulated faces with known amounts of asymmetry added to them. The results of validation of our approach show that the algorithm is perfectly capable of locating and measuring FA in 3D simulated faces. With the use of such algorithm, the additional captured information on asymmetry can be used to improve the studies of FA as an indicator of fitness or attractiveness. This algorithm can especially be of great benefit in studies of high number of subjects due to its automated and time-efficient nature. Additionally, taking a spatially dense approach provides us with information about the locality of FA, which is impossible to obtain using conventional methods. It also enables us to analyze the asymmetry of a morphological structures in a multivariate manner; This can be achieved by using methods such as Principal Components Analysis (PCA) or Factor Analysis, which can be a step towards understanding the underlying processes of asymmetry. This method can also be used in combination with genome wide association studies to help unravel the genetic bases of FA. To conclude, we introduced an algorithm to study and analyze asymmetry in human faces, with the possibility of extending the application to other morphological structures, in an automated, accurate and multi-variate framework.

Keywords: morphometrics, developmental stability, fluctuating asymmetry

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1 Gross and Clinical Anatomy of the Skull of Adult Chinkara, Gazella bennettii

Authors: Hafsa Zaneb, Saima Masood, Salahud Din, Imad Khan, Habib Ur Rehman, Saima Ashraf, Muqader Shah


The objective of this study was (1) to study gross morphological, osteometric and clinical important landmarks in the skull of adult Chinkara to obtain baseline data and (2) to study sexual dimorphism in male and female adult Chinkara through osteometry. For this purpose, after performing postmortem examination, the carcass of adult Chinkara of known sex and age was buried in the locality of the Manglot Wildlife Park and Ungulate Breeding Centre, Nizampur, Pakistan; after a specific period of time, the bones were unearthed. Gross morphological features and various osteometric parameters of the skull were studied in the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. The shape of the Chinkara skull was elongated and had thirty-two bones. The skull was comprised of the cranial and the facial part. The facial region of the skull was formed by maxilla, incisive, palatine, vomar, pterygoid, frontal, parietal, nasal, incisive, turbinates, mandible and hyoid apparatus. The bony region of the cranium of Chinkara was comprised of occipital, ethmoid, sphenoid, interparietal, parietal, temporal, and frontal bone. The foramina identified in the facial region of the skull of Chinkara were infraorbital, supraorbital foramen, lacrimal, sphenopalatine, maxillary and caudal palatine foramina. The foramina of the cranium of the skull of the Chinkara were the internal acoustic meatus, external acoustic meatus, hypoglossal canal, transverse canal, sphenorbital fissure, carotid canal, foramen magnum, stylomastoid foramen, foramen rotundum, foramen ovale and jugular foramen, and the rostral and the caudal foramina that formed the pterygoid canal. The measured craniometric parameters did not show statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) between male and female adult Chinkara except Palatine bone, OI, DO, IOCDE, OCT, ICW, IPCW, and PCPL were significantly higher (p > 0.05) in male than female Chinkara and mean values of the mandibular parameters except b and h were significantly (p < 0.5) higher in male Chinkara than female Chinkara. Sexual dimorphism exists in some of the orbital and foramen magnum parameters, while high levels of sexual dimorphism identified in mandible. In conclusion, morphocraniometric studies of Chinkara skull made it possible to identify species-specific skull and use clinical measurements during practical application.

Keywords: Morphology, Sexual Dimorphism, morphometrics, chinkara, skull

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