Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

morphological Related Abstracts

6 A Review on the Usage of Ceramic Wastes in Concrete Production

Authors: O. Zimbili, W. Salim, M. Ndambuki

Abstract:

Construction and Demolition (C&D) wastes contribute the highest percentage of wastes worldwide (75%). Furthermore, ceramic materials contribute the highest percentage of wastes within the C&D wastes (54%). The current option for disposal of ceramic wastes is landfill. This is due to unavailability of standards, avoidance of risk, lack of knowledge and experience in using ceramic wastes in construction. The ability of ceramic wastes to act as a pozzolanic material in the production of cement has been effectively explored. The results proved that temperatures used in the manufacturing of these tiles (about 900 ⁰C) are sufficient to activate pozzolanic properties of clay. They also showed that, after optimization (11-14% substitution), the cement blend performs better, with no morphological differences between the cement blended with ceramic waste, and that blended with other pozzolanic materials. Sanitary ware and electrical insulator porcelain wastes are some wastes investigated for usage as aggregates in concrete production. When optimized, both produced good results, better than when natural aggregates are used. However, the research on ceramic wastes as partial substitute for fine aggregates or cement has not been overly exploited as the other areas. This review has been concluded with focus on investigating whether ceramic wall tile wastes used as partial substitute for cement and fine aggregates could prove to be beneficial since the two materials are the most high-priced during concrete production.

Keywords: Waste, morphological, blended, pozzolanic

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5 Screening, Selection and Optimization of Extracellular Methanol and Ethanol Tolerant Lipase from Acinetobacter sp. K5B4

Authors: Khaled M. Khleifat

Abstract:

An extracellular methanol and ethanol tolerant lipase producing bacterial strain K5b4 was isolated from soil samples contaminated with hydrocarbon residues. It was identified by using morphological and biochemical characteristics and 16srRNA technique as Acinetobacter species. The immobilized lipase from Acinetobacter sp. K5b4 retained more than 98% of its residual activity after incubation with pure methanol and ethanol for 24 hours. The highest hydrolytic activity of the immobilized enzyme was obtained in the presence of 75% (v/v) methanol in the assay solution. In contrary, the enzyme was able to maintain its original activity up to only 25% (v/v) ethanol whereas at elevated concentrations of 50 and 75% (v/v) the enzyme activity was reduced to 10 and 40%, respectively. Maximum lipase activity of 31.5 mU/mL was achieved after 48 hr cultivation when the optimized medium (pH 7.0) that composed of 1.0% (w/v) olive oil, 0.2% (w/v) glycerol, 0.15% (w/v) yeast extract, and 0.05% (w/v) NaCl was inoculated with 0.4% (v/v) seed culture and incubated at 30°C and 150 rpm agitation speed. However, the presence of CaCl2 in the growth media did not show any inhibitory or stimulatory effect on the enzyme production as it compared to the control experiment. Meanwhile, the other mineral salts MgCl2, MnCl2, KCl and CoCl2 were negatively affected the production of lipase enzyme. The inhibition of lipase production from Acinetobacter sp. K5b4 in presence of glucose suggesting that lipase gene expression is prone to catabolic repression.

Keywords: morphological, K5B4, methanol and ethanol, acinetobacter

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4 Diversity and Taxonomy: Malaysian Marine Algae Genus Halimeda (Halimedaceae, Chlorophyta)

Authors: Nur Farah Ain Zainee, Ahmad Ismail, Nazlina Ibrahim, Asmida Ismail

Abstract:

The study of genus Halimeda in Malaysia is in the early stage due to less specific study on its taxonomy. Most of the previous research tend to choose other genus such as Caulerpa and Gracilaria because of the potential of being utilized. The identification of Halimeda is complex by the high morphological variation within individual species due to different types of habitat and the changes in composition of seawater. The study was completed to study the diversity and distribution of Halimeda in Malaysia and to identify the morphological and anatomical differences between Halimeda species. The methods which have been used for this study are collection of Halimeda and seawater, preservation of specimen, identification of the specimen including the preparation of the temporary slide and decalcification of the calcium layer by using diluted hydrochloric acid. The specimen were processed in laboratory and kept as herbarium specimen in Algae Herbarium, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Environmental parameters were tested by using YSI multiparameter probe and the recorded data were temperature, salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen. The nutrient content of seawater such as nitrate and phosphate were analysed by using Hach kit model DR 2000. In the present study, out of 330 herbarium specimen, ten species were identified as Halimeda cuneata, H. discoidea, H. macroloba, H. macrophysa, H. opuntia, H. simulans, H. stuposa, H. taenicola, H. tuna and H. velasquezii. Of these, five species were new record to Malaysia. They are Halimeda cuneata, H. macrophysa, H. stuposa, H. taenicola and H. velasquezii. H. opuntia was found as the most abundance species with wide distribution in Malaysia coastal area. Meanwhile, from the study of their distribution, two localities in which Pulau Balak Balak, Kudat and Pulau Langkawi, Kedah, were noted having high number of Halimeda species. As a conclusion, this study has successfully identified ten species of Halimeda of Malaysia with full description of morphological characteristics that may assist further researcher to differentiate and identify Halimeda.

Keywords: Diversity, Distribution, taxonomy, morphological, Halimeda

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3 Cryogenic Grinding of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Peel and Its Effect on Chemical and Morphological Characteristics

Authors: P. P. Srivastav, Bhupinder Kaur

Abstract:

The fruit and vegetable industries are responsible for producing huge amount of waste, which is a problem to environmental safety and should be utilized efficiently. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is an important commercially grown fruit and referred as the “King of fruits”. In 2015, India was the largest producer (18.506 MT) of mangoes and out of which 9.16 % lost during post-harvest handling. The mango kernel and peel represent approximately 17-22% and 7-22% of the overall mass of fruit respectively and discarded as waste. Hence, an attempt has been made with three mango cultivars (Langra, Dashehari, Fazli) to investigate the effect of cryogenic grinding on various characteristics of mango peel powder (MPP). The cryogenic grinding is an emerging technology which is used for retention of beneficial volatile and bioactive components. The feed rate was highest for Langra followed by Chausa. The samples have 2-4% fat along with significant amount of protein (4-6%) and crude fiber (9-13%). Mango peel is also a good source of minerals such as calcium, potassium, manganese, iron, copper, zinc, and magnesium. Interestingly, the significant amount of essential minerals like phosphorus and chlorine in all the varieties was found with the highest value in Langra (phosphorus 10.83% and chlorine 2.41%) which are not reported earlier. SEM analysis revealed the surface morphology and shape of the particles. Waste utilization is a promising measure from both an environmental and economic point of view. Chemical characterization of the samples indicated its potential to be used for the fortification of food products which in turn reduces hazards due to waste and improve functional quality of the foods.

Keywords: morphological, SEM, mineral composition, cryogenic grinding

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2 Morphostructural Characterization of Zinc and Manganese Nano-Oxides

Authors: Adriana-Gabriela Plaiasu, Catalin Marian Ducu

Abstract:

The interest in the unique properties associated with materials having structures on a nanometer scale has been increasing at an exponential rate in last decade. Among the functional mineral compounds such as perovskite (CaTiO3), rutile (TiO2), CaF2, spinel (MgAl2O4), wurtzite (ZnS), zincite (ZnO) and the cupric oxide (CuO) has been used in numerous applications such as catalysis, semiconductors, batteries, gas sensors, biosensors, field transistors and medicine. The Solar Physical Vapor Deposition (SPVD) presented in the paper as elaboration method is an original process to prepare nanopowders working under concentrated sunlight in 2kW solar furnaces. The influence of the synthesis parameters on the chemical and microstructural characteristics of zinc and manganese oxides synthesized nanophases has been systematically studied using XRD, TEM and SEM.

Keywords: Characterization, Structural, morphological, nano-oxides

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1 Automatic Furrow Detection for Precision Agriculture

Authors: Manpreet Kaur, Cheol-Hong Min

Abstract:

The increasing advancement in the robotics equipped with machine vision sensors applied to precision agriculture is a demanding solution for various problems in the agricultural farms. An important issue related with the machine vision system concerns crop row and weed detection. This paper proposes an automatic furrow detection system based on real-time processing for identifying crop rows in maize fields in the presence of weed. This vision system is designed to be installed on the farming vehicles, that is, submitted to gyros, vibration and other undesired movements. The images are captured under image perspective, being affected by above undesired effects. The goal is to identify crop rows for vehicle navigation which includes weed removal, where weeds are identified as plants outside the crop rows. The images quality is affected by different lighting conditions and gaps along the crop rows due to lack of germination and wrong plantation. The proposed image processing method consists of four different processes. First, image segmentation based on HSV (Hue, Saturation, Value) decision tree. The proposed algorithm used HSV color space to discriminate crops, weeds and soil. The region of interest is defined by filtering each of the HSV channels between maximum and minimum threshold values. Then the noises in the images were eliminated by the means of hybrid median filter. Further, mathematical morphological processes, i.e., erosion to remove smaller objects followed by dilation to gradually enlarge the boundaries of regions of foreground pixels was applied. It enhances the image contrast. To accurately detect the position of crop rows, the region of interest is defined by creating a binary mask. The edge detection and Hough transform were applied to detect lines represented in polar coordinates and furrow directions as accumulations on the angle axis in the Hough space. The experimental results show that the method is effective.

Keywords: morphological, Hough transform, HSV, furrow detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 113