Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Morocco Related Abstracts

27 Genotyping of G/P No Typable Group a Rotavirus Strains Revealed G2 and G9 Genotype Circulations in Moroccan Children Fully Vaccinated with Rotarix™

Authors: H. Boulahyaoui, S. Alaoui Amine, C. Loutfi, H. El Annaz, N. Touil, El M. El Fahim, S. Mrani

Abstract:

Three Moroccan children fully vaccinated with Rotarix™ have been hospitalized for Rotavirus Gastroenteritis (RVGE) in the pediatric division of the Farabi Hospital, Oujda. Rotavirus G/P genotypes could not be typed because of their delayed crossing threshold (Ct) resolute with a group A rotavirus (RVA) real time RT-PCR. These strains were adapted to cell culture. All viruses replicated and caused extensive cytopathic effects after four or five passages in MA104 cell lines. Significant improvements have been obtained in the amount of viral particles. Each virus multiplied to a high titer (7.5 TCID50/ml). VP7 and VP4 partial gene sequencing revealed distinct genotypes compared to the Rotarix(®) vaccine strain. Two strains were of G2P[4] genotype whereas the third was G9P[8] genotype. Virus isolation while labor intensive, is recommended as a second test, especially when higher sensitivity for conventional RVA genotyping RT-PCR is needed. VP7 antigenic similarities between these strains and Rotarix were determined.

Keywords: esacpe-vaccine, Morocco, Rotarix, G2P[4], G9P[8]

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26 Flora in Morocco: Importance, Diversity, Threat, and Conservation Strategies

Authors: Mohammed Sghir Taleb, Jalal Eloualidi

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Located in the extreme northwest of Africa, between 21° and 36° north latitude and 1° and 17° west longitude, Morocco covers an area of 710 850 km2. Its special geographic position between two coastlines gives an exceptional range of bioclimates varied ranging from the humid and subhumid to Saharan desert and through the arid, semi-arid and high mountain climate in the Rif, Middle and High Atlas, where altitudes exceed 2500 respectively, 3000 and 4000 m. This diversity creates a climate diverse ecosystem with a large range of different natural environments: woody forest formations pre-Saharan and Saharan steppe formations, formations of degradation. The floristic richness of the country is related to the biotopes heterogeneity. From the desert to the high mountains and the littoral to the most continental borders, Morocco offers very varied ecological conditions which allowed installation of various stocks species with a significant plant biodiversity compared to other Mediterranean countries. This plant currently has about 4200 species (4500 with subspecies) distributed among 940 genera and 135 families. Rare, threatened and/or endemic flora represents a significant part: 951 are endemics, 463 rare, 1284 threatened and 36 vulnerable. However, this diversity is subjected to many natural pressures (climate change, parasitic attacks) and antropic (clearing, overgrazing). This presentation will be focused on the Moroccan flora richness and biodiversity conservation strategies (creation of more than 154 protected areas) and the assessment of the climate change impacts on the degradation and the dysfunction of ecosystems as well as the rarefaction and the disappearance of species.

Keywords: Climate Change, Diversity, Conservation, flora, Protected Areas, importance, Morocco

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25 Financial Markets Integration between Morocco and France: Implications on International Portfolio Diversification

Authors: Abdelmounaim Lahrech, Hajar Bousfiha

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This paper examines equity market integration between Morocco and France and its consequent implications on international portfolio diversification. In the absence of stock market linkages, Morocco can act as a diversification destination to European investors, allowing higher returns at a comparable level of risk in developed markets. In contrast, this attractiveness is limited if both financial markets show significant linkage. The research empirically measures financial market’s integration in by capturing the conditional correlation between the two markets using the Generalized Autoregressive Conditionally Heteroscedastic (GARCH) model. Then, the research uses the Dynamic Conditional Correlation (DCC) model of Engle (2002) to track the correlations. The research findings show that there is no important increase over the years in the correlation between the Moroccan and the French equity markets, even though France is considered Morocco’s first trading partner. Failing to prove evidence of the stock index linkage between the two countries, the volatility series of each market were assumed to change over time separately. Yet, the study reveals that despite the important historical and economic linkages between Morocco and France, there is no evidence that equity markets follow. The small correlations and their stationarity over time show that over the 10 years studied, correlations were fluctuating around a stable mean with no significant change at their level. Different explanations can be attributed to the absence of market linkage between the two equity markets.

Keywords: Morocco, equity market linkage, DCC GARCH, international portfolio diversification, France

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24 Small Traditional Retailers in Emerging Markets

Authors: Y. Boulaksil, J. C. Fransoo, E.E. Blanco, S. Koubida

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In this paper, we study the small traditional retailers that are located in the neighborhoods of big cities in emerging markets. Although modern retailing has grown in the last two decades in these markets, the number of small retailers is still increasing and serving a substantial part of the daily demand for many basic products, such as bread, milk, and cooking oil. We conduct an empirical study to understand the business environment of these small traditional retailers in emerging markets by collecting data from 333 small retailers, spread over 8 large cities in Morocco. We analyze the data and describe their business environment with a focus on the informal credits they offer to their customers. We find that smaller small retailers that are funded from personal savings and managed by the owner himself offer relatively the most credits. Our study also provides interesting insights about these small retailers that will help FMCG manufacturers that are (planning to be) active in Morocco and other emerging markets. We also discuss a number opportunities to improve the efficiency of the supply chains that serve them.

Keywords: Supply Chain Management, Emerging Markets, empirical study, Morocco, small retailers, big cities

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23 Moroccan Human Ecological Behavior: Grounded Theory Approach

Authors: Dalal Tarfaoui, Salah Zkim

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Today, environmental sustainability is everyone’s concern as it contributes in many aspects to a country's development. Morocco is also aware of the increasing threats to its natural resources. Accordingly, many projects and research have been discussed pointing mainly to water security, pollution, desertification, and land degradation, but few studies bothered to dig into the human demeanor to disclose its ecological behavior. Human behavior is accountable for environment deterioration in the first place, but we keep fighting the symptoms instead of limiting the root causes. In the conceptual framework highlighted in the present article, semi-structured interviews have been conducted using a grounded theory approach. Initially this study will serve as a pilot study and a cornerstone to approve a bigger project now in progress. Beyond the existing general ecological measures (GEM), this study has chosen the grounded theory approach to bring out firsthand insights, and probe to which extent an ecological dimension exists in Morocco as a developing country. The discourse of the ecological behavior within the Moroccan context is seen in more realist, social, and community philosophy. The study has revealed an appreciative ecological behavior that is unfortunately repressed by variables beyond people’s control, which would prevent the people’s environmental good intentions to be translated into real ecological actions.

Keywords: Morocco, ecological behavior, ecological dimension, variables beyond people’s control

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22 The Role of Moroccan Salafist Radicalism in Creating Threat to Spain’s Security

Authors: Stanislaw Kosmynka

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Although the genesis of the activity of fighting salafist radicalism in Spain dates back to the 80’s, the development of extremism of this kind manifested itself only in the next decade. Its first permanently functioning structures in this country in the second half of 90’s of 20th century came from Algieria and Syria. At the same time it should be emphasized that this distinction is in many dimensions conventional, the more so because they consisted also of immigrants from other coutries of Islam, particularly from Morocco. The paper seeks to understand the radical salafist challenge for Spain in the context of some terrorist networks consisted of immigrants from Morocco. On the eve of the new millennium Moroccan jihadists played an increasingly important role. Although the activity of these groups had for many years mainly logistical and propaganda character, the bomb attack carried out on 11 March 2004 in Madrid constituted an expression of open forms of terrorism, directed against the authorities and society of Spain and reflected the narration of representatives of the trend of the global jihad. The people involved in carrying out that act of violence were to a large extent Moroccan immigrants; also in the following years among the cells of radicals in Spain Moroccans stood out many times. That is why the forms and directions of activity of these extremists in Spain, also after 11th March 2004 and in the actual context of the impact of Islamic State, are worth presenting. The paper is focused on threats to the security of Spain and the region and remains connected with the issues of mutual relations of the society of a host country with immigrant communities which to a large degree come from this part of Maghreb.

Keywords: Security, Spain, Morocco, threat, jihadi terrorism, radical salafism, terrorist cells

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21 Evaluation of Soil Erosion Risk and Prioritization for Implementation of Management Strategies in Morocco

Authors: Lahcen Daoudi, Fatima Zahra Omdi, Abldelali Gourfi

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In Morocco, as in most Mediterranean countries, water scarcity is a common situation because of low and unevenly distributed rainfall. The expansions of irrigated lands, as well as the growth of urban and industrial areas and tourist resorts, contribute to an increase of water demand. Therefore in the 1960s Morocco embarked on an ambitious program to increase the number of dams to boost water retention capacity. However, the decrease in the capacity of these reservoirs caused by sedimentation is a major problem; it is estimated at 75 million m3/year. Dams and reservoirs became unusable for their intended purposes due to sedimentation in large rivers that result from soil erosion. Soil erosion presents an important driving force in the process affecting the landscape. It has become one of the most serious environmental problems that raised much interest throughout the world. Monitoring soil erosion risk is an important part of soil conservation practices. The estimation of soil loss risk is the first step for a successful control of water erosion. The aim of this study is to estimate the soil loss risk and its spatial distribution in the different fields of Morocco and to prioritize areas for soil conservation interventions. The approach followed is the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) using remote sensing and GIS, which is the most popular empirically based model used globally for erosion prediction and control. This model has been tested in many agricultural watersheds in the world, particularly for large-scale basins due to the simplicity of the model formulation and easy availability of the dataset. The spatial distribution of the annual soil loss was elaborated by the combination of several factors: rainfall erosivity, soil erodability, topography, and land cover. The average annual soil loss estimated in several basins watershed of Morocco varies from 0 to 50t/ha/year. Watersheds characterized by high-erosion-vulnerability are located in the North (Rif Mountains) and more particularly in the Central part of Morocco (High Atlas Mountains). This variation of vulnerability is highly correlated to slope variation which indicates that the topography factor is the main agent of soil erosion within these basin catchments. These results could be helpful for the planning of natural resources management and for implementing sustainable long-term management strategies which are necessary for soil conservation and for increasing over the projected economic life of the dam implemented.

Keywords: watershed, Morocco, RUSLE, soil loss, GIS-remote sensing

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20 Soil with Carbonate Accumulation in Tensift Al Haouz Lowland (Morocco): Characterization, Genesis and the Environmental Significance

Authors: Lahcen Daoudi, Soukaina Elidrissi, Nathalie Fagel

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The calcareous accumulations in the surface formations of the soil, are a very widespread phenomenon in the arid and semi-arid regions. Many aspects of physical and chemical evolution of these soils were debated for more than one century. The last two decades have witnessed a remarkable interest in the study of the calcrete. In Morocco, as in most Mediterranean countries, soils with carbonate accumulation cover large areas of the territory. The isohumic subtropical soils and red Mediterranean soils include always a horizon of calcrete accumulation. In the lowland of Tensift Al Haouz located in the central part of Morocco, the arable lands are underlain by indurate pedogenic calcrete of various thicknesses; this constitutes a serious handicap for agricultural development in the region. Our aims in this study is to analyze the characteristics of the crusts developed in this area in order to identify the various facies, their geographic distribution and the factors that played a significant role in the differentiation of these calcareous accumulations. The characterizations were based on various techniques including field observations, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) for both raw materials and clay fractions, SEM analysis, Calcimetry and Loss On Ignition (LOI). The analysis of encrusting calcrete in a rich and varied observation field as the region of Tensift Al Haouz enabled us to specify the important types of accumulations: diffuse, nodular and massive encrusting. The shape of encrusting as well as their consistency and hardness is clearly related to the contents of CaCO3 of the profiles. Among these facies, the hardpan which results from a complex succession of processes is certainly the most morphologically advanced form of encrusting. The vertical and lateral distribution of these forms in the Tensift Al Haouz area indicates that they do not appear randomly but seem related to well defined environmental conditions. The differentiation and evolution of encrusting is under the influence of two major factors: 1) the availability of carbonate rich solution which is controlled by the topography, the nature and texture of underlying host rock and the detrital processes; 2) the climate which is responsible for the evaporation and crystallization of carbonate.

Keywords: Characterization, Morphology, Morocco, soil calcrete, Tensift Al Haouz

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19 Moroccan Mountains: Forest Ecosystems and Biodiversity Conservation Strategies

Authors: Mohammed Sghir Taleb

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Forest ecosystems in Morocco are subject increasingly to natural and human pressures. Conscious of this problem, Morocco set a strategy that focuses on programs of in-situ and ex-situ biodiversity conservation. This study is the result of a synthesis of various existing studies on biodiversity and forest ecosystems. It gives an overview of Moroccan mountain forest ecosystems and flora diversity. It also focuses on the efforts made by Morocco to conserve and sustainably manage biodiversity.

Keywords: Ecosystems, Conservation, mountain, Morocco

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18 Using Morlet Wavelet Filter to Denoising Geoelectric ‘Disturbances’ Map of Moroccan Phosphate Deposit ‘Disturbances’

Authors: Saad Bakkali

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Morocco is a major producer of phosphate, with an annual output of 19 million tons and reserves in excess of 35 billion cubic meters. This represents more than 75% of world reserves. Resistivity surveys have been successfully used in the Oulad Abdoun phosphate basin. A Schlumberger resistivity survey over an area of 50 hectares was carried out. A new field procedure based on analytic signal response of resistivity data was tested to deal with the presence of phosphate deposit disturbances. A resistivity map was expected to allow the electrical resistivity signal to be imaged in 2D. 2D wavelet is standard tool in the interpretation of geophysical potential field data. Wavelet transform is particularly suitable in denoising, filtering and analyzing geophysical data singularities. Wavelet transform tools are applied to analysis of a moroccan phosphate deposit ‘disturbances’. Wavelet approach applied to modeling surface phosphate “disturbances” was found to be consistently useful.

Keywords: Wavelet, resistivity, Morocco, phosphate, Schlumberger

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17 About Some Results of the Determination of Alcohol in Moroccan Gasoline-Alcohol Mixtures

Authors: Mahacine Amrani

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A simple and rapid method for the determination of alcohol in gasoline-alcohol mixtures using density measurements is described. The method can determine a minimum of 1% of alcohol by volume. The precision of the method is ± 3%.The method is more useful for field test in the quality assessment of alcohol blended fuels.

Keywords: Measurement, Density, Morocco, mixture, gasoline-alcohol, alcohol determination

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16 Steady and Spatio-Temporal Monitoring of Water Quality Feeding Area Southwest of Great Casablanca (Morocco)

Authors: Hicham Maklache, Rajae Delhi, Fatiha Benzha, Mohamed Tahiri

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In Morocco, where semi-arid climate is dominant, the supply of industrial and drink water is provided primarily by surface water. Morocco has currently 118 multi-purpose dams. If the construction of these works was a necessity to ensure in all seasons, the water essential to our country, it is impartial to control and protect the quality of running water. -Most dam reservoir used are threatened by eutrophication due to increased terrigenous and anthropogenic pollutants, coming from an over-fertilization of water by phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients and accelerated by uncontrolled development of microalgae aging. It should also be noted that the daily practices of citizens with respect to the resource, an essential component involved in almost all human activities (agriculture, agro-industries, hydropower, ...), has contributed significantly to the deterioration of water quality despite its treatment in several plants. Therefore, the treated water, provides a legacy of bad tastes and odors unacceptable to the consumer. -The present work exhibits results of water quality watershed Oum Erbia used to supply drinking water to the whole terraced area connecting the city of Khenifra to the city of Azemmour. The area south west of Great Casablanca (metropolis of the kingdom with about 4 million inhabitants) supplied 50% of its water needs by sourcing Dam Sidi Said Maachou located, last anchor point of the watershed before the spill in the Atlantic Ocean. The results were performed in a spatio-temporal scale and helped to establish a history of monitoring water quality during the 2009-2011 cycles, the study also presents the development of quality according to the seasonal rhythmicity and rainfall. It gives also an overview on the concept of watershed stewardship.

Keywords: Morocco, crude surface water quality, Oum Er Rbia hydraulic basin, spatio-temporal monitoring, Great Casablanca drink water quality

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15 Valorization, Conservation and Sustainable Production of Medicinal Plants in Morocco

Authors: Elachouri Mostafa, Fakchich Jamila, Lazaar Jamila, Elmadmad Mohammed, Marhom Mostafa

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Of course, there has been a great growth in scientific information about medicinal plants in recent decades, but in many ways this has proved poor compensation, because such information is accessible, in practice, only to a very few people and anyway, rather little of it is relevant to problems of management and utilization, as encountered in the field. Active compounds are used in most traditional medicines and play an important role in advancing sustainable rural livelihoods through their conservation, cultivation, propagation, marketing and commercialization. Medicinal herbs are great resources for various pharmaceutical compounds and urgent measures are required to protect these plant species from their natural destruction and disappearance. Indeed, there is a real danger of indigenous Arab medicinal practices and knowledge disappearing altogether, further weakening traditional Arab culture and creating more insecurity, as well as forsaking a resource of inestimable economic and health care importance. As scientific approach, the ethnopharmacological investigation remains the principal way to improve, evaluate, and increase the odds of finding of biologically active compounds derived from medicinal plants. As developing country, belonging to the Mediterranean basin, Morocco country is endowed with resources of medicinal and aromatic plants. These plants have been used over the millennia for human welfare, even today. Besides, Morocco has a large plant biodiversity, in fact, its medicinal flora account more than 4200 species growing on various bioclimatic zones from subhumide to arid and Saharan. Nevertheless, the human and animal pressure resulting from the increase of rural population needs has led to degradation of this patrimony. In this paper, we focus our attention on ethnopharmacological studies carried out in Morocco. The goal of this work is to clarify the importance of herbs as platform for drugs discovery and further development, to highlight the importance of ethnopharmacological study as approach on discovery of natural products in the health care field, and to discuss the limit of ethnopharmacological investigation of drug discovery in Morocco.

Keywords: Natural Products, Ethnopharmacology, Medicinal Plants, Morocco, drug-discovery

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14 In vitro Antioxidant Scavenging of Root Fraction of Bryonia dioica

Authors: Elachouri Mostafa, Yamani Amal, Lazaae Jamila

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Plants and their active agents – especially polyphenols – may have a principal role in the treatment of diseases that result from the defect of physiological antioxidant mechanisms. Bryonia dioica is well known in Moroccan traditional medicine for alleviatin pain and traiting many diseases. We have focused on plant belonging to Cucurbitaceae Family from around the world to understand their therapeutic uses and their potential antioxidant activities Although several biological activities and Chemical composition of Bryonia dioica are well characterized, no direct, in vitro study, of this natural product examined the antioxydant effect of the extract from the roots of Bryonia dioica. The aim of this study was to determine in vitro antioxidant activity of the B.dioica root, using antioxidant analysis methods based on determination of Hydroxyradical Scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH) radical scavenging, Hydrogenperoxide Scavenging and Nitric Oxide Scavenging. In this study, it was demonstrated, that, B. dioica root extract showed excellent antioxidant properties. This investigation showed that the roots of this plant contain potent natural scavengers R. It may represent an interesting source of antioxidant phenolics that may favour the extension of their cultivation as new source of natural antioxidants in addition to containing high quality proteins for human or animal nutrition. Therefore, there is need for all stakeholders on the Morocco to strive towards taking advantage of our enormous biodiversity resources to free our people from diseases, abject poverty and stagnation.

Keywords: In vitro, Morocco, bryoniadioica, antioxydant

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13 Diabetes and Medical Plant's Treatment: Ethnobotanical Studies Carried out in Morocco

Authors: Jamila Fakchich, Mostafa Jamila Lazaar Elachouri, Lakhder Fakchich, Fatna Ouali, Abd Errazzak Belkacem

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Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease that has a significant impact on the health, quality of life, and life expectancy of patients as well as the health care system. By its nature diabetes, is a multisystem disease with wide-ranging complication that span nearly all region of the body. This epidemic problem, however, is not unique to the industrialized society, but has also hardly struck the developing countries. In Morocco, as developing country, there is an epidemic rise in diabetes, with ensuing concern about the management and control of this disease; it began a chronic burdensome disease of largely middle-aged and elderly people, with a long course and serious complications often resulting in high death-rate, the treatment of diabetes spent vast amount of resources including medicines, diets, physical training. Treatment of this disease is considered problematic due to the lack of effective and safe drugs capable of inducing sustained clinical, biochemical, and histological cure. In Moroccan society, the phytoremedies are some times the only affordable sources of healthcare, particularly for the people in remote areas. In this paper, we present a synthesis work obtained from the ethnobotanical data reported in different specialized journals. A Synthesis of four published ethnobotanical studies that have been carried out in different region of Morocco by different team seekers during the period from 1997 to 2015. Medicinal plants inventoried by different seekers in four Moroccan’s areas have been regrouped and codified, then, Factorial Analysis (FA) and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) are used to analyse the aggregated data from the four studies and plants are classified according to their frequency of use by population. Our work deals with an attempt to gather information on some traditional uses of medicinal plants from different regions of Morocco, also, it was designed to give a set of medicinal plants commonly used by Moroccan people in the treatment of diabetes; In this paper, we intended to provide a basic knowledge about plant species used by Moroccan society for treatment of diabetes. One of the most interesting aspects of this type of works is to assess the relative cultural importance of medicinal plants for specific illnesses and exploring its usefulness in the context of diabetes.

Keywords: Diabetes, Medicinal Plants, Morocco, ethnobotanical, phytoremedies

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12 The State of Herb Medicine in Oriental Morocco: Cases of Debdou, Taourirt and Guerssif Districts

Authors: Elachouri Mostafa, Himer Khalid, Alami Ilyass, Kharchoufa Loubna

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It has been estimated by the World Health Organization that 80% of the world's population relies on traditional medicine to meet their daily health requirements. In Morocco reliance on such medicine is partly owing to the high cost of conventional medicine and the inaccessibility of modern health care facilities. There was high agreement in the use of plants as medicine in Oriental Morocco. Our objective is to evaluate the informant’s knowledge on medicinal plants by the local population and to document the uses of medicinal plants by this community, for the treatment of different illnesses. Using an ethnopharmacological approach, we collected information concerning the traditional medicinal knowledge and the medicinal plants used, by interviewing successfully 458 informants living in oriental Morocco (from Debdou, Taourirt, Guersif a,d Laayoune districts). The data were analyzed by statistical methods (Component Analysis “CA”, Factorial Analysis “FA”) and other methods such as through Informant’s Consensus Factor (ICF) and Use Value (UV). Our results indicate that, more than 60% of the population in these regions relies on medicinal plants for the treatment of different ailments with predominance of women consumers. 135 plant species belonging to 61 families were documented. These plants were used by the population for the treatment of a group of illness (about 14 principal ailments). We conclude that, in oriental Morocco, till now, the population has some traditional knowledge commonly used as medical tradition. These wealthy heritage needs conservation and evaluation.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Morocco, traditional knowledge, wealthy heritage

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11 The State of Research on Medicinal Plants in Morocco

Authors: Elachouri Mostafa, Alami Ilyass, Loubna Kharchoufa

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The two great realms of living diversity are cultural and biological. Today, both are being lost at an alarming rate. Of all the Earth’s biological diversity, plant kingdom is of high significance, and most essential to human welfare, in fact, medicinal plants are extensively exploited for countless purposes. Among these multiple uses, medicinal plants are the most important source of medicine for humankind healthcare and well being. In recent years there has been a great surge of public interest in the use of herbs and plants. Some scientists have viewed this phenomenon as a modern “herbal renaissance”. The importance of plants as medicines in developed and developing countries has recently been acknowledged by the United Nations (UN). However, to date fewer than 5% of the approximately 250,000 species of higher plants have been exhaustively studied for their potential pharmacological activity. A number of drugs from ethnobotanical leads have provided significant milestones in Western medicine. Despite this success, pharmacognosy research on Moroccan flora needs more studies aimed at the exploration of their therapeutic potential. A major weakness is the absence of strong funding agencies in the country, and a real national drug discovery program. Moreover, the lack of the coordination between different universities and research institutions leads, in most cases, to a waste of time, money and efforts of many researchers. In this work, we focus our attention on research into traditional indigenous medicinal plants in Morocco. Three parts constitute the head lines of this work: In the first one, we take up Moroccan biodiversity matter, the second part is devoted principally to the state of research into medicinal plants by Moroccan scholars and the last one is consecrated to the debate of factors which handicap the progress of research on phytomedicine in Morocco. The objectives of the present study are twofold: first, to highlight the state of the medicinal plants researches in Morocco. Second goal is to assess and correlate the levels of knowledge of the local flora to the research on medicinal plants to attempt to build capacity for research within Moroccan Scientific community at rate of developing country.

Keywords: Pharmacognosy, Medicinal Plants, Phytomedicine, Morocco, ethnobotanical

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10 Medicinal Plants Used by Moroccan People in the Management of Diabetes and Hypertension

Authors: Alami Ilyass, Kharchoufa Loubna, Alachouri Mostafa

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Cardiovascular disease (CDV) remains the major cause of morbidity; mortality and disability throughout the world. The ethnopharmcological and ethnobotanical studies are the paramount importance to set a high value on phytogenetic resources and to address health problems of some communities; especially poor peoples. Our work presents an analysis of published data from studies, that have been undertaken, in Morocco, by different seeker teams in separately areas during the last decades. Objectives: Evaluate and identify medicinal plants used for cardiovascular treatment by Moroccan people. Methodology: All these studies have the same approaches ; they were conducted by interviewing people suffering from diabetes. We use Factorial Analysis (FA) and principal Components analysis (PCA) to analyse the aggregated data from the different studies. Results: globally; 95 plants species were listed; all these plant were used empirically by Moroccan society for treating cardiovascular problems. These plants were divided in to 42 families and 87 genus. The lamiaceae; asteraceae; Apiaceae and poaceae are the botanical families with high number of plant species. Coclusion: Traditional medecine has been widely used for treatment of cardiovascular problems and it has been recognized as an interesting alternative to conventional medicine.

Keywords: Cardiovascular, Medicinal Plants, Morocco, ethnobotanical

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9 Narratives of Cultural Encounters Revisited: Moroccan Entertainers beyond Borders (1840-1920)

Authors: Lhoussain Simour

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This paper discusses the reordering and reorientation Moroccan Oossified and frozen histories in national and colonial archives. It attempts to reexamine Moroccan non-canonical voices beyond borders, their forgotten experiences and itineraries, with the aim of uncovering cultural discourses pertaining to early cultural and artistic interactions between Morocco and the western countries, namely Britain and America. In fact, less attention has been given to the presence of Moroccan entertainers beyond borders in the archives of history. Moroccan historians and cultural critics seem to have paid little critical consideration to Moroccan artistic encounters with the west, Europe and America as a case in point. They have overlooked to deal with travel performances, professional entertainments, and artistic spectacles, initiated by acrobats, as instances of visual cross-cultural encounters between Morocco and the west. The narratives of these professional artists have hardly found their ways into historiographical writing. This contribution attempts to locate the contesting beginnings of Moroccan professional entertainers in western show business in the nineteenth century which witnessed intricate artistic, discursive and cultural junctures by emphasizing connections between theatrical performances, ethnic exhibition and world fair expositions. Moroccan professional performances grew in Europe and America within a zealous context marked by the rise of a paradigmatic racial consciousness that sought to authenticate and legitimate ethnic discourses of power and exclusion. The ethnic taxonomies and racial hierarchies governed by ethnographic and anthropological documentation fueled up entertainment venues and popular theatrical performances and helped in developing a distinctive view about Self and Other paradigms. Moroccan travelers started their journeys to visit European and American countries to exhibit their acrobatics acts. They, in a certain sense, continued, albeit in varying degrees and circumstances, the whole tradition of travel initiated previously by their ancestor diplomats and ambassadors. Professional entertainers embarked on daring journeys across the Mediterranean and the Atlantic to discover new geographies and cultural spaces, and perform their spectacles beyond borders. These travelers left rich archival documents that reflect important cultural and historical moments. The routes of travel started from the margins of the empire towards metropolitan centers of nineteenth century Europe and America included Moroccan women travelers as acrobats and dancing professional artists as well. These also crossed the straits of Gibraltar and journeyed through the Atlantic Ocean to visit western countries. Moroccan women travelers took part in various Euro-American theatre performances and in circus shows as early as 1850 according to newspapers archives and passengers shipping lists. Najat Amburg, Zahar Ben Tahar, Torquia, Fadma, and many more whose names are now lost to us, moved freely in various western capital cities to entertain nineteenth century western audiences.

Keywords: Travel, archives, Morocco, cultural encounters, self and other, Moroccan acrobats, Moorish dancing women

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8 Empirical Study for the Project and the Project Management Dimensions Comparison between SMEs and Large Companies

Authors: Amina Oukennou, Zitouni Beidouri, Otmane Bouksour

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Small to Medium-sized enterprises are a very important component of the economy. They are present in the whole industries all over the world. They are considered as the engine for future growth in the economy. Project management is an economical international factor impacting all types of enterprises including the SMEs. This paper has the aim of measuring the weight of using projects and project management in Moroccan SMEs in comparison with the large companies. The study is based on interviews with experts: project managers, managers, directors, and consultants. They were asked questions measuring the weight of using projects, the level of using project management, and the resources employed. Eighteen Moroccan companies from a range of industries and sizes were consulted. All the companies consider projects as a key element in their strategy. Most of them affirm the great usefulness of the approach 'project', especially for the external activities. The main differences lie in the duration and the size of used projects. Despite the commonly shared idea about the importance of the project management, the interviewed persons believe that the project management knowledge has the same importance or less than the technical knowledge. All the companies affirm the need for a simpler version of project management. The content varies from one company to another.

Keywords: Project Management, Morocco, project dimension, small to medium-sized entreprise

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7 Effect of Four Medicinal Plant Extracts on Chickpea Leaf Miner Liriomyza cicerina (Rondani)

Authors: Sabraoui Abdelhadi, El Bouhssini Mustapha, Lhaloui Saadia, El Fakhouri Karim, Bouchelta Aziz

Abstract:

The surveys carried out in 2014, 2015 in the regions of Abda- Doukala, Chaouia- Ouardigha, Zemour- Zair and Fes- Sais have confirmed that the leaf miner was the main insect pest attacking chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Morocco. The grain yield losses caused by this pest could be more than 20% for winter planting and more than 42% for spring-sown crop. To reduce the chickpea leaf miner infestations, four essential oils, as biopesticide alternatives, were tested for their insecticidal effect on L. ciccerina, adults and larvae under laboratory conditions. In addition, we assessed the efficacy of these essential oils with and without adjuvant against this pest in comparison to three insecticides under field conditions. Mentha pulegium, with a dose of 33 µl/l of air caused 100% mortality on adults and larvae, after three hours and six hours of exposure, respectively. Eucalyptus showed 100% mortality on adults and larvae, with doses of 33 and 83 µl/l, after six and three hours of exposure, respectively. In the field conditions M. pulegium and E. globulus with adjuvant showed promising results compared with Abamectin, Azadirachtin and Spinetoram respectively. Essential oils could be used as one of the IPM components for the control of chickpea leaf miner.

Keywords: essential oils, chickpea, Morocco, insecticidal activity, liriomyza cicerina

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6 Aromatic and Medicinal Plants in Morocco: Diversity and Socio-Economic Role

Authors: Mohammed Sghir Taleb

Abstract:

Morocco is characterized by a great richness and diversity in aromatic and medicinal plants and it has an ancestral knowledge in the use of plants for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. In effect, the poverty of riparian, specially, mountain populations have greatly contributed to the development of traditional pharmacopoeia in Morocco. The analysis of the bibliographic data showed that a large number of plants in Morocco are exploited for aromatic and medicinal purposes and several of them are commercialized internationally. However, these potentialities of aromatic and medicinal plants are currently subjected to climate change and strong human pressures: Collecting fruits, agriculture development, harvesting plants, urbanization, overgrazing...

Keywords: Medicinal, Plant, Morocco, aromatic

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
5 Renewable Energy in Morocco: Photovoltaic Water Pumping System

Authors: Sarah Abdourraziq, R. El Bachtiri

Abstract:

Renewable energies have a major importance of Morocco's new energy strategy. The geographical location of the Kingdom promotes the development of the use of solar energy. The use of this energy reduces the dependence on imports of primary energy, meets the growing demand for water and electricity in remote areas encourages the deployment of a local industry in the renewable energy sector and Minimize carbon emissions. Indeed, given the importance of the radiation intensity received and the duration of the sunshine, the country can cover some of its solar energy needs. The use of solar energy to pump water is one of the most promising application, this technique represents a solution wherever the grid does not exist. In this paper, we will present a presentation of photovoltaic pumping system components, and the important solar pumping projects installed in Morocco to supply water from remote area.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Morocco, PV panel, PV pumping system

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4 The Morocco's Return to the African Union: A New Era in the Kingdom's Foreign Policy

Authors: L. Ponomarenko, Rachid Kaouar

Abstract:

Morocco has rejoined the African Union and more than 30 years after it left the continental body due to the recognition of the Arabic Republic of Western Sahara. Morocco was readmitted after a one year campaign led by the King himself, who was visiting the Eastern African country with the aim to expend the kingdom presence in new region in Africa after that it managed to build a large influence net in the West Africa region. The return of Morocco can be a beginning of a new era in the foreign policy of Morocco, specially, in the policy towards the state-quo of the Western Sahara conflict, which is considerate as one the biggest obstacle for the cooperation and integration process in the region of North Africa. As a member-state of the African Union Morocco has lot more to lose, according to that the Moroccan position must be more flexible.

Keywords: Algeria, Morocco, African Union, North African Region, Western Sahara

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3 Outbound Tourism in Developed Countries: Analysis of the Trends, Behavior and the Transformation of the Moroccan Demand for International Travels

Authors: M. Boukhrouk, R. Ed-Dali

Abstract:

Outbound tourism in Morocco, as in the majority of developing countries, reveals some of the aspects of inequality between the north and the south. Considered by some researchers as one of the facets of the development crisis, access to tourism and especially international tourism is a chance for a small minority with financial means, while the vast portions of the population dream rather of immigrating to a developed country for the sake of improving their standard of living. The right to travel is also limited by visa requirements, procedures in host countries, security and technical measures and creates discrimination in the practice of tourism. These conditions do not seem to be favorable to the democratization of the practice of international tourism for the populations of the southern countries. This paper is a contribution to the reading of the trends of outbound tourism in developing countries through the example of Morocco. It highlights the different aspects of Moroccan outbound tourism, destinations and the behavior of tourists through an analysis of the offer of a sample of 50 travel agencies. In the same vein, it offers a reading grid of the possibilities offered for the development of outbound tourism and the various existing obstacles to the democratization of international outbound tourism in the southern countries. This reading reveals the transformation in the behavior of Moroccan international tourists as well as the profound changes in Moroccan society, through a model of statistical analysis.

Keywords: Hajj, Demand, Morocco, tendency, Outbound tourism, Umrah

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2 Paleopalynology as an Analysis Tool to Measure the Resilience of the Ecosystems of the Western Mediterranean and Their Adaptation to Climate Change

Authors: F. Ismael Roman Moreno, Francisca Alba Sanchez

Abstract:

Over time, the plant landscape has changed as a result of the numerous events on a global and local scale that have happened. This is the case of the Mediterranean ecosystems, one of the most complex and rich in endemisms on the planet, subjected to anthropic pressures from the beginning of civilizations. The intervention in these systems together with climate changes has led to changes in diversity, tree cover, shrub, and ultimately in the structure and functioning of these ecosystems. Paleopalinology is used as a tool for analysis of pollen and non-pollen microfossils preserved in the flooded grasslands of the Middle Atlas (Morocco). This allows reconstructing the evolution of vegetation and climate, as well as providing data and reasoning to different ecological, cultural and historical processes. Although climatic and anthropic events are well documented in Europe, they are not so well documented in North Africa, which gives added value to the study area. The results obtained serve to predict the behavior and evolution of Mediterranean mountain ecosystems during the Holocene, their response to future changes, resilience, and recovery from climatic and anthropic disturbances. In the stratigraphic series analyzed, nine major events were detected, eight of which appeared to be of climatic and anthropic origin, and one unexpected, related to volcanic activity.

Keywords: Resilience, Morocco, anthropic, Holocene, paleopalynology

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1 The Influence of Meteorological Properties on the Power of Night Radiation Cooling

Authors: Othmane Fahim, Naoual Belouaggadia. Charifa David, Mohamed Ezzine

Abstract:

To make better use of cooling resources, systems have been derived on the basis of the use of night radiator systems for heat pumping. Using the TRNSYS tool we determined the influence of the climatic characteristics of the two zones in Morocco on the temperature of the outer surface of a Photovoltaic Thermal Panel “PVT” made of aluminum. The proposal to improve the performance of the panel allowed us to have little heat absorption during the day and give the same performance of a panel made of aluminum at night. The variation in the granite-based panel temperature recorded a deviation from the other materials of 0.5 °C, 2.5 °C on the first day respectively in Marrakech and Casablanca, and 0.2 °C and 3.2 °C on the second night. Power varied between 110.16 and 32.01 W/m² marked in Marrakech, to be the most suitable area to practice night cooling by night radiation.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, smart buildings, Morocco, radiative cooling

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