Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Monte Carlo Related Abstracts

24 A Computational Study of the Electron Transport in HgCdTe Bulk Semiconductor

Authors: N. Dahbi, M. Daoudi

Abstract:

This paper deals with the use of computational method based on Monte Carlo simulation in order to investigate the transport phenomena of the electron in HgCdTe narrow band gap semiconductor. Via this method we can evaluate the time dependence of the transport parameters: velocity, energy and mobility of electrons through matter (HgCdTe).

Keywords: Computational Mechanics, Monte Carlo, transport parameters, HgCdTe

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23 Monte Carlo Simulation of Pion Particles

Authors: Reza Reiazi

Abstract:

Attempts to verify Geant4 hadronic physic to transport antiproton beam using standard physics list have not reach to a reasonable results because of lack of reliable cross section data or non reliable model to predict the final states of annihilated particles. Since most of the antiproton annihilation energy is carried away by recoiling nuclear fragments which are result of pions interactions with surrounding nucleons, it should be investigated if the toolkit verified for pions. Geant4 version 9.4.6.p01 was used. Dose calculation was done using 700 MeV pions hitting a water tank applying standards physic lists. We conclude Geant4 standard physics lists to predict the depth dose of Pion minus beam is not same for all investigated models. Since the nuclear fragments will deposit their energy in a small distance, they are the most important source of dose deposition in the annihilation vertex of antiproton beams.

Keywords: Simulation, Monte Carlo, Pion, antiproton beam

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22 Microdosimetry in Biological Cells: A Monte Carlo Method

Authors: Hamidreza Jabal Ameli, Anahita Movahedi

Abstract:

Purpose: In radionuclide therapy, radioactive atoms are coupled to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for treating cancer tumor while limiting radiation to healthy tissues. We know that tumoral and normal tissues are not equally sensitive to radiation. In fact, biological effects such as cellular repair processes or the presence of less radiosensitive cells such as hypoxic cells should be taken account. For this reason, in this paper, we want to calculate biological effect dose (BED) inside tumoral area and healthy cells around tumors. Methods: In this study, deposited doses of a radionuclide, gold-198, inside cells lattice and surrounding healthy tissues were calculated with Monte Carlo method. The elemental compositions and density of malignant and healthy tissues were obtained from ICRU Report 44. For reaching to real condition of oxygen effects, the necrosis and hypoxia area inside tumors has been assessed. Results: With regard to linear-quadratic expression which was defined in Monte Carlo, results showed that a large amount of BED is deposited in the well-oxygenated part of the hypoxia area compared to necrosis area. Moreover, there is a significant difference between the curves of absorbed dose with BED and without BED.

Keywords: Monte Carlo, biological dose, hypoxia, radionuclide therapy

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21 Simulation of 140 Kv X– Ray Tube by MCNP4C Code

Authors: Karim Adinehvand, Bakhtiar Azadbakht, Amin Sahebnasagh

Abstract:

In this study, we used Monte Carlo code (MCNP4C) that is a general method, for simulation, electron source and electric field, a disc source with 0.05 cm radius in direct of anode are used, radius of disc source show focal spot of x-ray tube that here is 0.05 cm. In this simulation, anode is from tungsten with 18.9 g/cm3 density and angle of anode is 180. we simulated x-ray tube for 140 kv. For increasing of speed data acquisition we use F5 tally. With determination the exact position of F5 tally in program, outputs are acquired. In this spectrum the start point is about 0.02 Mev, the absorption edges are about 0.06 Mev and 0.07 Mev and average energy is about 0.05 Mev.

Keywords: Simulation, Monte Carlo, x-spectrum, MCNP4C code

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20 A Novel Probablistic Strategy for Modeling Photovoltaic Based Distributed Generators

Authors: Y. G. Hegazy, Engy A. Mohamed

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel algorithm for modeling photovoltaic based distributed generators for the purpose of optimal planning of distribution networks. The proposed algorithm utilizes sequential Monte Carlo method in order to accurately consider the stochastic nature of photovoltaic based distributed generators. The proposed algorithm is implemented in MATLAB environment and the results obtained are presented and discussed.

Keywords: Distributed Generation, Monte Carlo, comulative distribution function

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19 Monte Carlo Simulation of Magnetic Properties in Bit Patterned Media

Authors: O. D. Arbeláez-Echeverri, E. Restrepo-Parra, J. C. Riano-Rojas

Abstract:

A two dimensional geometric model of Bit Patterned Media is proposed, the model is based on the crystal structure of the materials commonly used to produce the nano islands in bit patterned materials and the possible defects that may arise from the interaction between the nano islands and the matrix material. The dynamic magnetic properties of the material are then computed using time aware integration methods for the multi spin Hamiltonian. The Hamiltonian takes into account both the spatial and topological disorder of the sample as well as the high perpendicular anisotropy that is pursued when building bit patterned media. The main finding of the research was the possibility of replicating the results of previous experiments on similar materials and the ability of computing the switching field distribution given the geometry of the material and the parameters required by the model.

Keywords: Nanostructures, Magnetic Properties, Monte Carlo, pattern media

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18 On the Influence of the Metric Space in the Critical Behavior of Magnetic Temperature

Authors: E. Restrepo-Parra, J. C. Riano-Rojas, J. D. Alzate-Cardona

Abstract:

In this work, a study of generic magnetic nanoparticles varying the metric space is presented. As the metric space is changed, the nanoparticle form and the inner product are also varied, since the energetic scale is not conserved. This study is carried out using Monte Carlo simulations combined with the Wolff embedding and Metropolis algorithms. The Metropolis algorithm is used at high temperature regions to reach the equilibrium quickly. The Wolff embedding algorithm is used at low and critical temperature regions in order to reduce the critical slowing down phenomenon. The ions number is kept constant for the different forms and the critical temperatures using finite size scaling are found. We observed that critical temperatures don't exhibit significant changes when the metric space was varied. Additionally, the effective dimension according the metric space was determined. A study of static behavior for reaching the static critical exponents was developed. The objective of this work is to observe the behavior of the thermodynamic quantities as energy, magnetization, specific heat, susceptibility and Binder's cumulants at the critical region, in order to demonstrate if the magnetic nanoparticles describe their magnetic interactions in the Euclidean space or if there is any correspondence in other metric spaces.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Monte Carlo, metric, critical behaviour

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17 Statistical Study and Simulation of 140 Kv X– Ray Tube by Monte Carlo

Authors: Karim Adinehvand, Bakhtiar Azadbakht, Mehdi Homayouni

Abstract:

In this study, we used Monte Carlo code (MCNP4C) that is a general method, for simulation, electron source and electric field, a disc source with 0.05 cm radius in direct of anode are used, radius of disc source show focal spot of X-ray tube that here is 0.05 cm. In this simulation, the anode is from tungsten with 18.9 g/cm3 density and angle of the anode is 18°. We simulated X-ray tube for 140 kv. For increasing of speed data acquisition, we use F5 tally. With determination the exact position of F5 tally in the program, outputs are acquired. In this spectrum the start point is about 0.02 Mev, the absorption edges are about 0.06 Mev and 0.07 Mev, and average energy is about 0.05 Mev.

Keywords: Simulation, Monte Carlo, Tube, x-spectrum

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16 Reducing Uncertainty of Monte Carlo Estimated Fatigue Damage in Offshore Wind Turbines Using FORM

Authors: Jan-Tore H. Horn, Jørgen Juncher Jensen

Abstract:

Uncertainties related to fatigue damage estimation of non-linear systems are highly dependent on the tail behaviour and extreme values of the stress range distribution. By using a combination of the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) and Monte Carlo simulations (MCS), the accuracy of the fatigue estimations may be improved for the same computational efforts. The method is applied to a bottom-fixed, monopile-supported large offshore wind turbine, which is a non-linear and dynamically sensitive system. Different curve fitting techniques to the fatigue damage distribution have been used depending on the sea-state dependent response characteristics, and the effect of a bi-linear S-N curve is discussed. Finally, analyses are performed on several environmental conditions to investigate the long-term applicability of this multistep method. Wave loads are calculated using state-of-the-art theory, while wind loads are applied with a simplified model based on rotor thrust coefficients.

Keywords: Simulation, Monte Carlo, Wind turbine, Fatigue Damage, Form, monopile

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15 Monte Carlo Simulations of LSO/YSO for Dose Evaluation in Photon Beam Radiotherapy

Authors: H. Donya

Abstract:

Monte Carlo (MC) techniques play a fundamental role in radiotherapy. A two non-water-equivalent of different media were used to evaluate the dose in water. For such purpose, Lu2SiO5 (LSO) and Y2SiO5 (YSO) orthosilicates scintillators are chosen for MC simulation using Penelope code. To get higher efficiency in dose calculation, variance reduction techniques are discussed. Overall results of this investigation ensured that the LSO/YSO bi-media a good combination to tackle over-response issue in dynamic photon radiotherapy.

Keywords: radiotherapy, Monte Carlo, Lu2SiO5 (LSO) and Y2SiO5 (YSO) orthosilicates, correlated sampling

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14 Formulating the Stochastic Finite Elements for Free Vibration Analysis of Plates with Variable Elastic Modulus

Authors: Mojtaba Aghamiri Esfahani, Mohammad Karkon, Seyed Majid Hosseini Nezhad, Reza Hosseini-Ara

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of uncertainty in elastic modulus of a plate on free vibration response is investigated. For this purpose, the elastic modulus of the plate is modeled as stochastic variable with normal distribution. Moreover, the distance autocorrelation function is used for stochastic field. Then, by applying the finite element method and Monte Carlo simulation, stochastic finite element relations are extracted. Finally, with a numerical test, the effect of uncertainty in the elastic modulus on free vibration response of a plate is studied. The results show that the effect of uncertainty in elastic modulus of the plate cannot play an important role on the free vibration response.

Keywords: Monte Carlo, free vibration, plate bending, stochastic finite elements, Neumann expansion method

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13 Reliability-Simulation of Composite Tubular Structure under Pressure by Finite Elements Methods

Authors: Abdelkader Hocine, Abdelhakim Maizia

Abstract:

The exponential growth of reinforced fibers composite materials use has prompted researchers to step up their work on the prediction of their reliability. Owing to differences between the properties of the materials used for the composite, the manufacturing processes, the load combinations and types of environment, the prediction of the reliability of composite materials has become a primary task. Through failure criteria, TSAI-WU and the maximum stress, the reliability of multilayer tubular structures under pressure is the subject of this paper, where the failure probability of is estimated by the method of Monte Carlo.

Keywords: Design, Reliability, Composite, Monte Carlo, tubular structure

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12 Monte Carlo Neutronic Calculations on Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE)

Authors: Adem Acır

Abstract:

In this study, time dependent neutronic analysis of incineration of minor actinides of a Laser Fusion Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) engine was performed. The calculations were carried out by using MCNP codes with ENDF/B.VI neutron data library. In the neutronic calculations, TRISO particles fueled with minor actinides with natural lithium coolant were performed. The natural lithium cooled LIFE engine used 10 % TRISO fuel minor actinides composition. Tritium breeding ratios (TBR) and energy multiplication factor (M) burnup values were computed as 1.46 and 3.75, respectively. The reactor operation time was calculated as ~ 21 years. The burnup values were obtained as ~1060 GWD/MT, respectively. As a result, the very higher burnup were achieved of LIFE engine.

Keywords: Nuclear waste, Monte Carlo, minor actinides, LIFE engine

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11 Effect of Rainflow Cycle Number on Fatigue Lifetime of an Arm of Vehicle Suspension System

Authors: Hatem Mrad, Mohamed Bouazara, Fouad Erchiqui

Abstract:

Fatigue, is considered as one of the main cause of mechanical properties degradation of mechanical parts. Probability and reliability methods are appropriate for fatigue analysis using uncertainties that exist in fatigue material or process parameters. Current work deals with the study of the effect of the number and counting Rainflow cycle on fatigue lifetime (cumulative damage) of an upper arm of the vehicle suspension system. The major part of the fatigue damage induced in suspension arm is caused by two main classes of parameters. The first is related to the materials properties and the second is the road excitation or the applied force of the passenger’s number. Therefore, Young's modulus and road excitation are selected as input parameters to conduct repetitive simulations by Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm. Latin hypercube sampling method is used to generate these parameters. Response surface method is established according to fatigue lifetime of each combination of input parameters according to strain-life method. A PYTHON script was developed to automatize finite element simulations of the upper arm according to a design of experiments.

Keywords: Fatigue, Monte Carlo, response surface, rainflow cycle, suspension system

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10 Continuous Wave Interference Effects on Global Position System Signal Quality

Authors: Han Yu, Fang Ye, Yibing Li

Abstract:

Radio interference is one of the major concerns in using the global positioning system (GPS) for civilian and military applications. Interference signals are produced not only through all electronic systems but also illegal jammers. Among different types of interferences, continuous wave (CW) interference has strong adverse impacts on the quality of the received signal. In this paper, we make more detailed analysis for CW interference effects on GPS signal quality. Based on the C/A code spectrum lines, the influence of CW interference on the acquisition performance of GPS receivers is further analysed. This influence is supported by simulation results using GPS software receiver. As the most important user parameter of GPS receivers, the mathematical expression of bit error probability is also derived in the presence of CW interference, and the expression is consistent with the Monte Carlo simulation results. The research on CW interference provides some theoretical gist and new thoughts on monitoring the radio noise environment and improving the anti-jamming ability of GPS receivers.

Keywords: GPS, Monte Carlo, CW interference, acquisition performance, bit error probability

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9 Using Monte Carlo Model for Simulation of Rented Housing in Mashhad, Iran

Authors: Mohammad Rahim Rahnama

Abstract:

The study employs Monte Carlo method for simulation of rented housing in Mashhad second largest city in Iran. A total number of 334 rental residential units in Mashhad, including both apartments and houses (villa), were randomly selected from advertisements placed in Khorasan Newspapers during the months of July and August of 2015. In order to simulate the monthly rent price, the rent index was calculated through combining the mortgage and the rent price. In the next step, the relation between the variables of the floor area and that of the number of bedrooms for each unit, in both apartments and houses(villa), was calculated through multivariate regression using SPSS and was coded in XML. The initial model was called using simulation button in SPSS and was simulated using triangular and binominal algorithms. The findings revealed that the average simulated rental index was 548.5$ per month. Calculating the sensitivity of rental index to a number of bedrooms we found that firstly, 97% of units have three bedrooms, and secondly as the number of bedrooms increases from one to three, for the rent price of less than 200$, the percentage of units having one bedroom decreases from 10% to 0. Contrariwise, for units with the rent price of more than 571.4$, the percentage of bedrooms increases from 37% to 48%. In the light of these findings, it becomes clear that planning to build rental residential units, overseeing the rent prices, and granting subsidies to rental residential units, for apartments with two bedrooms, present a felicitous policy for regulating residential units in Mashhad.

Keywords: Simulation, Monte Carlo, Mashhad, rent price, residential unit

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8 Simulation of the Large Hadrons Collisions Using Monte Carlo Tools

Authors: E. Al Daoud

Abstract:

In many cases, theoretical treatments are available for models for which there is no perfect physical realization. In this situation, the only possible test for an approximate theoretical solution is to compare with data generated from a computer simulation. In this paper, Monte Carlo tools are used to study and compare the elementary particles models. All the experiments are implemented using 10000 events, and the simulated energy is 13 TeV. The mean and the curves of several variables are calculated for each model using MadAnalysis 5. Anomalies in the results can be seen in the muons masses of the minimal supersymmetric standard model and the two Higgs doublet model.

Keywords: Simulation, hadrons, Monte Carlo, Feynman rules, Lagrangian

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7 Constructing the Density of States from the Parallel Wang Landau Algorithm Overlapping Data

Authors: Arman S. Kussainov, Altynbek K. Beisekov

Abstract:

This work focuses on building an efficient universal procedure to construct a single density of states from the multiple pieces of data provided by the parallel implementation of the Wang Landau Monte Carlo based algorithm. The Ising and Pott models were used as the examples of the two-dimensional spin lattices to construct their densities of states. Sampled energy space was distributed between the individual walkers with certain overlaps. This was made to include the latest development of the algorithm as the density of states replica exchange technique. Several factors of immediate importance for the seamless stitching process have being considered. These include but not limited to the speed and universality of the initial parallel algorithm implementation as well as the data post-processing to produce the expected smooth density of states.

Keywords: Monte Carlo, density of states, parallel algorithm, Wang Landau algorithm

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6 Monte Carlo Simulation of Thyroid Phantom Imaging Using Geant4-GATE

Authors: Parimalah Velo, Ahmad Zakaria

Abstract:

Introduction: Monte Carlo simulations of preclinical imaging systems allow opportunity to enable new research that could range from designing hardware up to discovery of new imaging application. The simulation system which could accurately model an imaging modality provides a platform for imaging developments that might be inconvenient in physical experiment systems due to the expense, unnecessary radiation exposures and technological difficulties. The aim of present study is to validate the Monte Carlo simulation of thyroid phantom imaging using Geant4-GATE for Siemen’s e-cam single head gamma camera. Upon the validation of the gamma camera simulation model by comparing physical characteristic such as energy resolution, spatial resolution, sensitivity, and dead time, the GATE simulation of thyroid phantom imaging is carried out. Methods: A thyroid phantom is defined geometrically which comprises of 2 lobes with 80mm in diameter, 1 hot spot, and 3 cold spots. This geometry accurately resembling the actual dimensions of thyroid phantom. A planar image of 500k counts with 128x128 matrix size was acquired using simulation model and in actual experimental setup. Upon image acquisition, quantitative image analysis was performed by investigating the total number of counts in image, the contrast of the image, radioactivity distributions on image and the dimension of hot spot. Algorithm for each quantification is described in detail. The difference in estimated and actual values for both simulation and experimental setup is analyzed for radioactivity distribution and dimension of hot spot. Results: The results show that the difference between contrast level of simulation image and experimental image is within 2%. The difference in the total count between simulation and actual study is 0.4%. The results of activity estimation show that the relative difference between estimated and actual activity for experimental and simulation is 4.62% and 3.03% respectively. The deviation in estimated diameter of hot spot for both simulation and experimental study are similar which is 0.5 pixel. In conclusion, the comparisons show good agreement between the simulation and experimental data.

Keywords: Monte Carlo, Gamma Camera, Geant4 application of tomographic emission (GATE), thyroid imaging

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5 In-Farm Wood Gasification Energy Micro-Generation System in Brazil: A Monte Carlo Viability Simulation

Authors: Erich Gomes Schaitza, Antônio Francisco Savi, Glaucia Aparecida Prates

Abstract:

The penetration of renewable energy into the electricity supply in Brazil is high, one of the highest in the World. Centralized hydroelectric generation is the main source of energy, followed by biomass and wind. Surprisingly, mini and micro-generation are negligible, with less than 2,000 connections to the national grid. In 2015, a new regulatory framework was put in place to change this situation. In the agricultural sector, the framework was complemented by the offer of low interest rate loans to in-farm renewable generation. Brazil proposed to more than double its area of planted forests as part of its INDC- Intended Nationally Determined Contributions to the UNFCCC-U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This is an ambitious target which will be achieved only if forests are attractive to farmers. Therefore, this paper analyses whether planting forests for in-farm energy generation with a with a woodchip gasifier is economically viable for microgeneration under the new framework and at if they could be an economic driver for forest plantation. At first, a static case was analyzed with data from Eucalyptus plantations in five farms. Then, a broader analysis developed with the use of Monte Carlo technique. Planting short rotation forests to generate energy could be a viable alternative and the low interest loans contribute to that. There are some barriers to such systems such as the inexistence of a mature market for small scale equipment and of a reference network of good practices and examples.

Keywords: biomass, Monte Carlo, small-scale, distribuited generation

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4 Monte Carlo Pathwise Sensitivities for Barrier Options with Application to Coco-Bond Calibration

Authors: Daniel Roth, Thomas Gerstner, Bastian von Harrach

Abstract:

The Monte Carlo pathwise sensitivities approach is well established for smooth payoff functions. In this work, we present a new Monte Carlo algorithm that is able to calculate the pathwise sensitivities for discontinuous payoff functions. Our main tool is the one-step survival idea of Glasserman and Staum. Although this technique yields to new terms per observation, while differentiating, the algorithm is still efficient. As an application, we use the results for a two-dimensional calibration of a Coco-Bond, which we model with different types of discretely monitored barrier options.

Keywords: Monte Carlo, discretely monitored barrier options, pathwise sensitivities, Coco-Bond

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3 Modeling of Anode Catalyst against CO in Fuel Cell Using Material Informatics

Authors: M. Khorshed Alam, H. Takaba

Abstract:

The catalytic properties of metal usually change by intermixturing with another metal in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Pt-Ru alloy is one of the much-talked used alloy to enhance the CO oxidation. In this work, we have investigated the CO coverage on the Pt2Ru3 nanoparticle with different atomic conformation of Pt and Ru using a combination of material informatics with computational chemistry. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations used to describe the adsorption strength of CO and H with different conformation of Pt Ru ratio in the Pt2Ru3 slab surface. Then through the Monte Carlo (MC) simulations we examined the segregation behaviour of Pt as a function of surface atom ratio, subsurface atom ratio, particle size of the Pt2Ru3 nanoparticle. We have constructed a regression equation so as to reproduce the results of DFT only from the structural descriptors. Descriptors were selected for the regression equation; xa-b indicates the number of bonds between targeted atom a and neighboring atom b in the same layer (a,b = Pt or Ru). Terms of xa-H2 and xa-CO represent the number of atoms a binding H2 and CO molecules, respectively. xa-S is the number of atom a on the surface. xa-b- is the number of bonds between atom a and neighboring atom b located outside the layer. The surface segregation in the alloying nanoparticles is influenced by their component elements, composition, crystal lattice, shape, size, nature of the adsorbents and its pressure, temperature etc. Simulations were performed on different size (2.0 nm, 3.0 nm) of nanoparticle that were mixing of Pt and Ru atoms in different conformation considering of temperature range 333K. In addition to the Pt2Ru3 alloy we also considered pure Pt and Ru nanoparticle to make comparison of surface coverage by adsorbates (H2, CO). Hence, we assumed the pure and Pt-Ru alloy nanoparticles have an fcc crystal structures as well as a cubo-octahedron shape, which is bounded by (111) and (100) facets. Simulations were performed up to 50 million MC steps. From the results of MC, in the presence of gases (H2, CO), the surfaces are occupied by the gas molecules. In the equilibrium structure the coverage of H and CO as a function of the nature of surface atoms. In the initial structure, the Pt/Ru ratios on the surfaces for different cluster sizes were in range of 0.50 - 0.95. MC simulation was employed when the partial pressure of H2 (PH2) and CO (PCO) were 70 kPa and 100-500 ppm, respectively. The Pt/Ru ratios decrease as the increase in the CO concentration, without little exception only for small nanoparticle. The adsorption strength of CO on the Ru site is higher than the Pt site that would be one of the reason for decreasing the Pt/Ru ratio on the surface. Therefore, our study identifies that controlling the nanoparticle size, composition, conformation of alloying atoms, concentration and chemical potential of adsorbates have impact on the steadiness of nanoparticle alloys which ultimately and also overall catalytic performance during the operations.

Keywords: Fuel Cells, Monte Carlo, anode catalysts, material informatics

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2 A Dose Distribution Approach Using Monte Carlo Simulation in Dosimetric Accuracy Calculation for Treating the Lung Tumor

Authors: Md Abdullah Al Mashud, M. Tariquzzaman, M. Jahangir Alam, Tapan Kumar Godder, M. Mahbubur Rahman

Abstract:

This paper presents a Monte Carlo (MC) method-based dose distributions on lung tumor for 6 MV photon beam to improve the dosimetric accuracy for cancer treatment. The polystyrene which is tissue equivalent material to the lung tumor density is used in this research. In the empirical calculations, TRS-398 formalism of IAEA has been used, and the setup was made according to the ICRU recommendations. The research outcomes were compared with the state-of-the-art experimental results. From the experimental results, it is observed that the proposed based approach provides more accurate results and improves the accuracy than the existing approaches. The average %variation between measured and TPS simulated values was obtained 1.337±0.531, which shows a substantial improvement comparing with the state-of-the-art technology.

Keywords: Monte Carlo, polystyrene, lung tumour, Elekta synergy, Monaco planning system

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1 Working Title: Estimating the Power Output of Photovoltaics in Kuwait Using a Monte Carlo Approach

Authors: Mohammad Alshawaf, Rahmat Poudineh, Nawaf Alhajeri

Abstract:

The power generated from photovoltaic (PV) modules is non-dispatchable on demand due to the stochastic nature of solar radiation. The random variations in the measured intensity of solar irradiance are due to clouds and, in the case of arid regions, dust storms which decrease the intensity of intensity of solar irradiance. Therefore, modeling PV power output using average, maximum, or minimum solar irradiance values is inefficient to predict power generation reliably. The overall objective of this paper is to predict the power output of PV modules using Monte Carlo approach based the weather and solar conditions measured in Kuwait. Given the 250 Wp PV module used in study, the average daily power output is 1021 Wh/day. The maximum power was generated in April and the minimum power was generated in January 1187 Wh/day and 823 Wh/day respectively. The certainty of the daily predictions varies seasonally and according to the weather conditions. The output predictions were far more certain in the summer months, for example, the 80% certainty range for August is 89 Wh/day, whereas the 80% certainty range for April is 250 Wh/day.

Keywords: Solar energy, Monte Carlo, Kuwait, variable renewable energy

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