Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

monomer Related Abstracts

2 Polymerization of Epsilon-Caprolactone Using Lipase Enzyme for Medical Applications

Authors: Sukanya Devi Ramachandran, Vaishnavi Muralidharan, Kavya Chandrasekaran


Polycaprolactone is polymer belonging to the polyester family that has noticeable characteristics of biodegradability and biocompatibility which is essential for medical applications. Polycaprolactone is produced by the ring opening polymerization of the monomer epsilon-Caprolactone (ε-CL) which is a closed ester, comprising of seven-membered ring. This process is normally catalysed by metallic components such as stannous octoate. It is difficult to remove the catalysts after the reaction, and they are also toxic to the human body. An alternate route of using enzymes as catalysts is being employed to reduce the toxicity. Lipase enzyme is a subclass of esterase that can easily attack the ester bonds of ε-CL. This research paper throws light on the extraction of lipase from germinating sunflower seeds and the activity of the biocatalyst in the polymerization of ε-CL. Germinating Sunflower seeds were crushed with fine sand in phosphate buffer of pH 6.5 into a fine paste which was centrifuged at 5000rpm for 10 minutes. The clear solution of the enzyme was tested for activity at various pH ranging from 5 to 7 and temperature ranging from 40oC to 70oC. The enzyme was active at pH6.0 and at 600C temperature. Polymerization of ε-CL was done using toluene as solvent with the catalysis of lipase enzyme, after which chloroform was added to terminate the reaction and was washed in cold methanol to obtain the polymer. The polymerization was done by varying the time from 72 hours to 6 days and tested for the molecular weight and the conversion of the monomer. The molecular weight obtained at 6 days is comparably higher. This method will be very effective, economical and eco-friendly to produce as the enzyme used can be regenerated as such at the end of the reaction and can be reused. The obtained polymers can be used for drug delivery and other medical applications.

Keywords: Polymerization, lipase, polycaprolactone, monomer

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1 Solventless C−C Coupling of Low Carbon Furanics to High Carbon Fuel Precursors Using an Improved Graphene Oxide Carbocatalyst

Authors: Ashish Bohre, Blaž Likozar, Saikat Dutta, Dionisios G. Vlachos, Basudeb Saha


Graphene oxide, decorated with surface oxygen functionalities, has emerged as a sustainable alternative to precious metal catalysts for many reactions. Herein, we report for the first time that graphene oxide becomes super active for C-C coupling upon incorporation of multilayer crystalline features, highly oxidized surface, Brønsted acidic functionalities and defect sites on the surface and edges via modified oxidation. The resulting improved graphene oxide (IGO) demonstrates superior activity to commonly used framework zeolites for upgrading of low carbon biomass furanics to long carbon chain aviation fuel precursors. A maximum 95% yield of C15 fuel precursor with high selectivity is obtained at low temperature (60 C) and neat conditions via hydroxyalkylation/alkylation (HAA) of 2-methylfuran (2-MF) and furfural. The coupling of 2-MF with carbonyl molecules ranging from C3 to C6 produced the precursors of carbon numbers 12 to 21. The catalyst becomes inactive in the 4th cycle due to the loss of oxygen functionalities, defect sites and multilayer features; however, regains comparable activity upon regeneration. Extensive microscopic and spectroscopic characterization of the fresh and reused IGO is presented to elucidate high activity of IGO and to establish a correlation between activity and surface and structural properties. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations are presented to further illustrate the surface features and the reaction mechanism.

Keywords: biomass, itaconic acid, monomer, methacrylic acid, solid base catalyst

Procedia PDF Downloads 38