Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

monocytes Related Abstracts

3 Attenuation of Homocysteine-Induced Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Human Monocytes by Fulvic Acid

Authors: Shao-Ju Chien, Yi-Chien Wu, Ting-Ying Huang, Li-Tsen Li, You-Jin Chen, Cheng-Nan Chen


Homocysteine and pro-inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) have been linked to vascular dysfunction and risks of cardiovascular diseases. Fulvic acid (FA) is class of compounds of humic substances and possesses various pharmacological properties. However, the effect of FA on inflammatory responses of the monocytes remains unclear. We investigated the regulatory effect of FA on homocysteine-induced COX-2 expression in human monocytes. Peripheral blood monocytes and U937 cells were kept as controls or pre-treated with FA, and then stimulated with homocysteine. The results show that pretreating monocytes with FA inhibited the homocysteine-induced COX-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitor for nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) attenuated homocysteine-induced COX-2 expression. Our findings provide a molecular mechanism by which FA inhibit homocysteine-induced COX-2 expression in monocytes, and a basis for using FA in pharmaceutical therapy against inflammation.

Keywords: homocysteine, monocytes, cyclooxygenase-2, fulvic acid, anti-inflammation

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2 Regulation of PKA-Dependent Calcineurin as a Switch in Cell Secretion

Authors: Hani M. M. Alothaid, Louise Robson, Richmond Muimo


This study will investigate cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) dependent calcineurin (Cn), known as protein phosphatase 2 B (PP2B) as well, regulation of chloride ion (Cl⁻) secretion and the release of pro-inflammatory molecules in immune cells such as cytokines. THP-1-derived monocytes, primary human monocytes and the bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-) were used in this study. The 16HBE14o- cells were chosen as positive control. Hence, to further confirm the expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), calcium binding protein (S100A10), annexin A2 (AnxA2) and calcineurin A subunit (CnA) in all three cell types, cell lysate was probed against corresponding primary antibodies by immunoblotting. Western blot analyses show the expression of CFTR, AnxA2, CnA and S100A10 in THP-1-derived monocytes and primary human monocytes. In conclusion, CFTR, S100A10, CnA and AnxA2 are expressed in THP-1-derived monocytes and primary human monocytes and regulate Cl⁻ secretion. Also, they may play a role in the pro-inflammatory molecules release. The ongoing work will confirm interaction between these proteins in the cell lines.

Keywords: monocytes, chloride, annexin A2, calcineurin, CFTR, pro-inflammatory molecules, S100A10

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1 PARP1 Links Transcription of a Subset of RBL2-Dependent Genes with Cell Cycle Progression

Authors: Ewelina Wisnik, Zsolt Regdon, Kinga Chmielewska, Laszlo Virag, Agnieszka Robaszkiewicz


Apart from protecting genome, PARP1 has been documented to regulate many intracellular processes inter alia gene transcription by physically interacting with chromatin bound proteins and by their ADP-ribosylation. Our recent findings indicate that expression of PARP1 decreases during the differentiation of human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells to monocytes as a consequence of differentiation-associated cell growth arrest and formation of E2F4-RBL2-HDAC1-SWI/SNF repressive complex at the promoter of this gene. Since the RBL2 complexes repress genes in a E2F-dependent manner and are widespread in the genome in G0 arrested cells, we asked (a) if RBL2 directly contributes to defining monocyte phenotype and function by targeting gene promoters and (b) if RBL2 controls gene transcription indirectly by repressing PARP1. For identification of genes controlled by RBL2 and/or PARP1,we used primer libraries for surface receptors and TLR signaling mediators, genes were silenced by siRNA or shRNA, analysis of gene promoter occupation by selected proteins was carried out by ChIP-qPCR, while statistical analysis in GraphPad Prism 5 and STATISTICA, ChIP-Seq data were analysed in Galaxy On the list of 28 genes regulated by RBL2, we identified only four solely repressed by RBL2-E2F4-HDAC1-BRM complex. Surprisingly, 24 out of 28 emerged genes controlled by RBL2 were co-regulated by PARP1 in six different manners. In one mode of RBL2/PARP1 co-operation, represented by MAP2K6 and MAPK3, PARP1 was found to associate with gene promoters upon RBL2 silencing, which was previously shown to restore PARP1 expression in monocytes. PARP1 effect on gene transcription was observed only in the presence of active EP300, which acetylated gene promoters and activated transcription. Further analysis revealed that PARP1 binding to MA2K6 and MAPK3 promoters enabled recruitment of EP300 in monocytes, while in proliferating cancer cell lines, which actively transcribe PARP1, this protein maintained EP300 at the promoters of MA2K6 and MAPK3. Genome-wide analysis revealed a similar distribution of PARP1 and EP300 around transcription start sites and the co-occupancy of some gene promoters by PARP1 and EP300 in cancer cells. Here, we described a new RBL2/PARP1/EP300 axis which controls gene transcription regardless of the cell type. In this model cell, cycle-dependent transcription of PARP1 regulates expression of some genes repressed by RBL2 upon cell cycle limitation. Thus, RBL2 may indirectly regulate transcription of some genes by controlling the expression of EP300-recruiting PARP1. Acknowledgement: This work was financed by Polish National Science Centre grants nr DEC-2013/11/D/NZ2/00033 and DEC-2015/19/N/NZ2/01735. L.V. is funded by the National Research, Development and Innovation Office grants GINOP-2.3.2-15-2016-00020 TUMORDNS, GINOP-2.3.2-15-2016-00048-STAYALIVE and OTKA K112336. AR is supported by Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education 776/STYP/11/2016.

Keywords: monocytes, retinoblastoma transcriptional co-repressor like 2 (RBL2), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), E1A binding protein p300 (EP300)

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