Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

molecular dynamics simulation Related Abstracts

27 Study of Functional Relevant Conformational Mobility of β-2 Adrenoreceptor by Means of Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: G. V. Novikov, V. S. Sivozhelezov, S. S. Kolesnikov, K. V. Shaitan


The study reports about the influence of binding of orthosteric ligands as well as point mutations on the conformational dynamics of β-2-adrenoreceptor. Using molecular dynamics simulation we found that there was a little fraction of active states of the receptor in its apo (ligand free) ensemble corresponded to its constitutive activity. Analysis of MD trajectories indicated that such spontaneous activation of the receptor is accompanied by the motion in intracellular part of its alpha-helices. Thus receptor’s constitutive activity directly results from its conformational dynamics. On the other hand the binding of a full agonist resulted in a significant shift of the initial equilibrium towards its active state. Finally, the binding of the inverse agonist stabilized the receptor in its inactive state. It is likely that the binding of inverse agonists might be a universal way of constitutive activity inhibition in vivo. Our results indicate that ligand binding redistribute pre-existing conformational degrees of freedom (in accordance to the Monod-Wyman-Changeux-Model) of the receptor rather than cause induced fit in it. Therefore, the ensemble of biologically relevant receptor conformations is encoded in its spatial structure, and individual conformations from that ensemble might be used by the cell in conformity with the physiological behaviour.

Keywords: Principal Component Analysis, X-Ray Crystallography, seven-transmembrane receptors, constitutive activity, activation, molecular dynamics simulation

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26 Computational Analysis of Potential Inhibitors Selected Based on Structural Similarity for the Src SH2 Domain

Authors: W. P. Hu, J. V. Kumar, Jeffrey J. P. Tsai


The inhibition of SH2 domain regulated protein-protein interactions is an attractive target for developing an effective chemotherapeutic approach in the treatment of disease. Molecular simulation is a useful tool for developing new drugs and for studying molecular recognition. In this study, we searched potential drug compounds for the inhibition of SH2 domain by performing structural similarity search in PubChem Compound Database. A total of 37 compounds were screened from the database, and then we used the LibDock docking program to evaluate the inhibition effect. The best three compounds (AP22408, CID 71463546 and CID 9917321) were chosen for MD simulations after the LibDock docking. Our results show that the compound CID 9917321 can produce a more stable protein-ligand complex compared to other two currently known inhibitors of Src SH2 domain. The compound CID 9917321 may be useful for the inhibition of SH2 domain based on these computational results. Subsequently experiments are needed to verify the effect of compound CID 9917321 on the SH2 domain in the future studies.

Keywords: molecular dynamics simulation, nonpeptide inhibitor, Src SH2 domain, LibDock

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25 Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Beta-Glucosidase of Streptomyces

Authors: Adam Abate, Elham Rasti, Philip Romero


Beta-glucosidase is the key enzyme component present in cellulase and completes the final step during cellulose hydrolysis by converting the cellobiose to glucose. The regulatory properties of beta-glucosidases are most commonly found for the retaining and inverting enzymes. Hydrolysis of a glycoside typically occurs with general acid and general base assistance from two amino acid side chains, normally glutamic or aspartic acids. In order to obtain more detailed information on the dynamic events origination from the interaction with enzyme active site, we carried out molecular dynamics simulations of beta-glycosidase in protonated state (Glu-H178) and deprotonated state (Glu178). The theoretical models generated from our molecular dynamics simulations complement and advance the structural information currently available, leading to a more detailed understanding of Beta-glycosidase structure and function. This article presents the important role of Asn307 in enzyme activity of beta-glucosidase

Keywords: molecular dynamics simulation, structural parameters, Beta-glucosidase, GROMACS

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24 Biosensor Design through Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: Wenjun Zhang, Yunqing Du, Ming L. Wang, Steven W. Cranford


The beginning of 21st century has witnessed new advancements in the design and use of new materials for biosensing applications, from nano to macro, protein to tissue. Traditional analytical methods lack a complete toolset to describe the complexities introduced by living systems, pathological relations, discrete hierarchical materials, cross-phase interactions, and structure-property dependencies. Materiomics – via systematic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation – can provide structure-process-property relations by using a materials science approach linking mechanisms across scales and enables oriented biosensor design. With this approach, DNA biosensors can be utilized to detect disease biomarkers present in individuals’ breath such as acetone for diabetes. Our wireless sensor array based on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-decorated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) has successfully detected trace amount of various chemicals in vapor differentiated by pattern recognition. Here, we present how MD simulation can revolutionize the way of design and screening of DNA aptamers for targeting biomarkers related to oral diseases and oral health monitoring. It demonstrates great potential to be utilized to build a library of DNDA sequences for reliable detection of several biomarkers of one specific disease, and as well provides a new methodology of creating, designing, and applying of biosensors.

Keywords: Biomarker, Biosensor, Dna, molecular dynamics simulation

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23 Molecular Dynamics Simulation for Buckling Analysis at Nanocomposite Beams

Authors: Babak Safaei, A. M. Fattahi


In the present study we have investigated axial buckling characteristics of nanocomposite beams reinforced by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Various types of beam theories including Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, Timoshenko beam theory and Reddy beam theory were used to analyze the buckling behavior of carbon nanotube-reinforced composite beams. Generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method was utilized to discretize the governing differential equations along with four commonly used boundary conditions. The material properties of the nanocomposite beams were obtained using molecular dynamic (MD) simulation corresponding to both short-(10,10) SWCNT and long-(10,10) SWCNT composites which were embedded by amorphous polyethylene matrix. Then the results obtained directly from MD simulations were matched with those calculated by the mixture rule to extract appropriate values of carbon nanotube efficiency parameters accounting for the scale-dependent material properties. The selected numerical results were presented to indicate the influences of nanotube volume fractions and end supports on the critical axial buckling loads of nanocomposite beams relevant to long- and short-nanotube composites.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, molecular dynamics simulation, generalized differential quadrature (GDQ), axial buckling

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22 Molecular Dynamics Simulation for Vibration Analysis at Nanocomposite Plates

Authors: Babak Safaei, A. M. Fattahi


Polymer/carbon nanotube nanocomposites have a wide range of promising applications Due to their enhanced properties. In this work, free vibration analysis of single-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced composite plates is conducted in which carbon nanotubes are embedded in an amorphous polyethylene. The rule of mixture based on various types of plate model namely classical plate theory (CLPT), first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT), and higher-order shear deformation theory (HSDT) was employed to obtain fundamental frequencies of the nanocomposite plates. Generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method was used to discretize the governing differential equations along with the simply supported and clamped boundary conditions. The material properties of the nanocomposite plates were evaluated using molecular dynamic (MD) simulation corresponding to both short-(10,10) SWCNT and long-(10,10) SWCNT composites. Then the results obtained directly from MD simulations were fitted with those calculated by the rule of mixture to extract appropriate values of carbon nanotube efficiency parameters accounting for the scale-dependent material properties. The selected numerical results are presented to address the influences of nanotube volume fraction and edge supports on the value of fundamental frequency of carbon nanotube-reinforced composite plates corresponding to both long- and short-nanotube composites.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, molecular dynamics simulation, free vibration, generalized, differential quadrature (GDQ) method

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21 Nonlocal Beam Models for Free Vibration Analysis of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Various End Supports

Authors: Babak Safaei, Ahmad Ghanbari, Arash Rahmani


In the present study, the free vibration characteristics of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) are investigated. The small-scale effects are taken into account using the Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity theory. The nonlocal elasticity equations are implemented into the different classical beam theories namely as Euler-Bernoulli beam theory (EBT), Timoshenko beam theory (TBT), Reddy beam theory (RBT), and Levinson beam theory (LBT) to analyze the free vibrations of DWCNTs in which each wall of the nanotubes is considered as individual beam with van der Waals interaction forces. Generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method is utilized to discretize the governing differential equations of each nonlocal beam model along with four commonly used boundary conditions. Then molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is performed for a series of armchair and zigzag DWCNTs with different aspect ratios and boundary conditions, the results of which are matched with those of nonlocal beam models to extract the appropriate values of the nonlocal parameter corresponding to each type of chirality, nonlocal beam model and boundary condition. It is found that the present nonlocal beam models with their proposed correct values of nonlocal parameter have good capability to predict the vibrational behavior of DWCNTs, especially for higher aspect ratios.

Keywords: molecular dynamics simulation, double-walled carbon nanotubes, nonlocal continuum elasticity, free vibrations, generalized differential quadrature method

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20 Exploring Valproic Acid (VPA) Analogues Interactions with HDAC8 Involved in VPA Mediated Teratogenicity: A Toxicoinformatics Analysis

Authors: Ajit Kumar, Sakshi Piplani


Valproic acid (VPA) is the first synthetic therapeutic agent used to treat epileptic disorders, which account for affecting nearly 1% world population. Teratogenicity caused by VPA has prompted the search for next generation drug with better efficacy and lower side effects. Recent studies have posed HDAC8 as direct target of VPA that causes the teratogenic effect in foetus. We have employed molecular dynamics (MD) and docking simulations to understand the binding mode of VPA and their analogues onto HDAC8. A total of twenty 3D-structures of human HDAC8 isoforms were selected using BLAST-P search against PDB. Multiple sequence alignment was carried out using ClustalW and PDB-3F07 having least missing and mutated regions was selected for study. The missing residues of loop region were constructed using MODELLER and energy was minimized. A set of 216 structural analogues (>90% identity) of VPA were obtained from Pubchem and ZINC database and their energy was optimized with Chemsketch software using 3-D CHARMM-type force field. Four major neurotransmitters (GABAt, SSADH, α-KGDH, GAD) involved in anticonvulsant activity were docked with VPA and its analogues. Out of 216 analogues, 75 were selected on the basis of lower binding energy and inhibition constant as compared to VPA, thus predicted to have anti-convulsant activity. Selected hHDAC8 structure was then subjected to MD Simulation using licenced version YASARA with AMBER99SB force field. The structure was solvated in rectangular box of TIP3P. The simulation was carried out with periodic boundary conditions and electrostatic interactions and treated with Particle mesh Ewald algorithm. pH of system was set to 7.4, temperature 323K and pressure 1atm respectively. Simulation snapshots were stored every 25ps. The MD simulation was carried out for 20ns and pdb file of HDAC8 structure was saved every 2ns. The structures were analysed using castP and UCSF Chimera and most stabilized structure (20ns) was used for docking study. Molecular docking of 75 selected VPA-analogues with PDB-3F07 was performed using AUTODOCK4.2.6. Lamarckian Genetic Algorithm was used to generate conformations of docked ligand and structure. The docking study revealed that VPA and its analogues have more affinity towards ‘hydrophobic active site channel’, due to its hydrophobic properties and allows VPA and their analogues to take part in van der Waal interactions with TYR24, HIS42, VAL41, TYR20, SER138, TRP137 while TRP137 and SER138 showed hydrogen bonding interaction with VPA-analogues. 14 analogues showed better binding affinity than VPA. ADMET SAR server was used to predict the ADMET properties of selected VPA analogues for predicting their druggability. On the basis of ADMET screening, 09 molecules were selected and are being used for in-vivo evaluation using Danio rerio model.

Keywords: docking, molecular dynamics simulation, valproic acid, HDAC8

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19 Novel Numerical Technique for Dusty Plasma Dynamics (Yukawa Liquids): Microfluidic and Role of Heat Transport

Authors: Aamir Shahzad, Mao-Gang He


Currently, dusty plasmas motivated the researchers' widespread interest. Since the last two decades, substantial efforts have been made by the scientific and technological community to investigate the transport properties and their nonlinear behavior of three-dimensional and two-dimensional nonideal complex (dusty plasma) liquids (NICDPLs). Different calculations have been made to sustain and utilize strongly coupled NICDPLs because of their remarkable scientific and industrial applications. Understanding of the thermophysical properties of complex liquids under various conditions is of practical interest in the field of science and technology. The determination of thermal conductivity is also a demanding question for thermophysical researchers, due to some reasons; very few results are offered for this significant property. Lack of information of the thermal conductivity of dense and complex liquids at different parameters related to the industrial developments is a major barrier to quantitative knowledge of the heat flux flow from one medium to another medium or surface. The exact numerical investigation of transport properties of complex liquids is a fundamental research task in the field of thermophysics, as various transport data are closely related with the setup and confirmation of equations of state. A reliable knowledge of transport data is also important for an optimized design of processes and apparatus in various engineering and science fields (thermoelectric devices), and, in particular, the provision of precise data for the parameters of heat, mass, and momentum transport is required. One of the promising computational techniques, the homogenous nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (HNEMD) simulation, is over viewed with a special importance on the application to transport problems of complex liquids. This proposed work is particularly motivated by the FIRST TIME to modify the problem of heat conduction equations leads to polynomial velocity and temperature profiles algorithm for the investigation of transport properties with their nonlinear behaviors in the NICDPLs. The aim of proposed work is to implement a NEMDS algorithm (Poiseuille flow) and to delve the understanding of thermal conductivity behaviors in Yukawa liquids. The Yukawa system is equilibrated through the Gaussian thermostat in order to maintain the constant system temperature (canonical ensemble ≡ NVT)). The output steps will be developed between 3.0×105/ωp and 1.5×105/ωp simulation time steps for the computation of λ data. The HNEMD algorithm shows that the thermal conductivity is dependent on plasma parameters and the minimum value of lmin shifts toward higher G with an increase in k, as expected. New investigations give more reliable simulated data for the plasma conductivity than earlier known simulation data and generally the plasma λ0 by 2%-20%, depending on Γ and κ. It has been shown that the obtained results at normalized force field are in satisfactory agreement with various earlier simulation results. This algorithm shows that the new technique provides more accurate results with fast convergence and small size effects over a wide range of plasma states.

Keywords: Thermal Conductivity, molecular dynamics simulation, Poiseuille flow, nonideal complex plasma

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18 Biaxial Buckling of Single Layer Graphene Sheet Based on Nonlocal Plate Model and Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: R. Pilafkan, M. Kaffash Irzarahimi, S. F. Asbaghian Namin


The biaxial buckling behavior of single-layered graphene sheets (SLGSs) is studied in the present work. To consider the size-effects in the analysis, Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity equations are incorporated into classical plate theory (CLPT). A Generalized Differential Quadrature Method (GDQM) approach is utilized and numerical solutions for the critical buckling loads are obtained. Then, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed for a series of zigzag SLGSs with different side-lengths and with various boundary conditions, the results of which are matched with those obtained by the nonlocal plate model to numerical the appropriate values of nonlocal parameter relevant to each type of boundary conditions.

Keywords: molecular dynamics simulation, nonlocal elasticity, biaxial buckling, single-layered graphene sheets, classical plate theory

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17 Molecular Dynamics Study of Ferrocene in Low and Room Temperatures

Authors: Feng Wang, Vladislav Vasilyev


Ferrocene (Fe(C5H5)2, i.e., di-cyclopentadienyle iron (FeCp2) or Fc) is a unique example of ‘wrong but seminal’ in chemistry history. It has significant applications in a number of areas such as homogeneous catalysis, polymer chemistry, molecular sensing, and nonlinear optical materials. However, the ‘molecular carousel’ has been a ‘notoriously difficult example’ and subject to long debate for its conformation and properties. Ferrocene is a dynamic molecule. As a result, understanding of the dynamical properties of ferrocene is very important to understand the conformational properties of Fc. In the present study, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations are performed. In the simulation, we use 5 geometrical parameters to define the overall conformation of Fc and all the rest is a thermal noise. The five parameters are defined as: three parameters d---the distance between two Cp planes, α and δ to define the relative positions of the Cp planes, in which α is the angle of the Cp tilt and δ the angle the two Cp plane rotation like a carousel. Two parameters to position the Fe atom between two Cps, i.e., d1 for Fe-Cp1 and d2 for Fe-Cp2 distances. Our preliminary MD simulation discovered the five parameters behave differently. Distances of Fe to the Cp planes show that they are independent, practically identical without correlation. The relative position of two Cp rings, α, indicates that the two Cp planes are most likely not in a parallel position, rather, they tilt in a small angle α≠ 0°. The mean plane dihedral angle δ ≠ 0°. Moreover, δ is neither 0° nor 36°, indicating under those conditions, Fc is neither in a perfect eclipsed structure nor a perfect staggered structure. The simulations show that when the temperature is above 80K, the conformers are virtually in free rotations, A very interesting result from the MD simulation is the five C-Fe bond distances from the same Cp ring. They are surprisingly not identical but in three groups of 2, 2 and 1. We describe the pentagon formed by five carbon atoms as ‘turtle swimming’ for the motion of the Cp rings of Fc as shown in their dynamical animation video. The Fe- C(1) and Fe-C(2) which are identical as ‘the turtle back legs’, Fe-C(3) and Fe-C(4) which are also identical as turtle front paws’, and Fe-C(5) ---’the turtle head’. Such as ‘turtle swimming’ analog may be able to explain the single substituted derivatives of Fc. Again, the mean Fe-C distance obtained from MD simulation is larger than the quantum mechanically calculated Fe-C distances for eclipsed and staggered Fc, with larger deviation with respect to the eclipsed Fc than the staggered Fc. The same trend is obtained for the five Fe-C-H angles from same Cp ring of Fc. The simulated mean IR spectrum at 7K shows split spectral peaks at approximately 470 cm-1 and 488 cm-1, in excellent agreement with quantum mechanically calculated gas phase IR spectrum for eclipsed Fc. As the temperature increases over 80K, the clearly splitting IR spectrum become a very board single peak. Preliminary MD results will be presented.

Keywords: molecular dynamics simulation, ferrocene conformation, conformer orientation, eclipsed and staggered ferrocene

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16 Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Effect of the Solid Gas Interface Nanolayer on Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Copper-CO2 Nanofluid

Authors: Zeeshan Ahmed, Ajinkya Sarode, Pratik Basarkar, Atul Bhargav, Debjyoti Banerjee


The use of CO2 in oil recovery and in CO2 capture and storage is gaining traction in recent years. These applications involve heat transfer between CO2 and the base fluid, and hence, there arises a need to improve the thermal conductivity of CO2 to increase the process efficiency and reduce cost. One way to improve the thermal conductivity is through nanoparticle addition in the base fluid. The nanofluid model in this study consisted of copper (Cu) nanoparticles in varying concentrations with CO2 as a base fluid. No experimental data are available on thermal conductivity of CO2 based nanofluid. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are an increasingly adopted tool to perform preliminary assessments of nanoparticle (NP) fluid interactions. In this study, the effect of the formation of a nanolayer (or molecular layering) at the gas-solid interface on thermal conductivity is investigated using equilibrium MD simulations by varying NP diameter and keeping the volume fraction (1.413%) of nanofluid constant to check the diameter effect of NP on the nanolayer and thermal conductivity. A dense semi-solid fluid layer was seen to be formed at the NP-gas interface, and the thickness increases with increase in particle diameter, which also moves with the NP Brownian motion. Density distribution has been done to see the effect of nanolayer, and its thickness around the NP. These findings are extremely beneficial, especially to industries employed in oil recovery as increased thermal conductivity of CO2 will lead to enhanced oil recovery and thermal energy storage.

Keywords: Thermal Conductivity, molecular dynamics simulation, copper-CO2 nanofluid, molecular interfacial layer

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15 In Silico Screening, Identification and Validation of Cryptosporidium hominis Hypothetical Protein and Virtual Screening of Inhibitors as Therapeutics

Authors: Subrat Kumar, Arpit Kumar Shrivastava, Rajani Kanta Mohapatra, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan Sahu


Computational approaches to predict structure, function and other biological characteristics of proteins are becoming more common in comparison to the traditional methods in drug discovery. Cryptosporidiosis is a major zoonotic diarrheal disease particularly in children, which is caused primarily by Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum. Currently, there are no vaccines for cryptosporidiosis and recommended drugs are not effective. With the availability of complete genome sequence of C. hominis, new targets have been recognized for the development of effective and better drugs and/or vaccines. We identified a unique hypothetical epitopic protein in C. hominis genome through BLASTP analysis. A 3D model of the hypothetical protein was generated using I-Tasser server through threading methodology. The quality of the model was validated through Ramachandran plot by PROCHECK server. The functional annotation of the hypothetical protein through DALI server revealed structural similarity with human Transportin 3. Phylogenetic analysis for this hypothetical protein also showed C. hominis hypothetical protein (CUV04613) was the closely related to human transportin 3 protein. The 3D protein model is further subjected to virtual screening study with inhibitors from the Zinc Database by using Dock Blaster software. Docking study reported N-(3-chlorobenzyl) ethane-1,2-diamine as the best inhibitor in terms of docking score. Docking analysis elucidated that Leu 525, Ile 526, Glu 528, Glu 529 are critical residues for ligand–receptor interactions. The molecular dynamic simulation was done to access the reliability of the binding pose of inhibitor and protein complex using GROMACS software at 10ns time point. Trajectories were analyzed at each 2.5 ns time interval, among which, H-bond with LEU-525 and GLY- 530 are significantly present in MD trajectories. Furthermore, antigenic determinants of the protein were determined with the help of DNA Star software. Our study findings showed a great potential in order to provide insights in the development of new drug(s) or vaccine(s) for control as well as prevention of cryptosporidiosis among humans and animals.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, molecular dynamics simulation, cryptosporidium hominis, hypothetical protein

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14 Molecular Dynamic Simulation of Cold Spray Process

Authors: Sagil James, Aneesh Joshi


Cold Spray (CS) process is deposition of solid particles over a substrate above a certain critical impact velocity. Unlike thermal spray processes, CS process does not melt the particles thus retaining their original physical and chemical properties. These characteristics make CS process ideal for various engineering applications involving metals, polymers, ceramics and composites. The bonding mechanism involved in CS process is extremely complex considering the dynamic nature of the process. Though CS process offers great promise for several engineering applications, the realization of its full potential is limited by the lack of understanding of the complex mechanisms involved in this process and the effect of critical process parameters on the deposition efficiency. The goal of this research is to understand the complex nanoscale mechanisms involved in CS process. The study uses Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation technique to understand the material deposition phenomenon during the CS process. Impact of a single crystalline copper nanoparticle on copper substrate is modelled under varying process conditions. The quantitative results of the impacts at different velocities, impact angle and size of the particles are evaluated using flattening ratio, von Mises stress distribution and local shear strain. The study finds that the flattening ratio and hence the quality of deposition was highest for an impact velocity of 700 m/s, particle size of 20 Å and an impact angle of 90°. The stress and strain analysis revealed regions of shear instabilities in the periphery of impact and also revealed plastic deformation of the particles after the impact. The results of this study can be used to augment our existing knowledge in the field of CS processes.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, molecular dynamics simulation, cold spray process, particle impact

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13 Understanding Nanocarrier Efficacy in Drug Delivery Systems Using Molecular Dynamics

Authors: Fatemeh Yazdian, Maedeh Rahimnejad, Bahman Vahidi, Bahman Ebrahimi Hoseinzadeh, Puria Motamed Fath, Roghieh Jamjah


Introduction: The intensive labor and high cost of developing new vehicles for controlled drug delivery highlights the need for a change in their discovery process. Computational models can be used to accelerate experimental steps and control the high cost of experiments. Methods: In this work, to better understand the interaction of anti-cancer drug and the nanocarrier with the cell membrane, we have done molecular dynamics simulation using NAMD. We have chosen paclitaxel for the drug molecule and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) as a natural phospholipid nanocarrier. Results: Next, center of mass (COM) between molecules and the van der Waals interaction energy close to the cell membrane has been analyzed. Furthermore, the simulation results of the paclitaxel interaction with the cell membrane and the interaction of DPPC as a nanocarrier loaded by the drug with the cell membrane have been compared. Discussion: Analysis by molecular dynamics (MD) showed that not only the energy between the nanocarrier and the cell membrane is low, but also the center of mass amount decreases in the nanocarrier and the cell membrane system during the interaction; therefore they show significantly better interaction in comparison to the individual drug with the cell membrane.

Keywords: Anti-Cancer Drug, molecular dynamics simulation, nanocarrier, center of mass, interaction energy

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12 Assessment of Drug Delivery Systems from Molecular Dynamic Perspective

Authors: F. Yazdian, M. Rahimnejad, B. Vahidi, B. Ebrahimi Hoseinzadeh, P. Motamed Fath, R. Jamjah


In this study, we developed and simulated nano-drug delivery systems efficacy in compare to free drug prescription. Computational models can be utilized to accelerate experimental steps and control the experiments high cost. Molecular dynamics simulation (MDS), in particular NAMD was utilized to better understand the anti-cancer drug interaction with cell membrane model. Paclitaxel (PTX) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) were selected for the drug molecule and as a natural phospholipid nanocarrier, respectively. This work focused on two important interaction parameters between molecules in terms of center of mass (COM) and van der Waals interaction energy. Furthermore, we compared the simulation results of the PTX interaction with the cell membrane and the interaction of DPPC as a nanocarrier loaded by the drug with the cell membrane. The molecular dynamic analysis resulted in low energy between the nanocarrier and the cell membrane as well as significant decrease of COM amount in the nanocarrier and the cell membrane system during the interaction. Thus, the drug vehicle showed notably better interaction with the cell membrane in compared to free drug interaction with the cell membrane.

Keywords: Anti-Cancer Drug, molecular dynamics simulation, nanocarrier, center of mass, interaction energy

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11 Heat Capacity of a Soluble in Water Protein: Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: A. Rajabpour, A. Hadizadeh Kheirkhah


Heat transfer is of great importance to biological systems in order to function properly. In the present study, specific heat capacity as one of the most important heat transfer properties is calculated for a soluble in water Lysozyme protein. Using equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, specific heat capacities of pure water, dry lysozyme, and lysozyme-water solution are calculated at 300K for different weight fractions. It is found that MD results are in good agreement with ideal binary mixing rule at small weight fractions. Results of all simulations have been validated with experimental data.

Keywords: Equilibrium, molecular dynamics simulation, specific heat capacity, lysozyme protein

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10 Investigation of Interaction between Interferons and Polyethylene Glycol Using Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: M. Dehestani, F. Kamali, M. Klantari Pour, L. Zeidabadi-Nejad


Chemical bonding between polyethylene glycol (PEG) with pharmaceutical proteins called pegylation is one of the most effective methods of improving the pharmacological properties. The covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to proteins will increase their pharmacologic properties. For the formation of a combination of pegylated protein should first be activated PEG and connected to the protein. Interferons(IFNs) are a family of cytokines which show antiviral effects in front of the biological and are responsible for setting safety system. In this study, the nature and properties of the interaction between active positions of IFNs and polyethylene glycol have been investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. The main aspect of this theoretical work focuses on the achievement of valuable data on the reaction pathways of PEG-IFNs and the transition state energy. Our results provide a new perspective on the interactions, chemical properties and reaction pathways between IFNs and PEG.

Keywords: Interaction, Interferons, molecular dynamics simulation, polyethylene glycol

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9 Effect of Low Temperature on Structure and RNA Binding of E.coli CspA: A Molecular Dynamics Based Study

Authors: Amit Chaudhary, S. Srivastava, A. M., A. Mani, S. Singh, B. S. Yadav, P. K. Maurya


Cold shock protein A (CspA) is major cold inducible protein present in Escherichia coli. The protein is involved in stabilizing secondary structure of RNA by working as chaperone during cold temperature. Two RNA binding motifs play key role in the stabilizing activity. This study aimed to investigate implications of low temperature on structure and RNA binding activity of E. coli CspA. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to compare the stability of the protein at 37°C and 10 °C. The protein was mutated at RNA binding motifs and docked with RNA to assess the stability of both complexes. Results suggest that CspA as well as CspA-RNA complex is more stable at low temperature. It was also confirmed that RNP1 and RNP2 play key role in RNA binding.

Keywords: Mutation, molecular dynamics simulation, homology modelling, CspA

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8 Investigation of Chlorophylls a and b Interaction with Inner and Outer Surfaces of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Using Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: M. Dehestani, M. Ghasemi-Kooch


In this work, adsorption of chlorophylls a and b pigments in aqueous solution on the inner and outer surfaces of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) has been studied using molecular dynamics simulation. The linear interaction energy algorithm has been used to calculate the binding free energy. The results show that the adsorption of two pigments is fine on the both positions. Although there is the close similarity between these two pigments, their interaction with the nanotube is different. This result is useful to separate these pigments from one another. According to interaction energy between the pigments and carbon nanotube, interaction between these pigments-SWCNT on the inner surface is stronger than the outer surface. The interaction of SWCNT with chlorophylls phytol tail is stronger than the interaction of SWCNT with porphyrin ring of chlorophylls.

Keywords: Nanotube, Interaction, Adsorption, chlorophyll, molecular dynamics simulation

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7 The Impact of Missense Mutation in Phosphatidylinositol Glycan Class A Associated to Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria and Multiple Congenital Anomalies-Hypotonia-Seizures Syndrome 2: A Computational Study

Authors: Amit Kumar, Ashish Kumar Agrahari


Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired clonal blood disorder that manifests with hemolytic anemia, thrombosis, and peripheral blood cytopenias. The disease is caused by the deficiency of two glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPI)-anchored proteins (CD55 and CD59) in the hemopoietic stem cells. The deficiency of GPI-anchored proteins has been associated with the somatic mutations in phosphatidylinositol glycan class A (PIGA). However, the mutations that do not cause PNH is associated with the multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 2 (MCAHS2). To best of our knowledge, no computational study has been performed to explore the atomistic level impact of PIGA mutations on the structure and dynamics of the protein. In the current work, we are mainly interested to get insights into the molecular mechanism of PIGA mutations. In the initial step, we screened the most pathogenic mutations from the pool of publicly available mutations. Further, to get a better understanding, pathogenic mutations were mapped to the modeled structure and subjected to 50ns molecular dynamics simulation. Our computational study suggests that four mutations are highly vulnerable to altering the structural conformation and stability of the PIGA protein, which illustrates its association with PNH and MCAHS2 phenotype.

Keywords: Homology Modeling, molecular dynamics simulation, missense mutations PNH, MCAHS2, PIGA

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6 An Insight into the Conformational Dynamics of Glycan through Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: K. Veluraja


Glycan of glycolipids and glycoproteins is playing a significant role in living systems particularly in molecular recognition processes. Molecular recognition processes are attributed to their occurrence on the surface of the cell, sequential arrangement and type of sugar molecules present in the oligosaccharide structure and glyosidic linkage diversity (glycoinformatics) and conformational diversity (glycoconformatics). Molecular Dynamics Simulation study is a theoretical-cum-computational tool successfully utilized to establish glycoconformatics of glycan. The study on various oligosaccharides of glycan clearly indicates that oligosaccharides do exist in multiple conformational states and these conformational states arise due to the flexibility associated with a glycosidic torsional angle (φ,ψ) . As an example: a single disaccharide structure NeuNacα(2-3) Gal exists in three different conformational states due to the differences in the preferential value of glycosidic torsional angles (φ,ψ). Hence establishing three dimensional structural and conformational models for glycan (cartesian coordinates of every individual atoms of an oligosaccharide structure in a preferred conformation) is quite crucial to understand various molecular recognition processes such as glycan-toxin interaction and glycan-virus interaction. The gycoconformatics models obtained for various glycan through Molecular Dynamics Simulation stored in our 3DSDSCAR (3DSDSCAR.ORG) a public domain database and its utility value in understanding the molecular recognition processes and in drug design venture will be discussed.

Keywords: molecular dynamics simulation, glycan, glycoconformatics, oligosaccharide

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5 Preventing Neurodegenerative Diseases by Stabilization of Superoxide Dismutase by Natural Polyphenolic Compounds

Authors: Vijay Kumar, Danish Idrees, Samudrala Gourinath


Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by misfolding and aggregation of Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). The use of small molecules has been shown to stabilize the SOD1 dimer and preventing its dissociation and aggregation. In this study, we employed molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to study the interactions between SOD1 and natural polyphenolic compounds. In order to explore the noncovalent interaction between SOD1 and natural polyphenolic compounds, molecular docking and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were employed to gain insights into the binding modes and free energies of SOD1-polyphenolic compounds. MM/PBSA methods were used to calculate free energies from obtained MD trajectories. The compounds, Hesperidin, Ergosterol, and Rutin showed the excellent binding affinity in micromolar range with SOD1. Ergosterol and Hesperidin have the strongest binding affinity to SOD1 and was subjected to further characterization. Biophysical experiments using Circular Dichroism and Thioflavin T fluorescence spectroscopy results show that the binding of these two compounds can stabilize SOD1 dimer and inhibit the aggregation of SOD1. Molecular simulation results also suggest that these compounds reduce the dissociation of SOD1 dimers through direct interaction with the dimer interface. This study will be helpful to develop other drug-like molecules which may have the effect to reduce the aggregation of SOD1.

Keywords: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Surface Plasmon Resonance, molecular dynamics simulation, superoxide dismutase

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4 Membrane Permeability of Middle Molecules: A Computational Chemistry Approach

Authors: Sundaram Arulmozhiraja, Kanade Shimizu, Yuta Yamamoto, Satoshi Ichikawa, Maenaka Katsumi, Hiroaki Tokiwa


Drug discovery is shifting from small molecule based drugs targeting local active site to middle molecules (MM) targeting large, flat, and groove-shaped binding sites, for example, protein-protein interface because at least half of all targets assumed to be involved in human disease have been classified as “difficult to drug” with traditional small molecules. Hence, MMs such as peptides, natural products, glycans, nucleic acids with various high potent bioactivities become important targets for drug discovery programs in the recent years as they could be used for ‘undruggable” intracellular targets. Cell membrane permeability is one of the key properties of pharmacodynamically active MM drug compounds and so evaluating this property for the potential MMs is crucial. Computational prediction for cell membrane permeability of molecules is very challenging; however, recent advancement in the molecular dynamics simulations help to solve this issue partially. It is expected that MMs with high membrane permeability will enable drug discovery research to expand its borders towards intracellular targets. Further to understand the chemistry behind the permeability of MMs, it is necessary to investigate their conformational changes during the permeation through membrane and for that their interactions with the membrane field should be studied reliably because these interactions involve various non-bonding interactions such as hydrogen bonding, -stacking, charge-transfer, polarization dispersion, and non-classical weak hydrogen bonding. Therefore, parameters-based classical mechanics calculations are hardly sufficient to investigate these interactions rather, quantum mechanical (QM) calculations are essential. Fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method could be used for such purpose as it performs ab initio QM calculations by dividing the system into fragments. The present work is aimed to study the cell permeability of middle molecules using molecular dynamics simulations and FMO-QM calculations. For this purpose, a natural compound syringolin and its analogues were considered in this study. Molecular simulations were performed using NAMD and Gromacs programs with CHARMM force field. FMO calculations were performed using the PAICS program at the correlated Resolution-of-Identity second-order Moller Plesset (RI-MP2) level with the cc-pVDZ basis set. The simulations clearly show that while syringolin could not permeate the membrane, its selected analogues go through the medium in nano second scale. These correlates well with the existing experimental evidences that these syringolin analogues are membrane-permeable compounds. Further analyses indicate that intramolecular -stacking interactions in the syringolin analogues influenced their permeability positively. These intramolecular interactions reduce the polarity of these analogues so that they could permeate the lipophilic cell membrane. Conclusively, the cell membrane permeability of various middle molecules with potent bioactivities is efficiently studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Insight of this behavior is thoroughly investigated using FMO-QM calculations. Results obtained in the present study indicate that non-bonding intramolecular interactions such as hydrogen-bonding and -stacking along with the conformational flexibility of MMs are essential for amicable membrane permeation. These results are interesting and are nice example for this theoretical calculation approach that could be used to study the permeability of other middle molecules. This work was supported by Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED) under Grant Number 18ae0101047.

Keywords: Membrane Permeability, molecular dynamics simulation, fragment molecular orbital theory, middle molecules

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3 Study of Structural Behavior and Proton Conductivity of Inorganic Gel Paste Electrolyte at Various Phosphorous to Silicon Ratio by Multiscale Modelling

Authors: P. Ghosh, P. Haldar, S. Ghoshdastidar, K. Kargupta


In polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is consisting of two platinum coated carbon electrodes, sandwiched with one proton conducting phosphoric acid doped polymeric membrane. Due to low mechanical stability, flooding and fuel cell crossover, application of phosphoric acid in polymeric membrane is very critical. Phosphorous and silica based 3D inorganic gel gains the attention in the field of supercapacitors, fuel cells and metal hydrate batteries due to its thermally stable highly proton conductive behavior. Also as a large amount of water molecule and phosphoric acid can easily get trapped in Si-O-Si network cavities, it causes a prevention in the leaching out. In this study, we have performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and first principle calculations to understand the structural, electronics and electrochemical and morphological behavior of this inorganic gel at various P to Si ratios. We have used dipole-dipole interactions, H bonding, and van der Waals forces to study the main interactions between the molecules. A 'structure property-performance' mapping is initiated to determine optimum P to Si ratio for best proton conductivity. We have performed the MD simulations at various temperature to understand the temperature dependency on proton conductivity. The observed results will propose a model which fits well with experimental data and other literature values. We have also studied the mechanism behind proton conductivity. And finally we have proposed a structure for the gel paste with optimum P to Si ratio.

Keywords: molecular dynamics simulation, proton conductivity, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, first principle calculation, phosphorous and silica based 3D inorganic gel

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2 Identification of Analogues to EGCG for the Inhibition of HPV E7: A Fundamental Insights through Structural Dynamics Study

Authors: Murali Aarthy, Sanjeev Kumar Singh


High risk human papillomaviruses are highly associated with the carcinoma of the cervix and the other genital tumors. Cervical cancer develops through the multistep process in which increasingly severe premalignant dysplastic lesions called cervical intraepithelial neoplastic progress to invasive cancer. The oncoprotein E7 of human papillomavirus expressed in the lower epithelial layers drives the cells into S-phase creating an environment conducive for viral genome replication and cell proliferation. The replication of the virus occurs in the terminally differentiating epithelium and requires the activation of cellular DNA replication proteins. To date, no suitable drug molecule is available to treat HPV infection whereas identification of potential drug targets and development of novel anti-HPV chemotherapies with unique mode of actions are expected. Hence, our present study aimed to identify the potential inhibitors analogous to EGCG, a green tea molecule which is considered to be safe to use for mammalian systems. A 3D similarity search on the natural small molecule library from natural product database using EGCG identified 11 potential hits based on their similarity score. The structure based docking strategies were implemented in the potential hits and the key interacting residues of protein with compounds were identified through simulation studies and binding free energy calculations. The conformational changes between the apoprotein and the complex were analyzed with the simulation and the results demonstrated that the dynamical and structural effects observed in the protein were induced by the compounds and indicated the dominance to the oncoprotein. Overall, our study provides the basis for the structural insights of the identified potential hits and EGCG and hence, the analogous compounds identified can be potent inhibitors against the HPV 16 E7 oncoprotein.

Keywords: molecular dynamics simulation, EGCG, oncoprotein, analogues

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1 Gas Aggregation and Nanobubbles Stability on Substrates Influenced by Surface Wettability: A Molecular Dynamics Study

Authors: Tsu-Hsu Yen


The interfacial gas adsorption presents a frequent challenge and opportunity for micro-/nano-fluidic operation. In this study, we investigate the wettability, gas accumulation, and nanobubble formation on various homogeneous surface conditions by using MD simulation, including a series of 3D and quasi-2D argon-water-solid systems simulation. To precisely determine the wettability on various substrates, several indicators were calculated. Among these wettability indicators, the water PMF (potential of mean force) has the most correlation tendency with interfacial water molecular orientation than depletion layer width and droplet contact angle. The results reveal that the aggregation of argon molecules on substrates not only depending on the level of hydrophobicity but also determined by the competition between gas-solid and water-solid interaction as well as water molecular structure near the surface. In addition, the surface nanobubble is always observed coexisted with the gas enrichment layer. The water structure adjacent to water-gas and water-solid interfaces also plays an important factor in gas out-flux and gas aggregation, respectively. The quasi-2D simulation shows that only a slight difference in the curved argon-water interface from the plane interface which suggests no noticeable obstructing effect on gas outflux from the gas-water interfacial water networks.

Keywords: Wettability, molecular dynamics simulation, gas aggregation, interfacial nanobubble

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