Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Molecular Docking Related Abstracts

28 An Inverse Docking Approach for Identifying New Potential Anticancer Targets

Authors: Soujanya Pasumarthi

Abstract:

Inverse docking is a relatively new technique that has been used to identify potential receptor targets of small molecules. Our docking software package MDock is well suited for such an application as it is both computationally efficient, yet simultaneously shows adequate results in binding affinity predictions and enrichment tests. As a validation study, we present the first stage results of an inverse-docking study which seeks to identify potential direct targets of PRIMA-1. PRIMA-1 is well known for its ability to restore mutant p53's tumor suppressor function, leading to apoptosis in several types of cancer cells. For this reason, we believe that potential direct targets of PRIMA-1 identified in silico should be experimentally screened for their ability to inhibitcancer cell growth. The highest-ranked human protein of our PRIMA-1 docking results is oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC), which is part of the cholesterol synthetic pathway. The results of two followup experiments which treat OSC as a possible anti-cancer target are promising. We show that both PRIMA-1 and Ro 48-8071, a known potent OSC inhibitor, significantly reduce theviability of BT-474 breast cancer cells relative to normal mammary cells. In addition, like PRIMA-1, we find that Ro 48-8071 results in increased binding of mutant p53 to DNA in BT- 474cells (which highly express p53). For the first time, Ro 48-8071 is shown as a potent agent in killing human breast cancer cells. The potential of OSC as a new target for developing anticancer therapies is worth further investigation.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, inverse docking, in silico screening, protein-ligand interactions

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27 Structure-Based Virtual Screening and in Silico Toxicity Test of Compounds against Mycobacterium tuberculosis 7,8-Diaminopelargonic Acid Aminotransferase (MtbBioA)

Authors: Junie B. Billones, Maria Constancia O. Carrillo, Voltaire G. Organo, Stephani Joy Y. Macalino, Inno A. Emnacen, Jamie Bernadette A. Sy

Abstract:

One of the major interferences in the Philippines’ tuberculosis control program is the widespread prevalence of Mtb strains that are resistant to known drugs, such as the MDR-TB (Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis) and XDR-TB (Extensively Drug Resistant Tuberculosis). Therefore, there is a pressing need to search for novel Mtb drug targets in order to be able to combat these drug resistant strains. The enzyme 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid aminotransferase enzyme, or more commonly known as BioA, is one such ideal target, as it is known that humans do not possess this enzyme. BioA primarily plays a key role in Mtb’s lipid biosynthesis pathway; more specifically in the synthesis of the enzyme cofactor biotin. In this study, structure-based pharmacophore screening, docking, and ADMET evaluation of compounds obtained from the DrugBank chemical database were performed against the MtbBioA enzyme. Results of the screening, docking, ADMET, and TOPKAT calculations revealed that out of the 6,516 compounds in the library, only 7 compounds indicated more favorable binding energies as compared to the enzyme’s known inhibitor, amiclenomycin (ACM), as well as good solubility and toxicity properties. Moreover, out of these 7 compounds, Molecule 6 exhibited the best solubility and toxicity properties. In the future, these lead compounds may then be subjected to bioactivity assays in vitro or in vivo for further evaluation of its therapeutic efficacy.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, BioA, pharmacophore, ADMET, TOPKAT

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26 Virtual Screening and in Silico Toxicity Property Prediction of Compounds against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lipoate Protein Ligase B (LipB)

Authors: Junie B. Billones, Maria Constancia O. Carrillo, Voltaire G. Organo, Stephani Joy Y. Macalino, Inno A. Emnacen, Jamie Bernadette A. Sy

Abstract:

The drug discovery and development process is generally known to be a very lengthy and labor-intensive process. Therefore, in order to be able to deliver prompt and effective responses to cure certain diseases, there is an urgent need to reduce the time and resources needed to design, develop, and optimize potential drugs. Computer-aided drug design (CADD) is able to alleviate this issue by applying computational power in order to streamline the whole drug discovery process, starting from target identification to lead optimization. This drug design approach can be predominantly applied to diseases that cause major public health concerns, such as tuberculosis. Hitherto, there has been no concrete cure for this disease, especially with the continuing emergence of drug resistant strains. In this study, CADD is employed for tuberculosis by first identifying a key enzyme in the mycobacterium’s metabolic pathway that would make a good drug target. One such potential target is the lipoate protein ligase B enzyme (LipB), which is a key enzyme in the M. tuberculosis metabolic pathway involved in the biosynthesis of the lipoic acid cofactor. Its expression is considerably up-regulated in patients with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and it has no known back-up mechanism that can take over its function when inhibited, making it an extremely attractive target. Using cutting-edge computational methods, compounds from AnalytiCon Discovery Natural Derivatives database were screened and docked against the LipB enzyme in order to rank them based on their binding affinities. Compounds which have better binding affinities than LipB’s known inhibitor, decanoic acid, were subjected to in silico toxicity evaluation using the ADMET and TOPKAT protocols. Out of the 31,692 compounds in the database, 112 of these showed better binding energies than decanoic acid. Furthermore, 12 out of the 112 compounds showed highly promising ADMET and TOPKAT properties. Future studies involving in vitro or in vivo bioassays may be done to further confirm the therapeutic efficacy of these 12 compounds, which eventually may then lead to a novel class of anti-tuberculosis drugs.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, pharmacophore, ADMET, TOPKAT, lipoate protein ligase B (LipB)

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25 Binding Studies of Complexes of Anticancer Drugs with DNA and Enzymes Involved in DNA Replication Using Molecular Docking and Cell Culture Techniques

Authors: Fouzia Perveen, Rumana Qureshi

Abstract:

The presently studied twelve anticancer drugs are the cytotoxic agents which inhibit the replication of DNA and activity of enzymes involved in DNA replication namely topoisomerase-II, polymerase and helicase and have shown remarkable anticancer activity in clinical trials. In this study, we performed molecular docking studies of twelve antitumor drugs against DNA and DNA enzymes in the presence and absence of ascorbic acid (AA) and developed the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model for anticancer activity screening. A number of electronic and steric descriptors were calculated using MOE software package. QSAR was established showing a correlation of binding strength with various physicochemical descriptors. Out of these twelve, eight cytotoxic drugs were tested on Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer cell lines (H-157 and H-1299) in the absence and presence of ascorbic acid and experimental IC50 values were calculated. From the docking studies, binding constants were calculated indicating the strength of drug-DNA and drug-enzyme complex formation and it was correlated to the IC50 values (both experimental and theoretical). These results can offer useful references for directing the molecular design of DNA enzyme inhibitor with improved anticancer activity.

Keywords: Cell Culture, Molecular Docking, Dna, ascorbic acid, binding constant, cytotoxic agents, DNA enzymes

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24 Molecular Docking Assessment of Pesticides Binding to Bacterial Chitinases

Authors: Diana Larisa Vladoiu, Vasile Ostafe, Adriana Isvoran

Abstract:

Molecular docking calculations reveal that pesticides provide favorable interactions with the bacterial chitinases. Pesticides interact with both hydrophilic and aromatic residues involved in the active site of the enzymes, their positions partially overlapping the substrate and the inhibitors locations. Molecular docking outcomes, in correlation with experimental literature data, suggest that the pesticides may be degraded or having an inhibitor effect on the activity of these enzymes, depending of the application dose and rate.

Keywords: Pesticides, Molecular Docking, inhibition, chitinases

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23 Investigating Anti-Tumourigenic and Anti-Angiogenic Effects of Resveratrol in Breast Carcinogenesis Using in-Silico Algorithms

Authors: Asma Zaib, Saeed Khan, Ayaz Ahmed Noonari, Sehrish Bint-e-Mohsin

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Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide and is estimated that more than 450,000 deaths are reported each year. It accounts for about 14% of all female cancer deaths. Angiogenesis plays an essential role in Breast cancer development, invasion, and metastasis. Breast cancer predominantly begins in luminal epithelial cells lining the normal breast ducts. Breast carcinoma likely requires coordinated efforts of both increased proliferation and increased motility to progress to metastatic stages.Resveratrol: a natural stilbenoid, has anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects that inhibits proliferation of variety of human cancer cell lines, including breast, prostate, stomach, colon, pancreatic, and thyroid cancers.The objective of this study is:To investigate anti-neoangiogenesis effects of Resveratrol in breast cancer and to analyze inhibitory effects of resveratrol on aromatase, Erα, HER2/neu, and VEGFR.Docking is the computational determination of binding affinity between molecule (protein structure and ligand).We performed molecular docking using Swiss-Dock and to determine docking effects of (1) Resveratrol with Aromatase, (2) Resveratrol with ERα (3) Resveratrol with HER2/neu and (4) Resveratrol with VEGFR2.Docking results of resveratrol determined inhibitory effects on aromatase with binding energy of -7.28 kcal/mol which shows anticancerous effects on estrogen dependent breast tumors. Resveratrol also show inhibitory effects on ERα and HER2/new with binging energy -8.02, and -6.74 respectively; which revealed anti-cytoproliferative effects upon breast cancer. On the other hand resveratrol v/s VEGFR showed potential inhibitory effects on neo-angiogenesis with binding energy -7.68 kcal/mol, angiogenesis is the important phenomenon that promote tumor development and metastasis. Resveratrol is an anti-breast cancer agent conformed by in silico studies, it has been identified that resveratrol can inhibit breast cancer cells proliferation by acting as competitive inhibitor of aromatase, ERα and HER2 neo, while neo-angiogemesis is restricted by binding to VEGFR which authenticates the anti-carcinogenic effects of resveratrol against breast cancer.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, angiogenesis, Resveratrol, anti-cytoproliferative

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22 Clustering of Natural and Nature Derived Compounds for Cardiovascular Disease: Pharmacophore Modeling

Authors: S. Roy, R. Rekha, K. Sriram, G. Subhadra, R. Johana

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Cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of death in most industrialized countries. Many chemical drugs are available in the market which targets different receptor proteins related to cardiovascular diseases. Of late the traditional herbal drugs are safer when compared to chemical drugs because of its side effects. However, many herbal remedies used in treating cardiovascular diseases have not undergone scientific assessment to prove its pharmacological activities. There are many natural compounds, nature derived and Natural product mimic compounds are available which are in the market as approved drug. In the most of the cases drug activity at the molecular level are not known. Here we have categorized those compounds with our experimental compounds in different classes based on the structural similarity and physicochemical properties, using a tool, Chemmine and has attempted to understand the mechanism of the action of a experimental compound, which are clustered with Simvastatin, Lovastatin, Mevastatin and Pravastatin. Target protein molecule for Simvastatin, Lovastatin, Mevastatin and Pravastatin is HMG-CoA reductase, so we concluded that the experimental compound may be able to bind to the same target. Molecular docking and atomic interaction studies with simvastatin and our experimental compound were compared. A pharmacophore modeling was done based on the experimental compound and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, Physicochemical properties, pharmacophore modeling structural similarity, pravastatin

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21 Cholinesterase Inhibitory Indole Alkaloids from the Bark of Rauvolfia reflexa

Authors: Mehran Fadaeinasab, Alireza Basiri, Yalda Kia, Hamed Karimian, Hapipah Mohd Ali, Vikneswaran Murugaiyah

Abstract:

Two new, rauvolfine C and 3- methyl-10,11-dimethoxyl-6- methoxycarbonyl- β- carboline, along with five known indole alkaloids, macusine B, vinorine, undulifoline, isoresrpiline and rescinnamine were isolated from the bark of Rauvolfia reflexa. All the compounds showed good to moderate cholinesterase inhibitory activity with IC50 values in the range of 8.06 to 73.23 πM, except rauvolfine C that was inactive against acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Rescinnamine, a dual inhibitor was found to be the most potent inhibitor among the isolated alkaloids against both AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Molecular docking revealed that rescinnamine interacted differently on AChE and BChE, by means of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, acetylcholinesterase, Rauvolfia reflexa, indole alkaloids, butyrylcholinesterase

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20 Molecular Docking and Synthesis of Nitrogen-Containing Bisphosphonates

Authors: S. Ghalem, M. Mesmoudi, I. Daoudand, H. Allali

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The nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) are well established as the treatments of choice for disorders of excessive bone resorption, myeloma and bone metastases, and osteoporosis. They inhibit farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FFPS), a key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, resulting in inhibition of the prenylation of small GTP-binding proteins in osteoclasts and disruption of their cytoskeleton, adhesion/spreading, and invasion of cancer cells. A very few examples for synthesis of α-amino bisphosphonates based on several amino acids are known from the literature. In the present work, esters of aminoacid react with ketophsophonate (or their analog acid or acyl) to afford the desired products, α-iminophosphonates. The reaction of imine with dimethyl phosphate in the presence of catalytic amount of I2 give ester of α-aminobisphosphonate as sole product in good yield. Finally, we used computational docking methods to predict how several α-aminobisphosphonates bind to FPPS and how R and X influence. Pamidronate, β-aminobisphosphonate already marketed, was used as reference. These results are of interest since they represent a new and simple way to sythesize α-aminobisphosphonates with a free COOH group increased by R2 functionalisable and opening up the possibility of using the molecular docking to facilitate the design of other, novel FFPS inhibitors.

Keywords: Cancer, Molecular Docking, drug research, α-amino bisphosphonates

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19 Virtual Screening of Potential Inhibitors against Efflux Pumps of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Authors: Gagan Dhawan

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis was described as ‘captain of death’ with an inherent property of multiple drug resistance majorly caused by the competent mechanism of efflux pumps. In this study, various open source tools combining chemo-informatics with bioinformatics were used for efficient in-silico drug designing. The efflux pump, Rv1218c, belonging to the ABC transporter superfamily, which is predicted to be a tetronasin-transporter in M. tuberculosis was targeted. Recent studies have shown that Rv1218c forms a complex with two more efflux pumps (Rv1219c and Rv1217c) to provide multidrug resistance to the bacterium. The 3D structure of the protein was modeled (as the structure was unavailable in the previously collected databases on this gene). The TMHMM analysis of this protein in TubercuList has shown that this protein is present in the outer membrane of the bacterium. Virtual screening of compounds from various publically available chemical libraries was performed on the M. tuberculosis protein using various open source tools. These ligands were further assessed where various physicochemical properties were evaluated and analyzed. On comparison of different physicochemical properties, toxicity and docking, the ligand 2-(hydroxymethyl)-6-[4, 5, 6-trihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl) tetrahydropyran-3-yl] oxy-tetrahydropyran-3, 4, 5-triol was found to be best suited for further studies.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, Drug Resistance, efflux pump, virtual screening

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18 Synthesis, Inhibitory Activity, and Molecular Modelling of 2-Hydroxy-3-Oxo-3-Phenylpropionate Derivatives as HIV-1-Integrase Inhibitors

Authors: O. J. Jesumoroti, Faridoon, R. Klein, K. A. Iobb, D. Mnkadhla, H. C. Hoppe, P. T. Kaye

Abstract:

The 1, 3-aryl diketo acids (DKA) based agents represent an important class of HIV integrase (IN) strand transfer inhibitors. In other to study the chelating role of the divalent metal ion in the inhibition of IN strand transfer, we designed and synthesized a series of 2-hydroxy-3-oxo-3-phenyl propionate derivatives with the notion that such compounds could interact with the divalent ion in the active site of IN. The synthetic sequence to the desired compounds involves the concept of Doebner knoevenagel condensation, Fischer esterification and ketohydroxylation using neuclophilic re-oxidant; compounds were characterized by their IR, IHNMR, 13CNMR, HRMS spectroscopic data and melting point determination. Also, molecular docking was employed in this study and it was revealed that there is interaction with the active site of the enzyme. However, there is disparity in the corresponding anti-HIV activity determined by the experimental bioassay. These compounds lack potency at low micromolar concentration when compared to the results of the docking studies. Nevertheless, the results of the study suggest modification of the aryl ring with one or two hydroxyl groups to improve the inhibitory activity.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, anti-HIV-1 integrase, ketohydroxylation, propionate derivatives

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17 Structure-Based Virtual Screening to Identify CLDN4 Inhibitors

Authors: Jayanthi Sivaraman

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Claudins are the important components of the tight junctions that play a key role in paracellular permeability. Among various members of Claudin family, Claudin 4 (CLDN4) is found to be overexpressed in ovarian, pancreatic carcinomas and other epithelial malignancies. Therefore, in this study, an attempt has been made to identify potent inhibitors for CLDN4 from the ZINC database using virtual screening, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations. A well refined molecular model of CLDN4 was built using Prime of Schrodinger v10.2(Template- PDB ID: 4P79). Approximately, 6 million compounds from ZINC database are subjected to high-throughput virtual screening (HTVS) against the active site of CLDN4. Molecular docking using GLIDE predicted ARG31, ASN142, ASP146 and ARG158 as critically important residues. Furthermore, three compounds from ZINC database (ZINC96331839, ZINC36533519 and ZINC75819394) showed highly promising ADME properties and binding affinity with stable conformation. The therapeutic efficiency of these lead compounds is evaluated and confirmed by in-vitro and in-vivo studies which leads to the development of novel anti-cancer drugs.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, inhibitors, virtual screening, ADME property

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16 Microbiological Activity and Molecular Docking Study of Selected Steroid Derivatives of Biomedical Importance

Authors: Milica Karadzic, Lidija Jevric, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanovic, Strahinja Kovacevic, Sinisa Markov, Aleksandar Okljesa, Andrea Nikolic, Marija Sakac, Katarina Penov Gasi

Abstract:

This study considered the microbiological activity determination and molecular docking study for selected steroid derivatives of biomedical importance. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for steroid derivatives against Staphylococcus aureus using macrodilution method. Some of the investigated steroid derivatives express bacteriostatic effect against Staphylococcus aureus. Molecular docking approaches are the most widely used techniques for predicting the binding mode of a ligand. Molecular docking study was done for steroid derivatives for androgen receptor negative prostate cancer cell line (PC-3) toward Human Cytochrome P450 CYP17A1. The molecules that had the smallest experimental IC50 values confirmed their ability to dock into active place using suitable molecular docking procedure. The binding disposition of those molecules was thoroughly investigated. Microbiological analysis and molecular docking study were conducted with aim to additionally characterize selected steroid derivatives for future investigation regarding their biological activity and to estimate the binding-affinities of investigated derivatives. This article is based upon work from COST Action (TD1305), supported by COST (European Cooperation and Science and Technology).

Keywords: Molecular Docking, Steroids, Staphylococcus aureus, binding affinity, minimal inhibitory concentration, pc-3 cell line

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15 In Silico Screening, Identification and Validation of Cryptosporidium hominis Hypothetical Protein and Virtual Screening of Inhibitors as Therapeutics

Authors: Arpit Kumar Shrivastava, Subrat Kumar, Rajani Kanta Mohapatra, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan Sahu

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Computational approaches to predict structure, function and other biological characteristics of proteins are becoming more common in comparison to the traditional methods in drug discovery. Cryptosporidiosis is a major zoonotic diarrheal disease particularly in children, which is caused primarily by Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum. Currently, there are no vaccines for cryptosporidiosis and recommended drugs are not effective. With the availability of complete genome sequence of C. hominis, new targets have been recognized for the development of effective and better drugs and/or vaccines. We identified a unique hypothetical epitopic protein in C. hominis genome through BLASTP analysis. A 3D model of the hypothetical protein was generated using I-Tasser server through threading methodology. The quality of the model was validated through Ramachandran plot by PROCHECK server. The functional annotation of the hypothetical protein through DALI server revealed structural similarity with human Transportin 3. Phylogenetic analysis for this hypothetical protein also showed C. hominis hypothetical protein (CUV04613) was the closely related to human transportin 3 protein. The 3D protein model is further subjected to virtual screening study with inhibitors from the Zinc Database by using Dock Blaster software. Docking study reported N-(3-chlorobenzyl) ethane-1,2-diamine as the best inhibitor in terms of docking score. Docking analysis elucidated that Leu 525, Ile 526, Glu 528, Glu 529 are critical residues for ligand–receptor interactions. The molecular dynamic simulation was done to access the reliability of the binding pose of inhibitor and protein complex using GROMACS software at 10ns time point. Trajectories were analyzed at each 2.5 ns time interval, among which, H-bond with LEU-525 and GLY- 530 are significantly present in MD trajectories. Furthermore, antigenic determinants of the protein were determined with the help of DNA Star software. Our study findings showed a great potential in order to provide insights in the development of new drug(s) or vaccine(s) for control as well as prevention of cryptosporidiosis among humans and animals.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, molecular dynamics simulation, cryptosporidium hominis, hypothetical protein

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14 Structure-Based Drug Design of Daptomycin, Antimicrobial lipopeptide

Authors: Satya Eswari Jujjavarapu, Swast Dhagat

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Contagious diseases enact severe public health problems and have upsetting consequences. The cyclic lipopeptides explained by bacteria Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Streptomyces, Serratia, Propionibacterium and fungus Fusarium are very critical in confining the pathogens. As the degree of drug resistance upsurges in unparalleled manner, the perseverance of searching novel cyclic lipopeptides is being professed. The intense study has shown the implication of these bioactive compounds extending beyond antibacterial and antifungal. Lipopeptides, composed of single units of peptide and fatty acyl moiety, show broad spectrum antimicrobial effects. Among the surplus of cyclic lipopeptides, only few have materialized as strong antibiotics. For their functional vigor, polymyxin, daptomycin, surfactin, iturin and bacillomycin have been integrated in mainstream healthcare. In our work daptomycin has been a major part of antimicrobial resource since the past decade. Daptomycin, a cyclic lipopeptide consists of 13-member amino acid with a decanoyl side-chain. This structure of daptomycin confers it the mechanism of action through which it forms pore in the bacterial cell membrane resulting in the death of cell. Daptomycin is produced by Streptococccus roseoporus and acts against Streptococcus pneumonia (PSRP), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). The PDB structure and ligands of daptomycin are available online. The molecular docking studies of these ligands with the lipopeptides were performed and their docking score and glide energy were recorded.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, Structure-Based Drug Design, daptomycin, lipopeptide

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13 Molecular Basis for Amyloid Inhibition by L-Dopa: Implication towards Systemic Amyloidosis

Authors: Rizwan H. Khan, Saima Nusrat

Abstract:

Despite the fact that amyloid associated neurodegenerative diseases and non-neuropathic systemic amyloidosis have allured the research endeavors, as no curative drugs have been proclaimed up till now except for symptomatic cure. Therapeutic compounds which can diminish or disaggregate such toxic oligomers and fibrillar species have been examined and more are on its way. In the present study, we had reported an extensive biophysical, microscopic and computational study, revealing that L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-Dopa) possess undeniable potency to inhibit heat induced human lysozyme (HL) amyloid fibrillation and also retain the fibril disaggregating potential. L-Dopa interferes in the amyloid fibrillogenesis process by interacting hydrophobically and also by forming hydrogen bonds with the amino acid residues found in amyloid fibril forming prone region of HL as elucidated by molecular docking results. L-Dopa also disaggregates the mature amyloid fibrils into some unorganised species. Thus, L-Dopa and related compounds can work as a promising inhibitor for the therapeutic advancement prospective against systemic amyloidosis.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, amyloids, disaggregation, human lysozyme

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12 Antiplasmodial Activity of Drimane Sesquiterpene Isolated from Warburgia salutaris

Authors: Mthokozisi Simelane

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Background: Malaria remains a life-threatening disease in tropical regions despite the advances in the treatment of this disease, it still remains a significant burden as some parasites have become resistant to the currently available drugs. This has created a necessity for the development of alternative, more efficient antimalarial drugs. Warburgia salutaris is a traditional medicinal plant used in malaria treatment by Zulu traditional healers. Materials and methods: The W. salutaris stem-bark was extracted with dichloromethane and the compound was isolated through column chromatography. The compound was identified and characterized by spectroscopic analysis (1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR and MS) and the structure was also confirmed by x-ray crystallography. The anti-plasmodial activity (in vitro) was studied on NF54 Plasmodium falciparum strain (CQS). Cytotoxicity was measured using the MTT assay on HEK239 and HEPG2 cell lines. Docking of Mukaadial acetate was conducted in AutoDock Vina. Structural modifications were conducted in UCSF Chimera and molecular interactions examined in LigPlot. Results: The compound, Mukaadial Acetate showed appreciable inhibition (IC50 0.44±0.10 µg/ml) of the parasite growth and cytotoxicity activity of 0.124±0.109 and 0.199±0.083 (µg/ml) on HEK293 and HEPG2 cells respectively. Molecular docking revealed that Mukaadial Acetate binds to the purine, pyrophosphate and ribose binding sites of the PfHGXPRT with an optimum binding conformation and forms hydrogen bond, steric and hydrophobic interactions with the residues inhabiting the respective binding sites. Conclusion: It is apparent that W. salutaris contains components (including Mukaadial Acetate) that exhibit antimalarial activity. This study scientifically validates the use of this plant in folk medicine.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, plasmodium falciparum, antimalarial activity, PfHGXPRT, Warburgia salutaris, mukaadial acetate

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11 Antitrypanosomal Activity of Stigmasterol: An in silico Approach

Authors: Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim, Aminu Mohammed

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Stigmasterol has previously been reported to possess antitrypanosomal activity using in vitro and in vivo models. However, the mechanism of antitrypanosomal activity is yet to be elucidated. In the present study, molecular docking was used to decipher the mode of interaction and binding affinity of stigmasterol to three known antitrypanosomal drug targets viz; adenosine kinase, ornithine decarboxylase and triose phosphate isomerase. Stigmasterol was found to bind to the selected trypanosomal enzymes with minimum binding energy of -4.2, -6.5 and -6.6 kcal/mol for adenosine kinase, ornithine decarboxylase, and triose phosphate isomerase respectively. However, hydrogen bond was not involved in the interaction of stigmasterol with all the three enzymes, but hydrophobic interaction seemed to play a vital role in the binding phenomenon which was predicted to be non-competitive like type of inhibition. It was concluded that binding to the three selected enzymes, especially triose phosphate isomerase, might be involved in the antitrypanosomal activity of stigmasterol but not mediated via a hydrogen bond interaction.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, in silico, stigmasterol, antitrypanosomal

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10 Curcumin Derivatives as Potent Inhibitors of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Osteoarthritis: A Molecular Docking Study

Authors: F. Ambreen, A.Naheed

Abstract:

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. Nitric oxide (NO) was found to play a catabolic role in the development of osteoarthritis. It is a toxic free radical gas generated during the metabolism of L-arginine by the enzyme Nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) is one of the isoform of NOS, and its overexpression leads to the excessive formation of NO that results in pathophysiological joint conditions. Several synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs and inhibitors are present to date, but all showed side effects and complications. Therefore, the pursuit of natural disease-modifying drugs remains a top priority. Curcumin is an active component of turmeric, and the past few decades have witnessed intense research devoted to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin. The present study focused on curcumin and its derivatives in the search for new iNOS inhibitors for the treatment of osteoarthritis. We conducted a molecular docking study on curcumin and its four derivatives; cyclocurcumin, tetrahydrocurcumin, demethoxycurcumin and curcumin monoglucoside with iNOS using CLC Drug discovery work bench 3.02. We selected two co-crystallized ligands for this study; tetrahydrobiopterin and N-omega-propyl-L-arginine present in complex with the enzyme iNOS. Results showed the best binding affinity of N-omega-propyl-L-arginine with cyclocurcumin and curcumin monoglucoside that exhibit binding energies of -65.2 kcal/mol and -68 kcal/mol respectively. Whereas with tetrahydrobiopterin, best binding scores of -64.7 kcal/mol and -62.2 kcal/mol were found with tetrahydrocurcumin and demethoxycurcumin respectively. This information could open doors of research for the designing of novel drugs using herbs such as curcumin for the treatment of inflammatory joint diseases.

Keywords: Osteoarthritis, Molecular Docking, Curcumin, iNOS

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9 Biochemical Efficacy, Molecular Docking and Inhibitory Effect of 2,3-Dimethylmaleic Anhydride on Acetylcholinesterases

Authors: Kabrambam D. Singh, Dinabandhu Sahoo, Yallappa Rajashekar

Abstract:

Evolution has caused many insects to develop resistance to several synthetic insecticides. This problem along with the persisting concern regarding the health and environmental safety issues of the existing synthetic insecticides has urged the scientific fraternity to look for a new plant-based natural insecticide with inherent eco-friendly nature. Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott (Araceae family) is widely grown throughout the South- East Asian Countries for its edible corms and leaves. Various physico-chemical and spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass) were used for the isolation and characterization of isolated bioactive molecule named 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride (3, 4-dimethyl-2, 5-furandione). This compound was found to be highly toxic, even at low concentration, against several storage grain pests when used as biofumigant. Experimental studies on the mode of action of 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride revealed that the biofumigant act as inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase enzyme in cockroach and stored grain insects. The knockdown activity of bioactive compound is concurrent with in vivo inhibition of AChE; at KD99 dosage of bioactive molecule showed more than 90% inhibition of AChE activity in test insects. The molecule proved to affect the antioxidant enzyme system; superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) and also found to decrease reduced glutathione (GSH) level in the treated insects. The above results indicate involvement of inhibition of AChE activity and oxidative imbalance as the potential mode of action of 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride. In addition, the study reveals computational docking programs elaborate the possible interaction of 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride with enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) of Periplaneta americana. Finally, the results represent that toxicity of 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride might be associated with inhibition of AChE activity and oxidative imbalance.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, antioxidant enzyme, acetylcholinesterase, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott, Biofumigant

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8 Revealing Potential Drug Targets against Proto-Oncogene Wnt10B by Comparative Molecular Docking

Authors: Shazia Mannan, Zunera Khalid, Hammad-Ul-Mubeen

Abstract:

Wingless type Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) Integration site-10B (Wnt10B) is an important member of the Wnt protein family that functions as cellular messenger in paracrine manner. Aberrant Wnt10B activity is the cause of several abnormalities including cancers of breast, cervix, liver, gastric tract, esophagus, pancreas as well as physiological problems like obesity, and osteoporosis. The objective of this study was to determine the possible inhibitors against aberrant expression of Wnt10B in order to prevent and treat the physiological disorders associated with it. Wnt10B3D structure was predicted by using comparative modeling and then analyzed by PROCHECK, Verify3D, and Errat. The model having 84.54% quality value was selected and acylated to satisfy the hydrophobic nature of Wnt10B. For search of inhibitors, virtual screening was performed on Natural Products (NP) database. The compounds were filtered and ligand-based screening was performed using the antagonist for mouse Wnt-3A. This resulted in a library of 272 unique compounds having most potent drug like activities for Wnt-4. Out of the 271 molecules analyzed three small molecules ZINC35442871, ZINC85876388, and ZINC00754234 having activity against Wnt4 abbarent expression were found common through docking experiment of Wnt10B. It is concluded that the three molecules ZINC35442871, ZINC85876388, and ZINC00754234 can be considered as lead compounds for performing further drug designing experiments against aberrant Wnt expressions.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, Wnt10B inhibitors, comparative computational studies, proto-oncogene

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7 Rational Design of Potent Compounds for Inhibiting Ca2+ -Dependent Calmodulin Kinase IIa, a Target of Alzheimer’s Disease

Authors: Son Nguyen, Thanh Van, Ly Le

Abstract:

Ca2+ - dependent calmodulin kinase IIa (CaMKIIa) has recently been found to associate with protein tau missorting and polymerization in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). However, there has yet inhibitors targeting CaMKIIa to investigate the correlation between CaMKIIa activity and protein tau polymer formation. Combining virtual screening and our statistics in binding contribution scoring function (BCSF), we rationally identified potential compounds that bind to specific CaMKIIa active site and specificity-affinity distribution of the ligand within the active site. Using molecular dynamics simulation, we identified structural stability of CaMKIIa and potent inhibitors, and site-directed bonding, separating non-specific and specific molecular interaction features. Despite of variation in confirmation of simulation time, interactions of the potent inhibitors were found to be strongly associated with the unique chemical features extracted from molecular binding poses. In addition, competitive inhibitors within CaMKIIa showed an important molecular recognition pattern toward specific ligand features. Our approach combining virtual screening with BCSF may provide an universally applicable method for precise identification in the discovery of compounds.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, alzheimer’s disease, Ca 2+ -dependent calmodulin kinase IIa, protein tau

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6 Conventional and Computational Investigation of the Synthesized Organotin(IV) Complexes Derived from o-Vanillin and 3-Nitro-o-Phenylenediamine

Authors: Harminder Kaur, Manpreet Kaur, Akanksha Kapila, Reenu

Abstract:

Schiff base with general formula H₂L was derived from condensation of o-vanillin and 3-nitro-o-phenylenediamine. This Schiff base was used for the synthesis of organotin(IV) complexes with general formula R₂SnL [R=Phenyl or n-octyl] using equimolar quantities. Elemental analysis UV-Vis, FTIR, and multinuclear spectroscopic techniques (¹H, ¹³C, and ¹¹⁹Sn) NMR were carried out for the characterization of the synthesized complexes. These complexes were coloured and soluble in polar solvents. Computational studies have been performed to obtain the details of the geometry and electronic structures of ligand as well as complexes. Geometry of the ligands and complexes have been optimized at the level of Density Functional Theory with B3LYP/6-311G (d,p) and B3LYP/MPW1PW91 respectively followed by vibrational frequency analysis using Gaussian 09. Observed ¹¹⁹Sn NMR chemical shifts of one of the synthesized complexes showed tetrahedral geometry around Tin atom which is also confirmed by DFT. HOMO-LUMO energy distribution was calculated. FTIR, ¹HNMR and ¹³CNMR spectra were also obtained theoretically using DFT. Further IRC calculations were employed to determine the transition state for the reaction and to get the theoretical information about the reaction pathway. Moreover, molecular docking studies can be explored to ensure the anticancer activity of the newly synthesized organotin(IV) complexes.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, dft, organotin(IV) complexes, o-vanillin

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5 Molecular Insights into the 5α-Reductase Inhibitors: Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship, Pre-Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion and Docking Studies

Authors: Richa Dhingra, Monika, Manav Malhotra, Tilak Raj Bhardwaj, Neelima Dhingra

Abstract:

5-Alpha-reductases (5AR), a membrane bound, NADPH dependent enzyme and convert male hormone testosterone (T) into more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT). DHT is the required for the development and function of male sex organs, but its overproduction has been found to be associated with physiological conditions like Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). Thus the inhibition of 5ARs could be a key target for the treatment of BPH. In present study, 2D and 3D Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) pharmacophore models have been generated for 5AR based on known inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) values with extensive validations. The four featured 2D pharmacophore based PLS model correlated the topological interactions (–OH group connected with one single bond) (SsOHE-index); semi-empirical (Quadrupole2) and physicochemical descriptors (Mol. wt, Bromines Count, Chlorines Count) with 5AR inhibitory activity, and has the highest correlation coefficient (r² = 0.98, q² =0.84; F = 57.87, pred r² = 0.88). Internal and external validation was carried out using test and proposed set of compounds. The contribution plot of electrostatic field effects and steric interactions generated by 3D-QSAR showed interesting results in terms of internal and external predictability. The well validated 2D Partial Least Squares (PLS) and 3D k-nearest neighbour (kNN) models were used to search novel 5AR inhibitors with different chemical scaffold. To gain more insights into the molecular mechanism of action of these steroidal derivatives, molecular docking and in silico absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) studies were also performed. Studies have revealed the hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding of the ligand with residues Alanine (ALA) 63A, Threonine (THR) 60A, and Arginine (ARG) 456A of 4AT0 protein at the hinge region. The results of QSAR, molecular docking, in silico ADME studies provide guideline and mechanistic scope for the identification of more potent 5-Alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARI).

Keywords: Molecular Docking, ligands, QSAR, benign prostatic hyperplasia

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4 2-Thioimidazole Analogues: Synthesis, in silico Studies and in vitro Anticancer and Antiprotozoal Evaluation

Authors: Drashti G. Daraji, Rosa E. Moo-Puc, Hitesh D. Patel

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Substituted 2-Thioimidazole analogues have been synthesized and confirmed by advanced spectroscopic techniques. Among them, ten compounds have been selected and evaluated for their in vitro anti-cancer activity at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) for testing against a panel of 60 different human tumor cell lines derived from nine neoplastic cancer types. Furthermore, synthesized compounds were tested for their in vitro antiprotozoal activity, and none of them exhibited significant potency against antiprotozoans. It was observed that the tested all compounds seem effective on the UACC-62 melanoma cancer cell line as compared to other cancer cell lines and also exhibited the least potent in the Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer cell line in one-dose screening. In silico studies of these derivatives were carried out by molecular docking techniques and Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) using Schrödinger software to find potent B-Raf kinase inhibitor (PDB ID: 3OG7). All the compounds have been performed for docking study; Compound D4 has a good docking score for melanoma cancer as compared with other.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, Anticancer Activity, cancer cell line, one-dose assay

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3 In-Silico Investigation of Phytochemicals from Ocimum Sanctum as Plausible Antiviral Agent in COVID-19

Authors: Dileep Kumar, Janhavi Ramchandra Rao Kumar, Rao

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COVID-19 has ravaged the globe, and it is spreading its Spectre day by day. In the absence of established drugs, this disease has created havoc. Some of the infected persons are symptomatic or asymptomatic. The respiratory system, cardiac system, digestive system, etc. in human beings are affected by this virus. In our present investigation, we have undertaken a study of the Indian Ayurvedic herb, Ocimum sanctum against SARS-CoV-2 using molecular docking and dynamics studies. The docking analysis was performed on the Glide module of Schrödinger suite on two different proteins from SARS-CoV-2 viz. NSP15 Endoribonuclease and spike receptor-binding domain. MM-GBSA based binding free energy calculations also suggest the most favorable binding affinities of carvacrol, β elemene, and β caryophyllene with binding energies of −61.61, 58.23, and −54.19 Kcal/mol respectively with spike receptor-binding domain and NSP15 Endoribonuclease. It rekindles our hope for the design and development of new drug candidates for the treatment of COVID19.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, Binding Energy, Ocimum sanctum, COVID-19

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2 Green Electrochemical Nitration of Bioactive Compounds: Biological Evaluation with Molecular Modelling

Authors: Sara Torabi, Sadegh Khazalpour, Mahdi Jamshidi

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Nitro aromatic compounds are valuable materials because of their applications in the preparation of chemical intermediates for the synthesis of dyes, plastics, perfumes, energetic materials, and pharmaceuticals. Chemical and electrochemical procedures are reported for nitration of aromatic compounds. Flavonoid derivatives are present in many vegetables and fruits and are constituent of many common pharmaceuticals and dietary supplements. Electrochemistry provides very versatile means for the electrosynthesis, mechanistic and kinetic studies. To the best of our knowledge, and despite the importance of these compounds in numerous scientific fields, there are no reports on the electrochemical nitration of Quercetin derivatives. Herein, we describe a green electrochemical synthesis of a nitro compound. In this work, electrochemical oxidation of Quercetin has been studied in the presence of nitrite ion as a nucleophile in acetate buffer solution (c = 0.2 M, pH = 6.0), by means of cyclic voltammetry and controlled-potential coulometry. The results indicate the participation of produced o-benzoquinones in Michael reaction with nitrite ion (in the divided cell) to form the corresponding nitro diol (EC mechanism). The purity of product and characterization was done using ¹H NMR, ¹³C NMR, FTIR spectroscopic techniques. The presented strategies use a water/ethanol mixture as solvent. Ethanol as cosolvent was also used in the previous studies because of its low cost, safety, easy availability, recyclability, bioproductability, and biodegradability. These strategies represent a one-pot and facile process for the synthesis of nitro compound in high yield and purity under green conditions.

Keywords: Green Chemistry, Molecular Docking, Cyclic Voltammetry, electrochemical synthesis

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1 Inhibition of Echis ocellatus Venom Metalloprotease by Flavonoid-Rich Ethyl Acetate Sub-fraction of Moringa oleifera Leaves (Lam.): in vitro and in silico Approaches

Authors: Adeyi Akindele Oluwatosin, Mustapha Kaosarat Keji, Ajisebiola Babafemi Siji, Adeyi Olubisi Esther, Damilohun Samuel Metibemu, Raphael Emuebie Okonji

Abstract:

Envenoming by Echis ocellatus is potentially life-threatening due to severe hemorrhage, renal failure, and capillary leakage. These effects are attributed to snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). Due to drawbacks in the use of antivenom, natural inhibitors from plants are of interest in studies of new antivenom treatment. Antagonizing effects of bioactive compounds of Moringa oleifera, a known antisnake plant, are yet to be tested against SVMPs of E. ocellatus (SVMP-EO). Ethanol crude extract of M. oleifera was partitioned using n-hexane and ethyl acetate. Each partition was fractionated using column chromatography and tested against SVMP-EO purified through ion-exchange chromatography with EchiTab-PLUS polyvalent anti-venom as control. Phytoconstituents of ethyl acetate fraction were screened against the catalytic site of crystal of BaP1-SVMP, while drug-likeness and ADMET toxicity of compound were equally determined. The molecular weight of isolated SVMP-EO was 43.28 kDa, with a specific activity of 245 U/ml, a percentage yield of 62.83 %, and a purification fold of 0.920. The Vmax and Km values are 2 mg/ml and 38.095 μmol/ml/min, respectively, while the optimal pH and temperature are 6.0 and 40°C, respectively. Polyvalent anti-venom, crude extract, and ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera exhibited a complete inhibitory effect against SVMP-EO activity. The inhibitions of the P-1 and P-II metalloprotease’s enzymes by the ethyl acetate fraction are largely due to methanol, 6, 8, 9-trimethyl-4-(2-phenylethyl)-3-oxabicyclo[3.3.1]non-6-en-1-yl)- and paroxypropione, respectively. Both compounds are potential drug candidates with little or no concern of toxicity, as revealed from the in-silico predictions. The inhibitory effects suggest that this compound might be a therapeutic candidate for further exploration for treatment of Ocellatus’ envenoming.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, Moringa oleifera, Echis ocellatus, anti-venom, metalloproteases, snakebite

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