Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

moisture content Related Abstracts

22 Comparative Study on the Effect of Compaction Energy and Moisture Content on the Strength Properties of Lateritic Soil

Authors: Ahmad Idris, O.A. Uche, Ado Y Abdulfatah


Lateritic soils are found in abundance and are the most common types of soils used in construction of roads and embankments in Nigeria. Strength properties of the soils depend on the amount of compaction applied and the amount of water available in the soil at the time of compaction. In this study, the influence of the compactive effort and that of the amount of water in the soil in the determination of the shear strength properties of lateritic soil was investigated. Lateritic soil sample was collected from an existing borrow pit in Kano, Nigeria and its basic characteristics were determined and the soil was classified according to AASHTO classification method. The soil was then compacted under various compactive efforts and at wide range of moisture contents. The maximum dry density (MDD) and optimum moisture content (OMC) at each compactive effort was determined. Unconfined undrained triaxial test was carried out to determine the shear strength properties of the soil under various conditions of moisture and energy. Preliminary results obtained indicated that the soil is an A-7-5 soil. The final results obtained shows that as the compaction energy is increased, both the cohesion and friction angle increased irrespective of the moisture content used in the compaction. However, when the amount of water in the soil was increased and compaction effort kept constant, only the cohesion of the soil increases while the friction angle shows no any pattern of variation. It was also found that the highest values for cohesion and friction angle were obtained when the soil was compacted at the highest energy and at OMC.

Keywords: laterite, OMC, compaction energy, moisture content

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21 Investigation of Suitability of Dredged Wastes for Production of Bricks

Authors: B. Adebayo, A. O. Omotehinse, C. Arum


This study investigates the suitability of dredged samples for the production of bricks. Some geotechnical properties (moisture content, grain size distribution) of dredged samples were also determined using the British Standard. Bricks were produced using appropriate mixes of two dredged wastes. The dredged samples (Oroto dredged samples and Igbokoda dredged samples) have high moisture content of 90.48 % and 37.5 % respectively and both are classified as silty materials. The two dredged samples were mixed in different percentage (1- Oroto dredged sample (DS) 85 % and Igbokoda dredged sample (IS) 15 %, 2-DS 70 % and IS 30 %, 3- DS 55 % and IS 45 %, 4- DS 50 % and IS 50 %, 5- DS 45 % and IS 55 %,6- DS 30 % and IS 70 %, 7- DS 15 % and IS 85 %, 8- Clay 100 %, 9- DS 100 %, 10-IS 100 %) for the production of bricks and were tested for 7 days, 14 days, 21 days and 28 days. Although, the water absorption level of the bricks produced were high (5.635 to 33.4 %), the compressive strength on the 28th day was within the accepted British Standard. The Igbokoda dredge sample is a good material for the production of bricks when mixed with Oroto Dredged sample because the compressive strength of the material is within the accepted limit.

Keywords: bricks, suitability, moisture content, dredged

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20 The Influence of Water Content on the Shear Resistance of Silty Sands

Authors: Mohamed Boualem Salah


This work involves an experimental study of the behavior of chlef sand under effect of various parameters influencing on shear strength. Because of their distinct nature, sands, silts and clays exhibit completely different behavior (shear strength, the contracting and dilatancy, the angle of internal friction and cohesion etc.). By cons when these materials are mixed, their behavior will become different from each considered alone. The behavior of these mixtures (silty sands etc.) is currently the state of several studies to better use. We studied in this work: The influence of the following factors on the shear strength: (The density, the fines content, the water content). The apparatus used for the tests is the shear box casagrande. This device, although one may have some disadvantages and modern instrumentation is appropriate used to study the shear strength of soils.

Keywords: Behavior, Sand, Cohesion, Shear Strength, moisture content, friction angle, fines content, silt

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19 A Low Cost Non-Destructive Grain Moisture Embedded System for Food Safety and Quality

Authors: Ritula Thakur, Babankumar S. Bansod, Puneet Mehta, S. Chatterji


Moisture plays an important role in storage, harvesting and processing of food grains and related agricultural products. It is an important characteristic of most agricultural products for maintenance of quality. Accurate knowledge of the moisture content can be of significant value in maintaining quality and preventing contamination of cereal grains. The present work reports the design and development of microcontroller based low cost non-destructive moisture meter, which uses complex impedance measurement method for moisture measurement of wheat using parallel plate capacitor arrangement. Moisture can conveniently be sensed by measuring the complex impedance using a small parallel-plate capacitor sensor filled with the kernels in-between the two plates of sensor, exciting the sensor at 30 KHz and 100 KHz frequencies. The effects of density and temperature variations were compensated by providing suitable compensations in the developed algorithm. The results were compared with standard dry oven technique and the developed method was found to be highly accurate with less than 1% error. The developed moisture meter is low cost, highly accurate, non-destructible method for determining the moisture of grains utilizing the fast computing capabilities of microcontroller.

Keywords: Electrical Properties, moisture content, complex impedance, safety of food

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18 Production of Banana Milk Powder Using Spray and Freeze Dryer

Authors: Siti Noor Suzila Maqsood-Ul-Haque, Ummi Kalthum Ibrahim, Norekanadirah Abdul Rahman


Banana are rich in vitamins, potassium and carbohydrate.The objective for this research work is to produce banana milk powder that can help children that suffers from constipation. Two types of the most common dryers used for this purpose are the spray and freeze dryer. The effects of the type of dryers, pump feed speed in the spray dryer and the ratio proportion of the banana milk powder were investigated in the study. The result indicate that increasing proportion ratio of the banana milk powder produce lower yield of the powder.From the result it is also concluded that speed 2 is more suitable in the production of the banana milk powder since the value of the moisture content is lower.

Keywords: Milk, Dissolution, freeze dryer, moisture content, banana, spray dryer

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17 Effects of Aging on Thermal Properties of Some Improved Varieties of Cassava (Manihot Esculenta) Roots

Authors: K. O. Oriola, A. O. Raji, O. E. Akintola, O. T. Ismail


Thermal properties of roots of three improved cassava varieties (TME419, TMS 30572, and TMS 0326) were determined on samples harvested at 12, 15 and 18 Months After Planting (MAP) conditioned to moisture contents of 50, 55, 60, 65, 70% (wb). Thermal conductivity at 12, 15 and 18 MAP ranged 0.4770 W/m.K to 0.6052W/m.K; 0.4804 W/m.K to 0.5530 W/m.K and 0.3764 to 0.6102 W/m.K respectively, thermal diffusivity from 1.588 to 2.426 x 10-7m2/s; 1.290 to 2.010 x 10-7m2/s and 0.1692 to 4.464 x 10-7m2/s and specific heat capacity from 2.3626 to 3.8991 kJ/kg.K; 1.8110 to 3.9703 kJ/kgK and 1.7311 to 3.8830 kJ/kg.K respectively within the range of moisture content studied across the varieties. None of the samples over the ages studied showed similar or definite trend in variation with others across the moisture content. However, second order polynomial models fitted all the data. Age on the other hand had a significant effect on the three thermal properties studied for TME 419 but not on thermal conductivity of TMS30572 and specific heat capacity of TMS 0326. Information obtained will provide better insight into thermal processing of cassava roots into stable products.

Keywords: Thermal Conductivity, Thermal Diffusivity, moisture content, specific heat capacity, tuber age

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16 Ultraviolet Visible Spectroscopy Analysis on Transformer Oil by Correlating It with Various Oil Parameters

Authors: Rajnish Shrivastava, Y. R. Sood, Priti Pundir, Rahul Srivastava


Power transformer is one of the most important devices that are used in power station. Due to several fault impending upon it or due to ageing, etc its life gets lowered. So, it becomes necessary to have diagnosis of oil for fault analysis. Due to the chemical, electrical, thermal and mechanical stress the insulating material in the power transformer degraded. It is important to regularly assess the condition of oil and the remaining life of the power transformer. In this paper UV-VIS absorption graph area is correlated with moisture content, Flash point, IFT and Density of Transformer oil. Since UV-VIS absorption graph area varies accordingly with the variation in different transformer parameters. So by obtaining the correlation among different oil parameters for oil with respect to UV-VIS absorption area, decay contents of transformer oil can be predicted

Keywords: moisture content, breakdown voltage (BDV), interfacial Tension (IFT), ultra violet-visible rays spectroscopy (UV-VIS)

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15 A Study of Some Water Relations and Soil Salinity Using Geotextile Mat under Sprinkler System

Authors: Al-Molhem, Y.


This work aimed to study the influence of a geotextile material under sprinkler irrigation on the availability of soil moisture content and salinity of 40 cm top soil profile. Field experiment was carried out to measure soil moisture content, soil salinity and water application efficiency under sprinkler irrigation system. The results indicated that, the mats placed at 20 cm depth leads to increasing of the availability of soil moisture content in the root zone. The results further showed increases in water application efficiency because of using the geotextile material. In addition, soil salinity in the root zone decreased because of increasing soil moisture content.

Keywords: moisture content, geotextile, sprinkler irrigation

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14 Effects of Initial Moisture Content on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Norway Spruce Briquettes

Authors: Miloš Matúš, Peter Križan, Ľubomír Šooš, Juraj Beniak


The moisture content of densified biomass is a limiting parameter influencing the quality of this solid biofuel. It influences its calorific value, density, mechanical strength and dimensional stability as well as affecting its production process. This paper deals with experimental research into the effect of moisture content of the densified material on the final quality of biofuel in the form of logs (briquettes or pellets). Experiments based on the single-axis densification of the spruce sawdust were carried out with a hydraulic piston press (piston and die), where the densified logs were produced at room temperature. The effect of moisture content on the qualitative properties of the logs, including density, change of moisture, expansion and physical changes, and compressive and impact resistance were studied. The results show the moisture ranges required for producing good-quality logs. The experiments were evaluated and the moisture content of the tested material was optimized to achieve the optimum value for the best quality of the solid biofuel. The dense logs also have high-energy content per unit volume. The research results could be used to develop and optimize industrial technologies and machinery for biomass densification to achieve high quality solid biofuel.

Keywords: biomass, Density, Densification, moisture content, briquettes, fuel quality

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13 Evaluation of Soil Stiffness and Strength for Quality Control of Compacted Earthwork

Authors: A. Sawangsuriya, T. B. Edil


Microstructure and fabric of soils play an important role on structural properties e.g. stiffness and strength of compacted earthwork. Traditional quality control monitoring based on moisture-density tests neither reflects the variability of soil microstructure nor provides a direct assessment of structural property, which is the ultimate objective of the earthwork quality control. Since stiffness and strength are sensitive to soil microstructure and fabric, any independent test methods that provide simple, rapid, and direct measurement of stiffness and strength are anticipated to provide an effective assessment of compacted earthen materials’ uniformity. In this study, the soil stiffness gauge (SSG) and the dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) were respectively utilized to measure and monitor the stiffness and strength in companion with traditional moisture-density measurements of various earthen materials used in Thailand road construction projects. The practical earthwork quality control criteria are presented herein in order to assure proper earthwork quality control and uniform structural property of compacted earthworks.

Keywords: Quality Control, moisture content, structural properties, dynamic cone penetrometer, relative compaction, soil stiffness gauge

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12 The Comparison of Safety Factor in Dry and Rainy Condition at Coal Bearing Formation. Case Study: Lahat Area South Sumatera Province, Indonesia

Authors: Teguh Nurhidayat, Nurhamid, Dicky Muslim, Zufialdi Zakaria, Irvan Sophian


This paper presents the role of climate change as the factor that induces landslide. Case study is located at Lahat Regency, South Sumatera Province, Indonesia. Study area has high economic value of coal reserves (mostly subbituminous – bituminous), which is developable for open pit coal mining in the future. Seams are found in Muara Enim Formation. This formation is at south Sumatera basin which is formed at Tertiary as a result of collision between the indian plate and eurasian plate. South Sumatera basin which is a basin located in back arc basin. This study aims to unravel the relationship between slope stability with different season condition in tropical climate. Undisturbed soil samples were obtained in the field along with other geological data. Laboratory works were carried out to obtain physical and mechanical properties of soils. Methodology to analyze slope stability is bishop method. Bishop methods are used to identify safety factor of slope. Result shows that slopes in rainy season conditions are more prone to landslides than in dry season. In the dry seasons with moisture content is 22.65%, safety factor is 1.28 the slope in stable condition. If rain is approaching with moisture content increasing to 97.8%, the slope began to be critical. On wet condition groundwater levels is increased, followed by γ (unit weight), c (cohesion), and φ (angle of friction) at 18.04, 5,88 kN/m2, and 28,04°, respectively, which ultimately determines the security factor FS to be 1.01 (slope in unstable conditions).

Keywords: Slope Analysis, Rainfall, moisture content, landslide prone

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11 Investigation of Steady State Infiltration Rate for Different Head Condition

Authors: Nour Aljafari, Mariam, S. Maani, Serter Atabay, Tarig Ali, Said Daker, Lara Daher, Hamad Bukhammas, Mohammed Abou Shakra


This paper aims at determining the soil characteristics that influence the irrigation process of green landscapes and deciding on the optimum amount of water needed for irrigation. The laboratory experiments were conducted using the constant head methodology to determine the soil infiltration rates. The steady state infiltration rate was reached after 10 minutes of infiltration at a rate of 200 mm/hr. The effects of different water heads on infiltration rates were also investigated, and the head of 11 cm was found to be the optimum head for the test. The experimental results showed consistent infiltration results for the range between 11 cm and 15 cm. The study also involved finding the initial moisture content, which ranged between 5% and 25%, and finding the organic content, which occupied 1% to 2% of the soil. These results will be later utilized, using the water balance approach, to estimate the optimum amount of water needed for irrigation for changing weather conditions.

Keywords: moisture content, infiltration rate, organic content, grass type

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10 [Keynote Talk]: Thermal Performance of Common Building Insulation Materials: Operating Temperature and Moisture Effect

Authors: Maatouk Khoukhi


An accurate prediction of the heat transfer through the envelope components of building is required to achieve an accurate cooling/heating load calculation which leads to precise sizing of the hvac equipment. This also depends on the accuracy of the thermal conductivity of the building insulation material. The proper use of thermal insulation in buildings (k-value) contribute significantly to reducing the HVAC size and consequently the annual energy cost. The first part of this paper presents an overview of building thermal insulation and their applications. The second part presents some results related to the change of the polystyrene insulation thermal conductivity with the change of the operating temperature and the moisture. Best-fit linear relationship of the k-value in term of the operating temperatures and different percentage of moisture content by weight has been established. The thermal conductivity of the polystyrene insulation material increases with the increase of both operating temperature and humidity content.

Keywords: Thermal Conductivity, moisture content, operating temperature, building insulation material

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9 The Construction Technology of Dryer Silo Materials to Grains Made from Webbing Bamboo: A Drying Technology Solutions to Empowerment Farmers in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Authors: Nursigit Bintoro, Abadi Barus, Catur Setyo Dedi Pamungkas


Indonesia is an agrarian country have almost population work as farmers. One of the popular agriculture commodity in Indonesia is paddy and corn. Production of paddy and corn are increased, but not balanced to the development of appropriate technology to farmers. Methods of drying applied with farmers still using sunshine. Drying by this method has some drawbacks, such as differences moisture content of corn grains, time used to dry around 3 days, and less quality of the products obtained. Beside it, the method of drying by using sunshine can’t do when the rainy season arrives. On this season the product obtained has less quality. One solution to the above problems is to create a dryer with simple technology. That technology is made silo dryer from webbing bamboo and wood. This technology is applicable to be applied to farmers' groups as well as the creation technology is quite cheap. The experiment material used in this research will be obtained from the corn grains. The equipment used are woven bamboo with a height of 3 meters and have capacity of up to 900 kgs as a silo, gas, burner, blower, bucket elevators, thermocouple, Arduino microcontroller 2560. This tools automatically records all the data of temperature and relative humidity. During on drying, each 30 minutes take 9 sample for measuring moisture content with moisture meter. By using this technology, farmers can save time, energy, and cost to the drying their agriculture product. In addition, by using this technology have good quality moisture content of grains and have a longer shelf life because the temperature when the heating process is controlled. Therefore, this technology is applicable to be applied to the public because the materials used to make the dryer easier to find, cheaper, and manufacture of the dryer made simple with good quality.

Keywords: Grains, moisture content, dryer, appropriate technology

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8 Influence of the Moisture Content on the Flowability of Fine-Grained Iron Ore Concentrate

Authors: C. Lanzerstorfer, M. Hinterberger


The iron content of the ore used is crucial for the productivity and coke consumption rate in blast furnace pig iron production. Therefore, most iron ore deposits are processed in beneficiation plants to increase the iron content and remove impurities. In several comminution stages, the particle size of the ore is reduced to ensure that the iron oxides are physically liberated from the gangue. Subsequently, physical separation processes are applied to concentrate the iron ore. The fine-grained ore concentrates produced need to be transported, stored, and processed. For smooth operation of these processes, the flow properties of the material are crucial. The flowability of powders depends on several properties of the material: grain size, grain size distribution, grain shape, and moisture content of the material. The flowability of powders can be measured using ring shear testers. In this study, the influence of the moisture content on the flowability for the Krivoy Rog magnetite iron ore concentrate was investigated. Dry iron ore concentrate was mixed with varying amounts of water to produce samples with a moisture content in the range of 0.2 to 12.2%. The flowability of the samples was investigated using a Schulze ring shear tester. At all measured values of the normal stress (1.0 kPa – 20 kPa), the flowability decreased significantly from dry ore to a moisture content of approximately 3-5%. At higher moisture contents, the flowability was nearly constant, while at the maximum moisture content the flowability improved for high values of the normal stress only. The results also showed an improving flowability with increasing consolidation stress for all moisture content levels investigated. The wall friction angle of the dust with carbon steel (S235JR), and an ultra-high molecule low-pressure polyethylene (Robalon) was also investigated. The wall friction angle increased significantly from dry ore to a moisture content of approximately 3%. For higher moisture content levels, the wall friction angles were nearly constant. Generally, the wall friction angle was approximately 4° lower at the higher wall normal stress.

Keywords: moisture content, flowability, iron ore concentrate, wall friction angle

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7 Estimation of Relative Subsidence of Collapsible Soils Using Electromagnetic Measurements

Authors: Henok Hailemariam, Frank Wuttke


Collapsible soils are weak soils that appear to be stable in their natural state, normally dry condition, but rapidly deform under saturation (wetting), thus generating large and unexpected settlements which often yield disastrous consequences for structures unwittingly built on such deposits. In this study, a prediction model for the relative subsidence of stressed collapsible soils based on dielectric permittivity measurement is presented. Unlike most existing methods for soil subsidence prediction, this model does not require moisture content as an input parameter, thus providing the opportunity to obtain accurate estimation of the relative subsidence of collapsible soils using dielectric measurement only. The prediction model is developed based on an existing relative subsidence prediction model (which is dependent on soil moisture condition) and an advanced theoretical frequency and temperature-dependent electromagnetic mixing equation (which effectively removes the moisture content dependence of the original relative subsidence prediction model). For large scale sub-surface soil exploration purposes, the spatial sub-surface soil dielectric data over wide areas and high depths of weak (collapsible) soil deposits can be obtained using non-destructive high frequency electromagnetic (HF-EM) measurement techniques such as ground penetrating radar (GPR). For laboratory or small scale in-situ measurements, techniques such as an open-ended coaxial line with widely applicable time domain reflectometry (TDR) or vector network analysers (VNAs) are usually employed to obtain the soil dielectric data. By using soil dielectric data obtained from small or large scale non-destructive HF-EM investigations, the new model can effectively predict the relative subsidence of weak soils without the need to extract samples for moisture content measurement. Some of the resulting benefits are the preservation of the undisturbed nature of the soil as well as a reduction in the investigation costs and analysis time in the identification of weak (problematic) soils. The accuracy of prediction of the presented model is assessed by conducting relative subsidence tests on a collapsible soil at various initial soil conditions and a good match between the model prediction and experimental results is obtained.

Keywords: Dielectric Permittivity, moisture content, collapsible soil, relative subsidence

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6 Effect of Moisture Content Compaction in the Geometry Definition of Earth Dams

Authors: Julian B. García, Virginie Q. R. Pinto, André P. Assis


This paper presents numerical flow and slope stability simulations in three typical sections of earth dams built in tropical regions, two homogeneous with different slope inclinations, and the other one heterogeneous with impermeable core. The geotechnical material parameters used in this work were obtained from a lab testing of physical characterization, compaction, consolidation, variable load permeability and saturated triaxial type CD for compacted soil samples with standard proctor energy at optimum moisture content (23%), optimum moisture content + 2% and optimum moisture content +5%. The objective is to analyze the general behavior of earth dams built in rainy regions where optimum moisture is exceeded. The factor of safety is satisfactory for the three sections compacted in all moisture content during the stages of operation and end of construction. On The other hand, the rapid drawdown condition is the critical phase for homogeneus dams configuration, the factor of safety obtained were unsatisfactory. In general, the heterogeneous dam behavior is more efficient due to the fact that the slopes are made up of gravel, which favors the dissipation of pore pressures during the rapid drawdown. For the critical phase, the slopes should have lower inclinations of the upstream and downstream slopes to guarantee stability, although it increases the costs.

Keywords: Slope Stability, Flow, moisture content, earth dams

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5 Study on the Thermal Conductivity about Porous Materials in Wet State

Authors: Han Yan, Jieren Luo, Qiuhui Yan, Xiaoqing Li


The thermal conductivity of porous materials is closely related to the thermal and moisture environment and the overall energy consumption of the building. The study of thermal conductivity of porous materials has great significance for the realization of low energy consumption building and economic construction building. Based on the study of effective thermal conductivity of porous materials at home and abroad, the thermal conductivity under a variety of different density of polystyrene board (EPS), plastic extruded board (XPS) and polyurethane (PU) and phenolic resin (PF) in wet state through theoretical analysis and experimental research has been studied. Initially, the moisture absorption and desorption properties of specimens had been discussed under different density, which led a result indicates the moisture absorption of four porous materials all have three stages, fast, stable and gentle. For the moisture desorption, there are two types. One is the existence of the rapid phase of the stage, such as XPS board, PU board. The other one does not have the fast desorption, instead, it is more stabilized, such as XPS board, PF board. Furthermore, the relationship between water content and thermal conductivity of porous materials had been studied and fitted, which figured out that in the wake of the increasing water content, the thermal conductivity of porous material is continually improving. At the same time, this result also shows, in different density, when the same kind of materials decreases, the saturated moisture content increases. Finally, the moisture absorption and desorption properties of the four kinds of materials are compared comprehensively, and it turned out that the heat preservation performance of PU board is the best, followed by EPS board, XPS board, PF board.

Keywords: Porous Materials, Thermal Conductivity, moisture content, transient hot-wire method

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4 Dry Matter, Moisture, Ash and Crude Fibre Content in Distinct Segments of ‘Durian Kampung’ Husk

Authors: Norhanim Nordin, Rosnah Shamsudin, Azrina Azlan, Mohammad Effendy Ya’acob


An environmental friendly approach for disposal of voluminous durian husk waste could be implemented by substituting them into various valuable commodities, such as healthcare and biofuel products. Thus, the study of composition value in each segment of durian husk was very crucial to determine the suitable proportions of nutrients that need to be added and mixed in the product. A total of 12 ‘Durian Kampung’ fruits from Sg Ruan, Pahang were selected and each fruit husk was divided into four segments and labelled as P-L (thin neck area of white inner husk), P-B (thick bottom area of white inner husk), H (green and thorny outer husk) and W (whole combination of P-B and H). Four experiments have been carried out to determine the dry matter, moisture, ash and crude fibre content. The results show that the H segment has the highest dry matter content (30.47%), while the P-B segment has the highest percentage in moisture (81.83%) and ash (6.95%) content. It was calculated that the ash content of the P-B segment has a higher rate of moisture level which causes the ash content to increase about 2.89% from the P-L segment. These data have proven that each segment of durian husk has a significant difference in terms of composition value, which might be useful information to fully utilize every part of the durian husk in the future.

Keywords: moisture content, durian husk, crude fibre content, dry matter content

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3 Assessment of Hygroscopic Characteristics of Hevea brasiliensis Wood

Authors: John Tosin Aladejana


Wood behave differently under different environmental conditions. The knowledge of the hygroscopic nature of wood becomes a key factor in selecting wood for use and required treatment. This study assessed the hygroscopic behaviour of Hevea brasiliensis (Rubber) wood. Void volume, volumetric swelling in the tangential, radial and longitudinal directions and volumetric shrinkage were used to assess the response of the wood when loosing or taking up moisture. Hevea brasiliensis wood samples cut into 20 × 20 × 60 mm taken longitudinally and transversely were used for the study and dried in the oven at 103 ± 2⁰C. The mean values for moisture content in green Hevea brasiliensis wood were 49.74 %, 51.14 % and 54.36 % for top, middle and bottom portion respectively while 51.77 %, 50.02 % and 53.45 % were recorded for outer, middle and inner portions respectively for the tree. The values obtained for volumetric shrinkage and swelling indicated that shrinkage and swelling were higher at the top part of H. brasiliensis. It was also observed that the longitudinal shrinkage was negligible while tangential direction showed the highest shrinkage among the wood direction. The values of the void volume obtained were 43.0 %, 39.0 % and 38.0 % at the top, middle and bottom respectively. The result obtained showed clarification on the wood density of hevea brasiliensis based on the position and portion of the wood species and the variation in moisture content, void volume, volumetric shrinkage and swelling were also revealed. This will provide information in the process of drying hevea brasiliensis wood to ensure better wood quality devoid of defects.

Keywords: Swelling, shrinkage, moisture content, void volume

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2 Effect of Storage Time on the Properties of Seeds, Oil and Biodiesel from Reutealis trisperma

Authors: Muhammad Yusuf Abduh, Syaripudin, Laksmitha Dyanie, Robert Manurung


The time profile of moisture content for different fractions (PT-3, PT-7, PT-14, NPT-21) of trisperma seeds (Reutealis trisperma) was determined at a relative humidity of 67% and 27°C for a four months period. The diffusion coefficient of water in the trisperma seeds was determined using an analytical solution of instationary diffusion equation and used to model the moisture content in the seeds. The total oil content of the seeds and the acid value of the extracted oil from the stored seeds were periodically measured for four months. The acid value of the extracted oil from the stored seeds increased for all conditions (1.1 to 2.8 mg KOH/g for PT-3, 1.9 to 9.9 mg KOH/g for PT-7, 3.4 to 11.6 mg KOH/g for PT-14 and 4.7 to 25.4 mg KOH/g for NPT-21). The acid value of trisperma oil and biodiesel that has been stored for four months (27°C, closed container) was also determined. Upon storage, the acid value of trisperma oil and biodiesel only slightly increased from 1.1 to 1.3 mg KOH/g and 0.4 to 0.43 mg KOH/g, respectively.

Keywords: Storage, Biodiesel, moisture content, acid value, Reutealis trisperma

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1 Characterization of Bio-Inspired Thermoelastoplastic Composites Filled with Modified Cellulose Fibers

Authors: S. Cichosz, A. Masek


A new cellulose hybrid modification approach, which is undoubtedly a scientific novelty, is introduced. The study reports the properties of cellulose (Arbocel UFC100 – Ultra Fine Cellulose) and characterizes cellulose filled polymer composites based on an ethylene-norbornene copolymer (TOPAS Elastomer E-140). Moreover, the approach of physicochemical two-stage cellulose treatment is introduced: solvent exchange (to ethanol or hexane) and further chemical modification with maleic anhydride (MA). Furthermore, the impact of the drying process on cellulose properties was investigated. Suitable measurements were carried out to characterize cellulose fibers: spectroscopic investigation (Fourier Transform Infrared Spektrofotometer-FTIR, Near InfraRed spectroscopy-NIR), thermal analysis (Differential scanning calorimetry, Thermal gravimetric analysis ) and Karl Fischer titration. It should be emphasized that for all UFC100 treatments carried out, a decrease in moisture content was evidenced. FT-IR reveals a drop in absorption band intensity at 3334 cm-1, the peak is associated with both –OH moieties and water. Similar results were obtained with Karl Fischer titration. Based on the results obtained, it may be claimed that the employment of ethanol contributes greatly to the lowering of cellulose water absorption ability (decrease of moisture content to approximately 1.65%). Additionally, regarding polymer composite properties, crucial data has been obtained from the mechanical and thermal analysis. The highest material performance was noted in the case of the composite sample that contained cellulose modified with MA after a solvent exchange with ethanol. This specimen exhibited sufficient tensile strength, which is almost the same as that of the neat polymer matrix – in the region of 40 MPa. Moreover, both the Payne effect and filler efficiency factor, calculated based on dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), reveal the possibility of the filler having a reinforcing nature. What is also interesting is that, according to the Payne effect results, fibers dried before the further chemical modification are assumed to allow more regular filler structure development in the polymer matrix (Payne effect maximum at 1.60 MPa), compared with those not dried (Payne effect in the range 0.84-1.26 MPa). Furthermore, taking into consideration the data gathered from DSC and TGA, higher thermal stability is obtained in case of the materials filled with fibers that were dried before the carried out treatments (degradation activation energy in the region of 195 kJ/mol) in comparison with the polymer composite samples filled with unmodified cellulose (degradation activation energy of approximately 180 kJ/mol). To author’s best knowledge this work results in the introduction of a novel, new filler hybrid treatment approach. Moreover, valuable data regarding the properties of composites filled with cellulose fibers of various moisture contents have been provided. It should be emphasized that plant fiber-based polymer bio-materials described in this research might contribute significantly to polymer waste minimization because they are more readily degraded.

Keywords: moisture content, cellulose fibers, solvent exchange, ethylene-norbornene copolymer

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