Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Modification Related Abstracts

21 Modification of Rk Equation of State for Liquid and Vapor of Ammonia by Genetic Algorithm

Authors: S. Mousavian, F. Mousavian, V. Nikkhah Rashidabad


Cubic equations of state like Redlich–Kwong (RK) EOS have been proved to be very reliable tools in the prediction of phase behavior. Despite their good performance in compositional calculations, they usually suffer from weaknesses in the predictions of saturated liquid density. In this research, RK equation was modified. The result of this study shows that modified equation has good agreement with experimental data.

Keywords: Modification, Genetic Algorithm, Equation of state, Ammonia

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20 Catalytic Cracking of Butene to Propylene over Modified HZSM-5 Zeolites

Authors: Hongfang Ma, Weiyong Ying, Jianwen Li, Haitao Zhang, Qiwen Sun


Catalytic cracking of butene to propylene was carried out in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor over HZSM-5 catalysts modified by nickel and phosphorus. The structure and acidity of catalysts were measured by N2 adsorption, NH3-TPD and XPS. The results revealed that surface area and strong acid sites both decreased with increasing phosphorus loadings. The increment of phosphorus loadings reduced the butene conversion but enhanced the propylene selectivity and catalyst stability.

Keywords: Modification, Catalytic cracking, butene, HZSM-5

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19 CdS Quantum Dots as Fluorescent Probes for Detection of Naphthalene

Authors: Yan Yu, Zhengyu Yan, Jianqiu Chen


A novel sensing system has been designed for naphthalene detection based on the quenched fluorescence signal of CdS quantum dots. The fluorescence intensity of the system reduced significantly after adding CdS quantum dots to the water pollution model because of the fluorescent static quenching f mechanism. Herein, we have demonstrated the facile methodology can offer a convenient and low analysis cost with the recovery rate as 97.43%-103.2%, which has potential application prospect.

Keywords: Modification, Detection, CdS quantum dots, naphthalene

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18 The Proposal of Modification of California Pipe Method for Inclined Pipe

Authors: Wojciech Dąbrowski, Joanna Bąk, Laurent Solliec


Nowadays technical and technological progress and constant development of methods and devices applied to sanitary engineering is indispensable. Issues related to sanitary engineering involve flow measurements for water and wastewater. The precise measurement is very important and pivotal for further actions, like monitoring. There are many methods and techniques of flow measurement in the area of sanitary engineering. Weirs and flumes are well–known methods and common used. But also there are alternative methods. Some of them are very simple methods, others are solutions using high technique. The old–time method combined with new technique could be more useful than earlier. Paper describes substitute method of flow gauging (California pipe method) and proposal of modification of this method used for inclined pipe. Examination of possibility of improving and developing old–time methods is direction of the investigation.

Keywords: Water, wastewater, Modification, improve, California pipe, sewerage, flow rate measurement, hydraulic monitoring, stream

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17 A Modified Shannon Entropy Measure for Improved Image Segmentation

Authors: M. Akbar, Mohammad A. U. Khan, Omar A. Kittaneh, Tariq M. Khan, Husam A. Bayoud


The Shannon Entropy measure has been widely used for measuring uncertainty. However, in partial settings, the histogram is used to estimate the underlying distribution. The histogram is dependent on the number of bins used. In this paper, a modification is proposed that makes the Shannon entropy based on histogram consistent. For providing the benefits, two application are picked in medical image processing applications. The simulations are carried out to show the superiority of this modified measure for image segmentation problem. The improvement may be contributed to robustness shown to uneven background in images.

Keywords: Medical Image Processing, Modification, Shannon Entropy, Image Segmentation

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16 Butene Catalytic Cracking to Propylene over Iron and Phosphorus Modified HZSM-5

Authors: Hongfang Ma, Weiyong Ying, Jianwen Li, Haitao Zhang, Qiwen Sun


HZSM-5 zeolites modified by iron and phosphorus were applied in catalytic cracking of butene. N2 adsorption and NH3-TPD were employed to measure the structure and acidity of catalysts. The results indicate that increasing phosphorus loading decreased surface area, pore volume and strong acidity of catalysts. The introduction of phosphorus significantly decreased butene conversion and promoted propylene selectivity. The catalytic performance of catalyst was strongly dependent on the reaction conditions. Appropriate reaction conditions could suppress side reactions and enhance propylene selectivity.

Keywords: Modification, HZSM-5, butene catalytic cracking, reaction conditions

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15 Design, Development and Testing of Polymer-Glass Microfluidic Chips for Electrophoretic Analysis of Biological Sample

Authors: Yana Posmitnaya, Galina Rudnitskaya, Tatyana Lukashenko, Anton Bukatin, Anatoly Evstrapov


An important area of biological and medical research is the study of genetic mutations and polymorphisms that can alter gene function and cause inherited diseases and other diseases. The following methods to analyse DNA fragments are used: capillary electrophoresis and electrophoresis on microfluidic chip (MFC), mass spectrometry with electrophoresis on MFC, hybridization assay on microarray. Electrophoresis on MFC allows to analyse small volumes of samples with high speed and throughput. A soft lithography in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was chosen for operative fabrication of MFCs. A master-form from silicon and photoresist SU-8 2025 (MicroChem Corp.) was created for the formation of micro-sized structures in PDMS. A universal topology which combines T-injector and simple cross was selected for the electrophoretic separation of the sample. Glass K8 and PDMS Sylgard® 184 (Dow Corning Corp.) were used for fabrication of MFCs. Electroosmotic flow (EOF) plays an important role in the electrophoretic separation of the sample. Therefore, the estimate of the quantity of EOF and the ways of its regulation are of interest for the development of the new methods of the electrophoretic separation of biomolecules. The following methods of surface modification were chosen to change EOF: high-frequency (13.56 MHz) plasma treatment in oxygen and argon at low pressure (1 mbar); 1% aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol; 3% aqueous solution of Kolliphor® P 188 (Sigma-Aldrich Corp.). The electroosmotic mobility was evaluated by the method of Huang X. et al., wherein the borate buffer was used. The influence of physical and chemical methods of treatment on the wetting properties of the PDMS surface was controlled by the sessile drop method. The most effective way of surface modification of MFCs, from the standpoint of obtaining the smallest value of the contact angle and the smallest value of the EOF, was the processing with aqueous solution of Kolliphor® P 188. This method of modification has been selected for the treatment of channels of MFCs, which are used for the separation of mixture of oligonucleotides fluorescently labeled with the length of chain with 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 nucleotides. Electrophoresis was performed on the device MFAS-01 (IAI RAS, Russia) at the separation voltage of 1500 V. 6% solution of polydimethylacrylamide with the addition of 7M carbamide was used as the separation medium. The separation time of components of the mixture was determined from electropherograms. The time for untreated MFC was ~275 s, and for the ones treated with solution of Kolliphor® P 188 – ~ 220 s. Research of physical-chemical methods of surface modification of MFCs allowed to choose the most effective way for reducing EOF – the modification with aqueous solution of Kolliphor® P 188. In this case, the separation time of the mixture of oligonucleotides decreased about 20%. The further optimization of method of modification of channels of MFCs will allow decreasing the separation time of sample and increasing the throughput of analysis.

Keywords: Modification, Electrophoresis, Nucleic Acid, polydimethylsiloxane, microfluidic chip, soft lithography

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14 Isotherm Study of Modified Zeolite in Sorption of Naphthalene from Water Sample

Authors: Homayon Ahmad Panahi, Elham Moniri, Amir Hesam Hassani, Akram Torki


A new sorbent was synthesized through chemical modification of clinoptilolite zeolite using 2-naphtol, and characterized with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis methods and applied for the removal and elimination of trace naphthalene from water samples. The optimum pH value for sorption of the naphthalene by modified zeolite was in acidic pH. The sorption capacity of modified zeolite was 142 mg. g−1. Isotherm models, Langmuir, Frendlich and Temkin were employed to analyze the adsorption capacity of modified zeolite, which revealed that naphthalene adsorption by this zeolite follows Langmuir model.

Keywords: Modification, Zeolite, naphthalene, clinoptilolite

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13 The Influence of Superordinate Identity and Group Size on Group Decision Making through Discussion

Authors: Jin Zhang, Lin Peng, Yuanyuan Miao, Quanquan Zheng


Group discussion and group decision-making have long been a topic of research interest. Traditional research on group decision making typically focuses on the strategies or functional models of combining members’ preferences to reach an optimal consensus. In this research, we want to explore natural process group decision making through discussion and examine relevant, influential factors--common superordinate identity shared by group and size of the groups. We manipulated the social identity of the groups into either a shared superordinate identity or different subgroup identities. We also manipulated the size to make it either a big (6-8 person) group or small group (3-person group). Using experimental methods, we found members of a superordinate identity group tend to modify more of their own opinions through the discussion, compared to those only identifying with their subgroups. Besides, members of superordinate identity groups also formed stronger identification with group decision--the results of group discussion than their subgroup peers. We also found higher member modification in bigger groups compared to smaller groups. Evaluations of decisions before and after discussion as well as group decisions are strongly linked to group identity, as members of superordinate group feel more confident and satisfied with both the results and decision-making process. Members’ opinions are more similar and homogeneous in smaller groups compared to bigger groups. This research have many implications for further research and applied behaviors in organizations.

Keywords: Identification, Modification, Group Decision Making, group size, superordinate identity

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12 Effects of Strain-Induced Melt Activation Process on the Structure and Morphology Mg₂Si in Al-15%Mg₂Si Composite

Authors: Reza Eslami-Farsani, Mohammad Alipour


The effect of deformation on the semisolid microstructure and degree of globularity of Al–15%Mg₂Si composite produced by the strain induced melt activation (SIMA) process was studied. Deformation of 25% was used. After deformation, the samples were heated to a temperature above the solidus and below the liquidus point and maintained in the isothermal conditions at three different temperatures (560, 580 and 595 °C) for varying time (5, 10, 20 and 40 min). The microstructural study was carried out on the alloy by the use of optical microscopy. It was observed that strain induced deformation and subsequently melt activation has caused the globular morphology of Mg₂Si particles. The results showed that for the desired microstructures of the alloy during SIMA process, the optimum temperature and time are 595 °C and 40 min respectively.

Keywords: Modification, deformation, semisolid, SIMA, Mg₂Si phase

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11 Characterization of Edible Film from Uwi Starch (Dioscorea alata L.)

Authors: Miksusanti, Herlina, Wiwin


The research about modification uwi starch (Dioscorea alata L) by using propylene oxide has been done. Concentration of propylene oxide were 6%(v/w), 8%(v/w), and 10%(v/w). The amilograf parameters after modification were characteristic breakdown viscosity 43 BU and setback viscosity 975 BU. The modification starch have edible properties according to FDA (Food and Drug Administration) which have degree of modification < 7%, degree of substitution < 0,1 and propylene oxide concentration < 10%(v/w). The best propylene oxide in making of edible film was 8 %( v/w). The starch control can be made into edible film with thickness 0,136 mm, tensile strength 20,4605 MPa and elongation 22%. Modification starch of uwi can be made into edible film with thickness 0,146 mm, tensile strength 25, 3521 Mpa, elongation 30% and water vapor transmission 7, 2651 g/m2/24 hours. FTIR characterization of uwi starch showed the occurrence of hydroxypropylation. The peak spectrum at 2900 cm-1 showed bonding of C-H from methyl group, which is characteristic for modification starch with hydroxypropyl. Characterization with scanning electron microscopy showed that modification of uwi starch has turned the granule of starch to be fully swallon.

Keywords: Modification, edible film, uwi starch, propylen oxide

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10 Surface Modified Polyvinylidene Fluoride Membranes for Potential Use in Membrane Distillation

Authors: Lebea Nthunya, Arne Verliefde, Bhekie Mamba, Sabelo Mhlanga


A study aimed at developing membrane distillation (MD) processes that can be used for brackish/saline water purification will be presented. MD is a membrane-based technology that presents a possibility to counteract challenges associated with pressure driven membranes at high separation efficiencies. Membrane distillation membranes (MDM) are affected by wettability and fouling. Wetting inside the pores of the membrane is elevated by the hydrophilic characteristic of the membrane, while fouling is mostly induced by the hydrophobic-hydrophobic interaction of pollutants and the surface of the hydrophobic membranes, hence block the pores of the membranes. These properties are not desirable. As such, a carefully designed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) MDM composed of a super-hydrophobic modified backbone and a super-hydrophilic thin layer has been developed to concurrently overcome these challenges. The membranes were characterized using contact angle measurements to confirm their hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity. SEM and SAXS were used to study the morphology and pore distribution on the surface of the membrane. The contact angles of the active surface ≤ 30º and that of the backbone ≥ 140º has thus revealed that the active surface was highly hydrophilic while the backbone was highly hydrophobic. The SEM and the SAXS results have also confirmed that the membranes are highly porous. These materials demonstrated a potential to remove salts from water at high efficiencies.

Keywords: Desalination, Energy Efficiency, Modification, Membrane distillation

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9 Cognitive Behavioral Modification in the Treatment of Aggressive Behavior in Children

Authors: Dijana Sulejmanović


Cognitive-behavioral modification (CBM) is a combination of cognitive and behavioral learning principles to shape and encourage the desired behaviors. A crucial element of cognitive-behavioral modification is that a change the behavior precedes awareness of how it affects others. CBM is oriented toward changing inner speech and learning to control behaviors through self-regulation techniques. It aims to teach individuals how to develop the ability to recognize, monitor and modify their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. The review of literature emphasizes the efficiency the CBM approach in the treatment of children's hyperactivity and negative emotions such as anger. The results of earlier research show how impulsive and hyperactive behavior, agitation, and aggression may slow down and block the child from being able to actively monitor and participate in regular classes, resulting in the disruption of the classroom and the teaching process, and the children may feel rejected, isolated and develop long-term poor image of themselves and others. In this article, we will provide how the use of CBM, adapted to child's age, can incorporate measures of cognitive and emotional functioning which can help us to better understand the children’s cognitive processes, their cognitive strengths, and weaknesses, and to identify factors that may influence their behavioral and emotional regulation. Such a comprehensive evaluation can also help identify cognitive and emotional risk factors associated with aggressive behavior, specifically the processes involved in modulating and regulating cognition and emotions.

Keywords: Modification, aggressive behavior, cognitive behavioral modification, cognitive behavioral theory

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8 Effects of Preparation Conditions on the Properties of Crumb Rubber Modified Binder

Authors: Mustafa Akpolat, Baha Vural Kök, Mehmet Yilmaz, Cihat Sav


Various types of additives are used frequently in order to improve the rheological and mechanical properties of bituminous mixtures. Small devices instead of full scale machines are used for bitumen modification in the laboratory. These laboratory scale devices vary in terms of their properties such as mixing rate, mixing blade and the amount of binder. In this study, the effect of mixing rate and time during the bitumen modification processes on conventional and rheological properties of pure and crumb rubber modified binder were investigated. Penetration, softening point, rotational viscosity (RV) and dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) tests were applied to pure and CR modified bitumen. It was concluded that the penetration and softening point test did not show the efficiency of CR obtained by different mixing conditions. Besides, oxidation that occurred during the preparation processes plays a great part in the improvement effects of the modified binder.

Keywords: Modification, Bitumen, rheological properties, crumb rubber

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7 Effect of Modification on the Properties of Blighia sapida (Ackee) Seed Starch

Authors: Samson A. Oyeyinka, Olufunmilola A. Abiodun, Adegbola O. Dauda, Ayobami Ojo


Blighia sapida (Ackee) seed is a neglected and under-utilised crop. The fruit is cultivated for the aril which is used as meat substitute in soup while the seed is discarded. The seed is toxic due to the presence of hypoglycin which causes vomiting and death. The seed is shining black and bigger than the legume seeds. The seed contains high starch content which could serve as a cheap source of starch hereby reducing wastage of the crop during its season. Native starch had limitation in their use; therefore, modification of starch had been reported to improve the functional properties of starches. Therefore, this work determined the effect of modification on the properties of Blighia sapida seed starch. Blighia sapida seed was dehulled manually, milled and the starch extracted using standard method. The starch was subjected to modification using four methods (acid, alkaline, oxidized and acetylated methods). The morphological structure, form factor, granule size, amylose, swelling power, hypoglycin and pasting properties of the starches were determined. The structure of Blighia sapida using light microscope showed that the seed starch demonstrated an oval, round, elliptical, dome-shaped and also irregular shape. The form factors of the starch ranged from 0.32-0.64. Blighia sapida seed starches were smaller in granule sizes ranging from 2-6 µm. Acid modified starch had the highest amylose content (24.83%) and was significantly different ( < 0.05) from other starches. Blighia sapida seed starches showed a progressive increase in swelling power as temperature increased in native, acidified, alkalized, oxidized and acetylated starches but reduced with increasing temperature in pregelatinized starch. Hypoglycin A ranged from 3.89 to 5.74 mg/100 g with pregelatinized starch having the lowest value and alkalized starch having the highest value. Hypoglycin B ranged from 7.17 to 8.47 mg/100 g. Alkali-treated starch had higher peak viscosity (3973 cP) which was not significantly different (p > 0.05) from the native starch. Alkali-treated starch also was significantly different (p > 0.05) from other starches in holding strength value while acetylated starch had higher breakdown viscosity (1161.50 cP). Native starch was significantly different (p > 0.05) from other starches in final and setback viscosities. Properties of Blighia sapida modified starches showed that it could be used as a source of starch in food and other non-food industries and the toxic compound found in the starch was very low when compared to lethal dosage.

Keywords: Modification, Starch, Blighia sapida seed, hypoglycin

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6 Application of Nitric Acid Modified Cocos nucifera, Pennisetum glaucum and Sorghum bicolor Activated Carbon for Adsorption of H₂S Gas

Authors: Z. N. Ali, O. A. Babatunde, S. Garba, H. M. S. Haruna


The potency of modified and unmodified activated carbons prepared from shells of Cocos nucifera (coconut shell), straws of Pennisetum glaucum (millet) and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) for adsorption of hydrogen sulphide gas were investigated using an adsorption apparatus (stainless steel cylinder) at constant temperature (ambient temperature). The adsorption equilibria states were obtained when the pressure indicated on the pressure gauge remained constant. After modification with nitric acid, results of the scanning electron microscopy of the unmodified and modified activated carbons showed that HNO3 greatly improved the formation of micropores and mesopores on the activated carbon surface. The adsorption of H2S gas was found to be highest in modified Cocos nucifera activated carbon with maximum monolayer coverage of 28.17 mg/g, and the adsorption processes were both physical and chemical with the physical process being predominant. The adsorption data were well fitted into the Langmuir isotherm model with the adsorption capacities of the activated carbons in the order modified Cocos nucifera > modified Pennisetum glaucum > modified Sorghum bicolor > unmodified Cocos nucifera > unmodified Pennisetum glaucum > unmodified Sorghum bicolour.

Keywords: Modification, hydrogen sulphide, activated carbon adsorption, nitric acid, stainless steel cylinder

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5 Effects of Rockdust as a Soil Stabilizing Agent on Poor Subgrade Soil

Authors: Muhammad Munawar


Pavement destruction is normally associated with the horizontal relocation of subgrade because of pavement engrossing water and inordinate avoidance and differential settlement of material underneath the pavement. The aim of the research is to study the effect of the additives (rockdust) on the stability and the increase of bearing capacity of selected soils in Mardan City. The physical, chemical and designing properties of soil were contemplated, and the soil was treated with added admixture rockdust with the goal of stabilizing the local soil. The stabilization or modification of soil is done by blending of rock dust to soils in the scope of 0 to 85% by the rate increment of 5%, 10%, and 15% individually. The following test was done for treated sample: Atterberg limits (liquid limit, plasticity index, plastic limit), standard compaction test, the California bearing test and the direct shear test. The results demonstrated that the gradation of soil is narrow from the particle size analysis. Plasticity index (P.I), Liquid limit (L.L) and plastic limit (P.L) were shown reduction with the addition of Rock dust. It was concluded that the maximum dry density is increasing with the addition of rockdust up to 10%, beyond 10%, it shows reduction in their content. It was discovered that the Cohesion C diminished, the angle of internal friction and the California bearing ratio (C.B.R) was improved with the addition of Rock dust. The investigation demonstrated that the best stabilizer for the contextual investigation (Toru road Mardan) is the rock dust and the ideal dosage is 10 %.

Keywords: Modification, Stabilization, CBR, rockdust

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4 The Restrictions of the Householder’s ‘Double Two-Thirds Principles’ in Decision-Making for Elevators Addition to Existing Condominium

Authors: Haifeng Shi, Kun Song, Yili Zhao


In China, with the extensive promotion of the ‘aging in place’ pension policy as the background, most of the elders will choose to remain in their current homes and communities, finding out of preference or necessity that they will need to remodel their homes to fit their changing needs. This generation elder born in the 1960s to 1970s almost live in the same form of housing-condominium built from 1982 to 2012. Based on the survey of existing multi-family housing, especially in Tianjin, it is found that the current ‘double two-thirds principles’ is becoming the threshold for modification to existing house, particularly in the project of elevators addition to existing condominium (built from 1982 to 2016 without elevators below 6 floors according to the previous building code). Firstly, this article concludes the local policies of elevator addition nationwide, most of which has determined the importance and necessity of the community-based self-organization principle in the operation of the elevator addition. Secondly, by comparing the three existing community management systems (owners' congress, property management system and community committee) in instances, find that the community-based ‘two-thirds’ principle is not conducive to implement for multi-owned property renovation in the community or common accessibility modification in the building. However, analysis the property and other community management related laws, pointing out the shortcomings of the existing community-based ‘two-thirds’ decision-making norms. The analyzation showed that the unit-based and ‘100% principle’ method is more capable of common accessibility in the condominium in China. Differing from existing laws, the unit-based principle will be effective for the process of decision-making and ‘100% principle’ will protect closely profit-related householders for condominium modification in the multi-owned area. These three aspects of the analysis suggest that the establishment of the unit-based self-organization mechanism is a preferred and inevitable method to solve the problem of elevators addition to the existing condominium in China.

Keywords: Modification, condominium, aging in place, multi own

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3 Altering Surface Properties of Magnetic Nanoparticles with Single-Step Surface Modification with Various Surface Active Agents

Authors: Mukesh Ranjan, Krupali Mehta, Sandip Bhatt, Umesh Trivedi, Bhavesh Bharatiya, Atindra D. Shukla


Owing to the dominating surface forces and large-scale surface interactions, the nano-scale particles face difficulties in getting suspended in various media. Magnetic nanoparticles of iron oxide offer a great deal of promise due to their ease of preparation, reasonable magnetic properties, low cost and environmental compatibility. We intend to modify the surface of magnetic Fe₂O₃ nanoparticles with selected surface modifying agents using simple and effective single-step chemical reactions in order to enhance dispersibility of magnetic nanoparticles in non-polar media. Magnetic particles were prepared by hydrolysis of Fe²⁺/Fe³⁺ chlorides and their subsequent oxidation in aqueous medium. The dried particles were then treated with Octadecyl quaternary ammonium silane (Terrasil™), stearic acid and gallic acid ester of stearyl alcohol in ethanol separately to yield S-2 to S-4 respectively. The untreated Fe₂O₃ was designated as S-1. The surface modified nanoparticles were then analysed with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy dispersive X-Ray analysis (SEM-EDAX). Characterization reveals the particle size averaging 20-50 nm with and without modification. However, the crystallite size in all cases remained ~7.0 nm with the diffractogram matching to Fe₂O₃ crystal structure. FT-IR suggested the presence of surfactants on nanoparticles’ surface, also confirmed by SEM-EDAX where mapping of elements proved their presence. TGA indicated the weight losses in S-2 to S-4 at 300°C onwards suggesting the presence of organic moiety. Hydrophobic character of modified surfaces was confirmed with contact angle analysis, all modified nanoparticles showed super hydrophobic behaviour with average contact angles ~129° for S-2, ~139.5° for S-3 and ~151° for S-4. This indicated that surface modified particles are super hydrophobic and they are easily dispersible in non-polar media. These modified particles could be ideal candidates to be suspended in oil-based fluids, polymer matrices, etc. We are pursuing elaborate suspension/sedimentation studies of these particles in various oils to establish this conjecture.

Keywords: Modification, Dispersion, hydrophobic, iron nanoparticles

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2 Chemically Modified Chitosan Derivatives with Ameliorated Properties Appropriate for Drug Delivery

Authors: Georgia M. Michailidou, Nina-Maria S. Ainali, Eleftheria C. Xanthopoulou, Dimitrios N. Bikiaris


Polysaccharides are polymeric materials derived from nature. They are extensively used in pharmaceutical technology due to their low cost, their ready availability and their low toxicity. Chitosan is the product derived from the deacetylation of chitin usually obtained from arthropods. It is a linear polysaccharide which is composed of repeated units of N-deacetylated amino groups and some N-acetylated groups residues. Due to its excellent biological properties, it is an attractive natural polymer. It is biocompatible with low toxicity and complete biodegradability. Although it has excellent properties, the chemical modification of its structure results in new derivatives with ameliorated and more improved properties compared to the initial polymer. This is the exact purpose of the present study in which chitosan was modified with three different monomers, namely trans-aconitic acid, succinic anhydride and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate. In chitosan’s modification with trans aconitic acid, EDC was utilized as an activator of the carboxylic groups of the monomer, and then a coupling reaction with the amino groups took place. Succinic anhydride reacted with chitosan through a ring opening reaction while 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate reacted through the addition of chitosan’s amino group to the double bond of the monomer. Through FTIR and NMR measurements the success of each reaction was confirmed, and the new structures of the derivatives were verified. X-ray diffraction was utilized in order to examine the effect of the modifications in chitosan’s crystallinity. Finally, swelling tests were conducted in order to assess the improved ability of the new polymeric materials to absorb water. Our results support the successful modification of chitosan’s macromolecular chains in all three reactions. Furthermore, the new derivatives appear to be amorphous concerning their crystallinity and have great ability in absorbing water.

Keywords: Modification, Derivatives, chitosan, polysaccharide

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1 Investigation of the Properties of Epoxy Modified Binders Based on Epoxy Oligomer with Improved Deformation and Strength Properties

Authors: Hlaing Zaw Oo, N. Kostromina, V. Osipchik, T. Kravchenko, K. Yakovleva


The process of modification of ed-20 epoxy resin synthesized by vinyl-containing compounds is considered. It is shown that the introduction of vinyl-containing compounds into the composition based on epoxy resin ED-20 allows adjusting the technological and operational characteristics of the binder. For improvement of the properties of epoxy resin, following modifiers were selected: polyvinylformalethyl, polyvinyl butyral and composition of linear and aromatic amines (Аramine) as a hardener. Now the big range of hardeners of epoxy resins exists that allows varying technological properties of compositions, and also thermophysical and strength indicators. The nature of the aramin type hardener has a significant impact on the spatial parameters of the mesh, glass transition temperature, and strength characteristics. Epoxy composite materials based on ED-20 modified with polyvinyl butyral were obtained and investigated. It is shown that the composition of resins based on derivatives of polyvinyl butyral and ED-20 allows obtaining composite materials with a higher complex of deformation-strength, adhesion and thermal properties, better water resistance, frost resistance, chemical resistance, and impact strength. The magnitude of the effect depends on the chemical structure, temperature and curing time. In the area of concentrations, where the effect of composite synergy is appearing, the values of strength and stiffness significantly exceed the similar parameters of the individual components of the mixture. The polymer-polymer compositions form their class of materials with diverse specific properties that ensure their competitive application. Coatings with high performance under cyclic loading have been obtained based on epoxy oligomers modified with vinyl-containing compounds.

Keywords: Modification, deformation, epoxy resins, strength properties, vinyl-containing compounds

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