Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 53

Mobility Related Abstracts

53 Lisbon Experience, Mobility, Quality of Life and Tourist Image: A Survey

Authors: Luca Zarrilli, Miguel Brito, Marianna Cappucci

Abstract:

Tourists recently awarded Lisbon as the best city break destination in Europe. This article analyses the various types of tourist experiences in the city of Lisbon. The research method is the questionnaire, aimed at investigating the choices of tourists in the area of mobility, their perception of the quality of life and their level of appreciation of neighbourhoods, landmarks and infrastructures. There is an obvious link between the quality of life and the quality of the tourist experience, but it is difficult to measure it. Through this questionnaire, we hope to have made a small contribution to the understanding of the perceptive sphere of the individual and his choices in terms of behaviour, which is an essential element of any strategy for tourism marketing.

Keywords: Mobility, Perception, Tourism, hospitality, Quality of Life, Lisbon

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52 Prosthesis Design for Bilateral Hip Disarticulation Management

Authors: Mauricio Plaza, Willian Aperador

Abstract:

Hip disarticulation is an amputation through the hip joint capsule, removing the entire lower extremity, with a closure of the remaining musculature over the exposed acetabulum. Tumors of the distal and proximal femur were treated by total femur resection; a hip disarticulation sometimes is a performance for massive trauma with crush injuries to the lower extremity. This article discusses the design a system for rehabilitation of a patient with bilateral hip disarticulations. The prosthetics designed allowed the patient to do natural gait suspended between parallel articulate crutches with the body weight support between the crutches. The care of this patient was a challenge due to bilateral amputations at such a high level and the special needs of a patient mobility.

Keywords: Mobility, prosthesis, amputation, hemipelvectomy

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51 E-Commerce versus m-Commerce: The Dividing Line

Authors: Priscilla Omonedo, Paul Bocij

Abstract:

Since the emergence of e-commerce, the world of business has witnessed a radical shift in the way business activities are conducted. However, the emergence of m-Commerce has further pushed the boundaries of virtual commerce revolution. As a result, there seems to be a growing blur in the distinction between e-Commerce and m-Commerce. In addition, existing definitions for both forms of commerce highlight characteristics (e.g. type of device and activity conducted) that may be applicable to both concepts. The aim of this paper is to identify the characteristics that help define and delineate between e- and m- Commerce. The paper concludes that characteristics of mobility, ubiquity, and immediacy provides a clearer and simpler template to distinguish between e-commerce and m-commerce.

Keywords: Mobility, E-Commerce, M-Commerce, Ubiquity

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50 Using Trip Planners in Developing Proper Transportation Behavior

Authors: Grzegorz Sierpiński, Ireneusz Celiński, Marcin Staniek

Abstract:

The article discusses multi modal mobility in contemporary societies as a main planning and organization issue in the functioning of administrative bodies, a problem which really exists in the space of contemporary cities in terms of shaping modern transport systems. The article presents classification of available resources and initiatives undertaken for developing multi modal mobility. Solutions can be divided into three groups of measures–physical measures in the form of changes of the transport network infrastructure, organizational ones (including transport policy) and information measures. The latter ones include in particular direct support for people travelling in the transport network by providing information about ways of using available means of transport. A special measure contributing to this end is a trip planner. The article compares several selected planners. It includes a short description of the Green Travelling Project, which aims at developing a planner supporting environmentally friendly solutions in terms of transport network operation. The article summarizes preliminary findings of the project.

Keywords: Mobility, Sustainable transport, modal split, multimodal trip, multimodal platforms

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49 Study on the OTP Authentication Method and Security for User Mobility in the Cloud

Authors: Jong-won Lee

Abstract:

Since Cloud environment has appeared as the most powerful keyword in the computing industry, the growth in VDI (Virtual Desktop Infrastructure) became remarkable in domestic market. In recent years, with the trend that mobile devices such as smartphones and pads spread so rapidly, the strengths of VDI that allows people to access and perform business on the move along with companies' office needs expedite more rapid spread of VDI. However, although this enhanced accessibility and mobility can bring the enhanced productivity, it sometimes conflicts with the security, so there should be more detailed security solution, which is user authentication. In this paper, mobile OTP (One-Time Password) authentication method is proposed to secure mobile device portability through rapid and secure authentication using mobile devices such as mobile phones or pads, which does not require additional purchase or possession of OTP tokens of users. However, in order to use the service continuously and reliably in the cloud environment, both service provider and user have to prepare for security awareness and security threats, and continuously study the conflicting aspect between the improving user convenience and the security and supplement so that cloud service can provide opportunities to develop as a new growth industry in the future and create a new market in IT industry.

Keywords: Mobility, Security, Cloud, Authentication, OTP

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48 The Endocrinology of Obesity and Dejenerative Joint Disease

Authors: Kebret Kebede, Anthony Scinta

Abstract:

Obesity is the most prevalent global problem that continues to rise at alarming rates both in the industrialized and developing countries. Adipose tissue is an endocrine tissue that secretes numerous chemical signals, hormones, lipids, cytokines and coagulation factors as well as prompting insulin resistance which is a primary contributor to Type II Diabetes- one of its most common adverse effects on health. Other hormones whose levels are linked to obesity and nutritional state are leptin, IGF-1, and adiponectin. Several studies indicate that obesity is the leading cause of high levels of cholesterol that leads to fatty liver disease, gallstones, hypertension, increased risk for cancer and degenerative joint disease that primarily affects the weight bearing joints of the lower extremities. The activation of inflammatory pathways promotes synovial pathology that results in accelerated degeneration of the joints. The study examines the prevalence of obesity in the US female population in comparison to that of the developing world and its emergence as a significant and potentially modifiable risk factor in degenerative disease of the hip and knee joints that has resulted in staggering healthcare cost. Studies have shown that as the prevalence of obesity rises, we continue to see a rise in degenerative joint disease. The percentage of arthritis cases linked directly to obesity has risen from 3 percent in 1971 to 18 percent in 2002. A person with obesity is around 60 percent more likely to develop arthritis than someone of normal body weight. In women, obesity is associated with increased mortality from breast, cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancer that may accompany debilitating joint diseases and restricted mobility.

Keywords: Mobility, Cancer, Endocrine, Obesity, Mortality, degenerative, joint diseases, debilitating

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47 Anticipating the Change: Visions and Perspectives towards a Post-Car World

Authors: Farzaneh Bahrami

Abstract:

Different indicators, such as modal shares in mobility practices or car ownership, may suggest that the century of car dominance - at least in Europe and North America - is already behind us. If the emergence of the car had radical spatial and social consequences, what would be the implications of its gradual disappearance - which could be expected in the context of ecological consciousness, economic and energetic constraints as a result of both urban policies as well as lifestyle choices? To what extend shall urban experts account for this limited but visible transition from car-dominated systems towards alternative models of mobility in which the individual-motorized mobility (car) is not central; what models of urbanity could be imagined to support such a transformation? We have examined a selection of projects at different scales and within different contexts - new planned cities, dense urban areas or territories of dispersion – whose visions involve a significant shift from the current car system. We have been looking into their tools, strategies and different measures of car reduction, as well as their varied approaches to public space as an inevitable corollary to this change. The car’s dominance was formerly questioned by advocates of public space, rather than through interests in ecological urban design or other urban planning concerns. In the 60s already a universal longing for the qualities of traditional urban space led to a critique of the proliferation of fast roads, and thus the car’s colonization of everyday life. Reclamation of public space as the city’s quintessential social territory reappears today in contemporary discourses and reinforces the shift-provoking trends towards a new urbanity freed from car dominance. In a hypothetical process of the progressive phasing-out of the car, we shall expect fundamental transformations in spatial practices of the city, accompanied by the physical configuration of its public spaces. What will be the main characteristics of the new emerging spaces of sociability and where shall we encounter them? This contribution is an ongoing research within the framework of Post-Car World, an interdisciplinary project that explores the future of mobility through the role of the car.

Keywords: Mobility, urbanity, Public space, future visions

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46 Shoulder-Arm Mobility and Upper and Lower Extremity Muscle Function are Impaired in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis

Authors: F. Bringby, A. Nordin, L. Björnådal, E. Svenungsson, C. Boström, H Alexanderson

Abstract:

Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) have reduced hand function and self-reported limitations in daily activities. Few studies have explored limitations in shoulder-arm mobility and muscle function, or if there are differences in physical function between diffuse cutaneous (dcSSc) and limited cutaneous (lcSSc) SSc. The purpose of this study was to describe objectively assessed shoulder-arm mobility, lower extremity muscle function and muscle endurance in SSc and evaluate possible differences between lcSSc and dcSSc. 121 patients with SSc were included in this cross sectional study. Shoulder-arm mobility were examined using the Shoulder Function Assessment Scale (SFA) including 5 tasks ,lower extremity muscle function was measured by Timed stands test (TST) and muscle endurance in shoulder- and hip flexors were assessed by the Functional Index 2 (FI-2). Patients with dcSSc had median SFA hand to back score 5 (4-6) and median “hand to seat” score of 5 (4-6) compared to patients with lcSSc with corresponding median values of 6 (4-6) and 6 (5-6) respectively (p<0.01-p<0.05). 50% of both patientsgroups had lower muscle function assessed by the TST compared to age- and gender matched reference values but there were no differences in TST between the two patient groups. There was no difference in FI-2 scores between dcSSc and lcSSc. The whole group had 40 (28-83) % and 38 (32-72) % of maximal FI-2 shoulder flexion score on the right and left sides, and 40 (23-63) % and 37 (23-62) % of maximal FI-2 hip flexion score on the right and left sides. Reference values for the FI-2 indicate that healthy individuals perform in mean 100 % of maximal score. Patients with dcSSc were more limited than patients with lcSSc. Patients with SSc have reduced muscle function compared to reference values. These results highlights the importance of assessing shoulder-arm mobility and muscle function as well as a need for further research to identify exercise interventions to target these limitations.

Keywords: Mobility, Physical Therapy, diffuse, limited, muscle function, systemic sclerosis

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45 A Review of the Parameters Used in Gateway Selection Schemes for Internet Connected MANETs

Authors: Farhat Anwar, Zainab S. Mahmood, Wan Haslina Hassan, Aisha H. Hashim

Abstract:

The wide use of the internet-based applications bring many challenges to the researchers to guarantee the continuity of the connections needed by the mobile hosts and provide reliable Internet access for them. One of proposed solutions by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is to connect the local, multi-hop, and infrastructure-less Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) with Internet structure. This connection is done through multi-interface devices known as Internet Gateways. Many issues are related to this connection like gateway discovery, hand off, address auto-configuration and selecting the optimum gateway when multiple gateways exist. Many studies were done proposing gateway selection schemes with a single selection criterion or weighted multiple criteria. In this research, a review of some of these schemes is done showing the differences, the features, the challenges and the drawbacks of each of them.

Keywords: Mobility, manet, selection criteria, Internet Gateway

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
44 Performance Analysis of Ad-Hoc Network Routing Protocols

Authors: I. Baddari, A. Riahla, M. Mezghich

Abstract:

Today in the literature, we discover a lot of routing algorithms which some have been the subject of normalization. Two great classes Routing algorithms are defined, the first is the class reactive algorithms and the second that of algorithms proactive. The aim of this work is to make a comparative study between some routing algorithms. Two comparisons are considered. The first will focus on the protocols of the same class and second class on algorithms of different classes (one reactive and the other proactive). Since they are not based on analytical models, the exact evaluation of some aspects of these protocols is challenging. Simulations have to be done in order to study their performances. Our simulation is performed in NS2 (Network Simulator 2). It identified a classification of the different routing algorithms studied in a metrics such as loss of message, the time transmission, mobility, etc.

Keywords: Mobility, Simulation, delay, NS2, packet loss, wideband, ad-hoc network routing protocol

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43 Experimental Measurement for Vehicular Communication Evaluation Using Obu Arada System

Authors: Aymen Sassi

Abstract:

The equipment of vehicles with wireless communication capabilities is expected to be the key to the evolution to next generation intelligent transportation systems (ITS). The IEEE community has been continuously working on the development of an efficient vehicular communication protocol for the enhancement of Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment (WAVE). Vehicular communication systems, called V2X, support vehicle to vehicle (V2V) and vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) communications. The efficiency of such communication systems depends on several factors, among which the surrounding environment and mobility are prominent. Accordingly, this study focuses on the evaluation of the real performance of vehicular communication with special focus on the effects of the real environment and mobility on V2X communication. It starts by identifying the real maximum range that such communication can support and then evaluates V2I and V2V performances. The Arada LocoMate OBU transmission system was used to test and evaluate the impact of the transmission range in V2X communication. The evaluation of V2I and V2V communication takes the real effects of low and high mobility on transmission into account.

Keywords: Mobility, V2I, IEEE 802.11p, V2X, PLR, Arada LocoMate OBU, maximum range

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42 Higher Education for Knowledge and Technology Transfer in Egypt

Authors: M. A. Zaki Ewiss, S. Afifi

Abstract:

Nahda University (NUB) believes that internationalisation of higher educational is able to provide global society with an education that meets current needs and that can respond efficiently to contemporary demands and challenges, which are characterized by globalisation, interdependence, and multiculturalism. In this paper, we will discuss the the challenges of the Egyptian Higher Education system and the future vision to improve this system> In this report, the following issues will be considered: Increasing knowledge on the development of specialized programs of study at the university. Developing international cooperation programs, which focus on the development of the students and staff skills, and providing academic culture and learning opportunities. Increasing the opportunities for student mobility, and research projects for faculty members. Increased opportunities for staff, faculty and students to continue to learn foreign universities, and to benefit from scholarships in various disciplines. Taking the advantage of the educational experience and modern teaching methods; Providing the opportunities to study abroad without increasing the period of time required for graduation, and through greater integration in the curricula and programs; More cultural interaction through student exchanges.Improving and providing job opportunities for graduates through participation in the global labor market. This document sets out NUB strategy to move towards that vision. We are confident that greater explicit differentiation, greater freedom and greater collaboration are the keys to delivering the further improvement in quality we shall need to retain and strengthen our position as one of the world’s leading higher education systems.

Keywords: Mobility, knowledge transfer, internationalisation, technology transfer higher education

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41 Academic Education and Internship towards Architecture Professional Practice

Authors: Sawsan Saridar masri, Hisham Arnaouty

Abstract:

Architecture both defines and is defined by social, cultural, political and financial constraints: this is where the discipline and the profession of architecture meet. This mutual sway evolves wherever interferences in the built environment are thought-out and can be strengthened or weakened by the many ways in which the practice of architecture can be undertaken. The more familiar we are about the concerns and factors that control what can be made, the greater the opportunities to propose and make appropriate architectures. Apparently, the criteria in any qualification policy should permit flexibility of approach and will – for reasons including cultural choice, political issues, and son on – vary significantly from country to country. However the weighting of the various criteria have to ensure adequate standards both in educational system as in the professional training. This paper develops, deepens and questions about the regulatory entry routes to the professional practice of architecture in the Arab world. It is also intended to provide an informed basis about strategies for conventional and unconventional models of practice in preparation for the next stages of architect’s work experience and professional experience. With the objective of promoting the implementation of adequate built environment in the practice of architecture, a comprehensive analysis of various pathways of access to the profession are selected as case studies, encompassing examples from across the world. The review of such case studies allows the creation of a comprehensive picture in relation to the conditions for qualification of practitioners of the built environment at the level of the Middle Eastern countries and the Arab World. Such investigation considers the following aspects: professional title and domain of practice, accreditation of courses, internship and professional training, professional examination and continuing professional development.

Keywords: Mobility, Architecture, Professional Practice, internship

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
40 VANETs Geographic Routing Protocols: A survey

Authors: Ramin Karimi

Abstract:

One of common highly mobile wireless ad hoc networks is Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks. Hence routing in vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) has attracted much attention during the last few years. VANET is characterized by its high mobility of nodes and specific topology patterns. Moreover these networks encounter a significant loss rate and a very short duration of communication. In vehicular ad hoc networks, one of challenging is routing of data due to high speed mobility and changing topology of vehicles. Geographic routing protocols are becoming popular due to advancement and availability of GPS devices. Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs) are a class of networks that enable communication where connectivity issues like sparse connectivity, intermittent connectivity; high latency, long delay, high error rates, asymmetric data rate, and even no end-to-end connectivity exist. In this paper, we review the existing Geographic Routing Protocols for VANETs and also provide a qualitative comparison of them.

Keywords: Mobility, vehicular ad hoc networks, Delay Tolerant Networks, geographic routing

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39 Placelessness and the Subversive Tactics of Mobility in Ernest Hemingway and Jabra Ibrahim Jabra

Authors: Ahmad Qabaha

Abstract:

This paper teases out the ways in which the constructs of placelessness and mobility are articulated in modern exilic Palestinian literature and American expatriate writing. The mode of placelessness embodied by the characters of each of my two authors (expatriation in Paris Montparnasse for Hemingway's characters and involuntary exile in Europe for Jabra's) will be elicited from the orientations of their mobility. This paper argues that the proclivity of Hemingway's characters for centrifugal motion (moving away from the centre) is a strategy to increase their sense of freedom that space (expatriation), rather than place, secures. By contrast, the movement of Jabra's characters is centripetal (moving or tending to move towards the centre). It echoes his Palestinian characters' recurrent futile attempts to return to Palestine, and it expresses their resistance to the lures of exile. This paper asserts that the involuntarily exiled character (the Palestinian in this case) is a figure obsessed with and ache for a place, roots and 'a dwelling' from which he was uprooted - a place that defines his authentic existence and frames his understanding of the world in Martin Heidegger's, Simone Weil's and Gaston Bachelard's senses. In parallel, this paper explains that the expatriate character (the American in this case) views place as confining, restrictive and disagreeable, while mobility as a figure of freedom, resistance, wealth, self-fashioning and understanding/inhabiting the world. Place in this sense is associated with past, tradition, ideology, existence and being. Mobility is equivalent with modernity, progression, innovation, self-fashioning and freedom.

Keywords: Mobility, place, American expatriate literature, exilic Palestinian literature, placelessness

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38 Can Urbanisation Be the Cause for Increasing Urban Poverty: An Exploratory Analysis for India

Authors: Sarmistha Singh

Abstract:

An analysis of trend of urbanization and urban poverty in recent decades is showing that a distinctly reducing rural poverty and increasing in urban areas. It can be argued that the higher the urbanization fuelled by the urban migration to city, which is picking up people from less skilled, education so they faced obstacle to enter into the mainstream economy of city. The share of workforce in economy is higher; in contrast it remains as negligence. At the same time, less wages, absence of social security, social dialogue make them insecure. The vulnerability in their livelihood found. So the paper explores the relation of urbanization and urban poverty in the city, in other words how the urbanization process affecting the urban space in creating the number of poor people in the city. The central focus is the mobility of people with less education and skilled with motive of job search and better livelihood. In many studies found the higher the urbanization and higher the urban poverty in city. In other words, poverty is the impact of urbanization. The strategy of urban inequality through ‘dispersal of concentration’ by the World Bank and others, need to be examined.

Keywords: Mobility, Urbanization, Urban poverty, informal settlements, informal worker

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37 Network Mobility Support in Content-Centric Internet

Authors: Zhiwei Yan, Jong-Hyouk Lee, Yong-Jin Park, Xiaodong Lee

Abstract:

In this paper, we analyze NEtwork MObility (NEMO) supporting problems in Content-Centric Networking (CCN), and propose the CCN-NEMO which can well support the deployment of the content-centric paradigm in large-scale mobile Internet. The CCN-NEMO extends the signaling message of the basic CCN protocol, to support the mobility discovery and fast trigger of Interest re-issuing during the network mobility. Besides, the Mobile Router (MR) is extended to optimize the content searching and relaying in the local subnet. These features can be employed by the nested NEMO to maximize the advantages of content retrieving with CCN. Based on the analysis, we compare the performance on handover latency between the basic CCN and our proposed CCN-NEMO. The results show that our scheme can facilitate the content-retrieving in the NEMO scenario with improved performance.

Keywords: Mobility, NEMO, CCN, handover latency

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36 On Demand Transport: Feasibility Study - Local Needs and Capabilities within the Oran Wilaya

Authors: Nadjet Brahmia

Abstract:

The evolution of urban forms, the new aspects of mobility, the ways of life and economic models make public transport conventional collective low-performing on the majority of largest Algerian cities, particularly in the west of Algeria. On the other side, the information and communication technologies (ICT) open new eventualities to develop a new mode of transport which brings together both the tenders offered by the public service collective and those of the particular vehicle, suitable for urban requirements, social and environmental. Like the concrete examples made in the international countries in terms of on-demand transport systems (ODT) more particularly in the developed countries, this article has for objective the opportunity analysis to establish a service of ODT at the level of a few towns of Oran Wilaya, such a service will be subsequently spread on the totality of the Wilaya if not on the whole of Algeria. In this context, we show the different existing means of transport in the current network whose aim to illustrate the points of insufficiency accented in the present transport system, then we discuss the solutions that may exhibit a service of ODT to the problem studied all around the transport sector, to carry at the end to highlight the capabilities of ODT replying to the transformation of mobilities, this in the light of well-defined cases.

Keywords: Mobility, transport system, on-demand transport, public transport collective

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35 Influence of Temperature on Properties of MOSFETs

Authors: Azizi Cherifa, O. Benzaoui

Abstract:

The thermal aspects in the design of power circuits often deserve as much attention as pure electric components aspects as the operating temperature has a direct influence on their static and dynamic characteristics. MOSFET is fundamental in the circuits, it is the most widely used device in the current production of semiconductor components using their honorable performance. The aim of this contribution is devoted to the effect of the temperature on the properties of MOSFETs. The study enables us to calculate the drain current as function of bias in both linear and saturated modes. The effect of temperature is evaluated using a numerical simulation, using the laws of mobility and saturation velocity of carriers as a function of temperature.

Keywords: Mobility, transistor, temperature, MOSFET

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
34 Tracing Syrian Refugees Urban Mobilities: The Case of Egypt and Canada

Authors: N. Elgendy, N. Hussein

Abstract:

The current Syrian crisis has caused unprecedented practices of global mobility. The process of forced eviction and the resettlement of refugees could be seen through the insights of the “new mobilities paradigm”. The mobility of refugees in terms of meaning and practice is a subject that calls for further studies. There is a need for the development of an approach to human mobility to understand a practice that is turning into a phenomenon in the 21st century. This paper aims at studying, from a qualitative point of view, the process of movement within the six constituents of mobility defined as the first phase of the journey of a refugee. The second phase would include the process of settling in and re-defining the host country as new “home” to refugees. The change in the refugee state of mind and crossing the physical and mental borders from a “foreigner” to a citizen is encouraged by both the governmental policies and the local communities’ efforts to embrace these newcomers. The paper would focus on these policies of social and economic integration. The concept of integration connotes the idea that refugees would enjoy the opportunities, rights and services available to the citizens of the refugee’s new community. So, this paper examines this concept through showcasing the two hosting countries of Canada and Egypt, as they provide two contrasting situations in terms of cultural, geographical, economic and political backgrounds. The analysis would highlight the specific policies defined towards the refugees including the mass communication, media calls, and access to employment. This research is part of a qualitative research project on the process of Urban Mobility practiced by the Syrian Refugees, drawing on conversational interviews with new-settlers who have moved to the different hosting countries, from their home in Syria. It explores these immigrants’ practical and emotional relationships with the process of movement and settlement. It uses the conversational interviews as a tool to document analysis and draw relationships in an attempt to establish an understanding of the factors that contribute to the new-settlers feeling of home and integration within the new community.

Keywords: Mobility, Policy, Integration, Refugees

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33 Mobility and Speciation of Iron in the Alluvial Sheet of Nil River (North-Eastern Algerian)

Authors: S. Benessam, T. H. Debieche, S. Amiour, A. Chine, S. Khelili

Abstract:

Iron is naturally present in groundwater, it comes from the dissolution of the geological formations (clay, schist, mica-schist, gneiss…). Its chemical form and mobility in water are controlled mainly by two physicochemical parameters (Eh and pH). In order to determine its spatiotemporal evolution in groundwater, a two-monthly monitoring of the physicochemical parameters and major elements in the water of the alluvial sheet of Nil river (North-eastern Algerian) was carried out during the period from November 2013 to January 2015. The results show that iron is present in weak concentrations in the upstream part of the alluvial sheet and with raised concentrations, which can exceed the standard of potable drinking water (0.2 mg/L), in the central and downstream parts of the alluvial sheet. This variation of the concentrations is related to the important variation of Eh between the upstream part (200 mV) where the aquiver is unconfined (oxidizing medium) and the central and downstream parts (-100 mV) where the aquifer is confined (reducing medium). Iron in the oxidizing part is presented with the complexes form, where it precipitates or/and adsorbed by the geological formations. On the other hand in the reducing parts, it is released in water. In this study, one will discuss also the mobility and the chemical forms of iron according to the rains and pumping.

Keywords: Mobility, Speciation, Groundwater, Iron

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
32 Impact of Agriculture on the Groundwater Quality: Case of the Alluvial Plain of Nil River (North-Eastern Algerian)

Authors: S. Benessam, T. H. Debieche, A. Drouiche, F. Zahi, S. Mahdid

Abstract:

The intensive use of the chemical fertilizers and the pesticides in agriculture often produces a contamination of the groundwater by organic pollutants. The irrigation and/or rainwater transport the pollutants towards groundwater or water surface. Among these pollutants, one finds the nitrogen, often observed in the agricultural zones in the nitrate form. In order to understand the form and chemical mobility of nitrogen in groundwater, this study was conducted. A two-monthly monitoring of the parameters physicochemical and chemistry of water of the alluvial plain of Nil river (North-eastern Algerian) were carried out during the period from November 2013 to January 2015 as well as an in-situ investigation of the various chemical products used by the farmers. The results show a raise concentration of nitrates in the wells (depth < 20 m) of the plain, which the concentrations arrive at 50 mg/L (standard of potable water). On the other hand in drillings (depth > 20 m), one observes two behaviors. The first in the upstream part, where the aquifer is unconfined and the medium is oxidizing, one observes the weak nitrate concentrations, indicating its absorption by the ground during the infiltration of water towards the groundwater. The second in the central and downstream parts, where the groundwater is locally confined and the reducing medium, one observes an absence of nitrates and the appearance of nitrites and ammonium, indicating the reduction of nitrates. The projection of the analyses on diagrams Eh-pH of nitrogen has enabled to us to determine the intervals of variation of the nitrogen forms. This study also highlighted the effect of the rains, the pumping and the nature of the geological formations in the form and the mobility of nitrogen in the plain.

Keywords: Mobility, Speciation, Groundwater, Nitrogen

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31 The Return Migration as One of the Possibilities of Migrant Mobility after the Financial Crisis

Authors: Sabrina Mortet

Abstract:

The economic crisis, which struck the world economy in mid-2008, had an impact on migration in Europe, especially the employment situation of migrant workers. That’s why migrants tended to be the first to lose their jobs during the crisis, victims of the rule "last–in, first-out”. In the same context, the economic recession which affected the migration flows, immigration level has slowed while emigration has increased in some European countries. Since people go where jobs are, we will try to speak about the mobility of migrants after the crisis by focusing on return migration to see if migrants in the period of recession prefer going home or staying in the host country; and we will take Spain as a case of study, because it had attracted an extraordinarily high inflows of migration and it is one of the EU country which was hardly affected by the financial crisis.

Keywords: Mobility, International Migration, Economic Crisis, return migration, employement

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30 Comparative Analysis between Wired and Wireless Technologies in Communications: A Review

Authors: Tonga Agadi Danladi, Jafaru Ibrahim, Haruna Sani

Abstract:

Many telecommunications industry are looking for new ways to maximize their investment in communication networks while ensuring reliable and secure information transmission. There is a variety of communications medium solutions, the two must popularly in used are wireless technology and wired options, such as copper and fiber-optic cable. Wired network has proven its potential in the olden days but nowadays wireless communication has emerged as a robust and most intellect and preferred communication technique. Each of these types of communication medium has their advantages and disadvantages according to its technological characteristics. Wired and wireless networking has different hardware requirements, ranges, mobility, reliability and benefits. The aim of the paper is to compare both the Wired and Wireless medium on the basis of various parameters such as usability, cost, efficiency, flexibility, coverage, reliability, mobility, speed, security etc.

Keywords: Mobility, Security, Wireless, Reliability, Cost, Speed, wired

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29 Urban Corridor Management Strategy Based on Intelligent Transportation System

Authors: Sourabh Jain, Sukhvir Singh Jain, Gaurav V. Jain

Abstract:

Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is the application of technology for developing a user–friendly transportation system for urban areas in developing countries. The goal of urban corridor management using ITS in road transport is to achieve improvements in mobility, safety, and the productivity of the transportation system within the available facilities through the integrated application of advanced monitoring, communications, computer, display, and control process technologies, both in the vehicle and on the road. This paper attempts to present the past studies regarding several ITS available that have been successfully deployed in urban corridors of India and abroad, and to know about the current scenario and the methodology considered for planning, design, and operation of Traffic Management Systems. This paper also presents the endeavor that was made to interpret and figure out the performance of the 27.4 Km long study corridor having eight intersections and four flyovers. The corridor consisting of 6 lanes as well as 8 lanes divided road network. Two categories of data were collected on February 2016 such as traffic data (traffic volume, spot speed, delay) and road characteristics data (no. of lanes, lane width, bus stops, mid-block sections, intersections, flyovers). The instruments used for collecting the data were video camera, radar gun, mobile GPS and stopwatch. From analysis, the performance interpretations incorporated were identification of peak hours and off peak hours, congestion and level of service (LOS) at mid blocks, delay followed by the plotting speed contours and recommending urban corridor management strategies. From the analysis, it is found that ITS based urban corridor management strategies will be useful to reduce congestion, fuel consumption and pollution so as to provide comfort and efficiency to the users. The paper presented urban corridor management strategies based on sensors incorporated in both vehicles and on the roads.

Keywords: Mobility, Safety, congestion, ITS strategies

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28 Analysis and Performance of Handover in Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) Network Using OPNET Modeller

Authors: Latif Adnane, Benaatou Wafa, Pla Vicent

Abstract:

Handover is of great significance to achieve seamless connectivity in wireless networks. This paper gives an impression of the main factors which are being affected by the soft and the hard handovers techniques. To know and understand the handover process in The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) network, different statistics are calculated. This paper focuses on the quality of service (QoS) of soft and hard handover in UMTS network, which includes the analysis of received power, signal to noise radio, throughput, delay traffic, traffic received, delay, total transmit load, end to end delay and upload response time using OPNET simulator.

Keywords: Mobility, Simulation, handover, UMTS, OPNET modeler

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27 International Retirement Migration of Westerners to Thailand: Well-Being and Future Migration Plans

Authors: Kanokwan Tangchitnusorn, Patcharawalai Wongboonsin

Abstract:

Following the ‘Golden Age of Welfare’ which enabled post-war prosperity to European citizens in 1950s, the world has witnessed the increasing mobility across borders of older citizens of First World countries. Then, in 1990s, the international retirement migration (IRM) of older persons has become a prominent trend, in which, it requires the integration of several fields of knowledge to explain, i.e. migration studies, tourism studies, as well as, social gerontology. However, while the studies of the IRM to developed destinations in Europe (e.g. Spain, Malta, Portugal, Italy), and the IRM to developing countries like Mexico, Panama, and Morocco have been largely studied in recent decades due to their massive migration volume, the study of the IRM to remoter destinations has been far more relatively sparse and incomplete. Developing countries in Southeast Asia have noticed the increasing number of retired expats, particularly to Thailand, where the number of foreigners applying for retirement visa increased from 10,709 in 2005 to 60,046 in 2014. Additionally, it was evident that the majority of Thailand’s retirement visa applicants were Westerners, i.e. citizens of the United Kingdom, the United States, Germany, and the Nordic countries, respectively. As such trend just becoming popular in Thailand in recent decades, little is known about the IRM populations, their well-being, and their future migration plans. This study aimed to examine the subjective wellbeing or the self-evaluations of own well-being among Western retirees in Thailand, as well as, their future migration plans as whether they planned to stay here for life or otherwise. The author employed a mixed method to obtain both quantitative and qualitative data during October 2015 – May 2016, including 330 self-administered questionnaires (246 online and 84 hard-copied responses), and 21 in-depth interviews of the Western residents in Nan (2), Pattaya (4), and Chiang Mai (15). As derived from the integration of previous subjective well-being measurements (i.e. Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI), Global AgeWatch Index, and OECD guideline on measuring subjective wellbeing), this study would measure the subjective well-being of Western retirees in Thailand in 7 dimensions, including standard of living, health status, personal relationships, social connections, environmental quality, personal security and local infrastructure.

Keywords: Mobility, Ageing, Wellbeing, Thailand, international retirement migration, Western

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26 Mobility and Effective Regulatory Policies in the 21st Century Transport Sector

Authors: Pedro Paulino

Abstract:

The majority of the world’s population is already living in urban areas and the urban population is expected to keep increasing in the next decades. This exponential increase in urban population carries with it obvious mobility problems. Not only a new paradigm in the transport sector is needed in order to address these problems; effective regulatory policies to ensure the quality of services, passenger rights, competition between operators and consistency of the entire mobile ecosystem are needed as well. The purpose of this paper is to present the problems the world faces in this sector and contribute to their solution. Indeed, our study concludes that only through the active supervision of the markets and the activity of monitoring the various operators will it be possible to develop a sustainable and efficient transport system which meets the needs of a changing world.

Keywords: Mobility, Sustainable transport, regulation policies, sanctioning powers

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25 Gendered Mobility: Deep Distributions in Urban Transport Systems in Delhi

Authors: Nidhi Prabha

Abstract:

Transportation as a sector is one of the most significant infrastructural elements of the ‘urban.' The distinctness of an urban life in a city is marked by the dynamic movements that it enables within the city-space. Therefore it is important to study the public-transport systems that enable and foster mobility which characterizes the urban. It is also crucial to underscore the way one is examining the urban transport systems - either as an infrastructural unit in a strict physical-structural sense or as a structural unit which acts as a prism refracting multiple experiences depending on the location of the ‘commuter.' In the proposed paper, the attempt is to uncover and investigate the assumption of the neuter-commuter by looking at urban transportation in the secondary sense i.e. as a structural unit which is experienced differently by different kinds of commuters, thus making transportation deeply distributed with various social structures and locations like class or gender which map onto the transport systems. To this end, the public-transit systems operating in Urban Delhi i.e. the Delhi Metros and the Delhi Transport Corporation run public-buses are looked at as case studies. The study is premised on the knowledge and data gained from both primary and secondary sources. Primary sources include data and knowledge collected from fieldwork, the methodology for which has ranged from adopting ‘mixed-methods’ which is ‘Qualitative-then-Quantitative’ as well as borrowing ethnographic techniques. Apart from fieldwork, other primary sources looked at including Annual Reports and policy documents of the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) and the Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC), Union and Delhi budgets, Economic Survey of Delhi, press releases, etc. Secondary sources include the vast array of literature available on the critical nodes that inform the research like gender, transport geographies, urban-space, etc. The study indicates a deeply-distributed urban transport system wherein the various social-structural locations or different kinds of commuters map onto the way these different commuters experience mobility or movement within the city space. Mobility or movement, therefore, becomes gendered or has class-based ramifications. The neuter-commuter assumption is thus challenged. Such an understanding enables us to challenge the anonymity which the ‘urban’ otherwise claims it provides over the rural. The rural is opposed to the urban wherein urban ushers a modern way of life, breaking ties of traditional social identities. A careful study of the transport systems through the traveling patterns and choices of the commuters, however, indicate that this does not hold true as even the same ‘public-space’ of the transport systems allocates different places to different kinds of commuters. The central argument made though the research done is therefore that infrastructure like urban-transport-systems has to be studied and examined as seen beyond just a physical structure. The various experiences of daily mobility of different kinds of commuters have to be taken into account in order to design and plan more inclusive transport systems.

Keywords: Mobility, Gender, Infrastructure, urban-transport-systems

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24 City Buses and Sustainable Urban Mobility in Kano Metropolis 1967-2015: An Historical Perspective

Authors: Yusuf Umar Madugu

Abstract:

Since its creation in 1967, Kano has tremendously undergone political, social and economic transformations. Public urban transportation has been playing a vital role in sustaining economic growth of Kano metropolis, especially with the existence of modern buses with the regular network of roads, in all the main centers of trade. This study, therefore, centers on the role of intra-city buses in molding the economy of Kano. Its main focus is post-colonial Kano (i.e. 1967-2015), a period that witnessed rapid expansion of commercial activities and ever increasing urbanization which goes along with it population explosion. The commuters patronized the urban transport, a situation that made the business lucrative. More so, the traders who had come from within and outside Kano relied heavily on commercial vehicles to transport their merchandise to their various destinations. Commercial road transport system, therefore, had become well organized in Kano with a significant number of people earning their means of livelihood from it. It also serves as a source of revenue to governments at different levels. However, the study of transport and development as an academic discipline is inter-disciplinary in nature. This study, therefore, employs the services and the methodologies of other disciplines such as Geography, History, Urban and Regional Planning, Engineering, Computer Science, Economics, etc. to provide a comprehensive picture of the issues under investigation. The source materials for this study included extensive use of written literature and oral information. In view of the crucial importance of intra-city commercial transport services, this study demonstrates its role in the overall economic transformation of the study area. It generally also, contributed in opening up a new ground and looked into the history of commercial transport system. At present, Kano Metropolitan area is located between latitude 110 50’ and 12007’, and longitude 80 22’ and 80 47’ within the Semi-Arid Sudan Savannah Zone of West Africa about 840kilometers of the edge of the Sahara desert. The Metropolitan area has expanded over the years and has become the third largest conurbation in Nigeria with a population of about 4million. It is made up of eight local government areas viz: Kano Municipal, Gwale, Dala, Tarauni, Nasarawa, Fage, Ungogo, and Kumbotso.

Keywords: Mobility, Sustainable, Assessment, City, buses

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