Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Mobile robot Related Abstracts

21 Reductive Control in the Management of Redundant Actuation

Authors: Mkhinini Maher, Knani Jilani


We present in this work the performances of a mobile omnidirectional robot through evaluating its management of the redundancy of actuation. Thus we come to the predictive control implemented. The distribution of the wringer on the robot actions, through the inverse pseudo of Moore-Penrose, corresponds to a -geometric- distribution of efforts. We will show that the load on vehicle wheels would not be equi-distributed in terms of wheels configuration and of robot movement. Thus, the threshold of sliding is not the same for the three wheels of the vehicle. We suggest exploiting the redundancy of actuation to reduce the risk of wheels sliding and to ameliorate, thereby, its accuracy of displacement. This kind of approach was the subject of study for the legged robots.

Keywords: Mobile robot, redundancy, Actuation, omnidirectional, inverse pseudo moore-penrose, reductive control

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20 Design and Implementation of a Control System for a Walking Robot with Color Sensing and Line following Using PIC and ATMEL Microcontrollers

Authors: Ibraheem K. Ibraheem


The aim of this research is to design and implement line-tracking mobile robot. The robot must follow a line drawn on the floor with different color, avoids hitting moving object like another moving robot or walking people and achieves color sensing. The control system reacts by controlling each of the motors to keep the tracking sensor over the middle of the line. Proximity sensors used to avoid hitting moving objects that may pass in front of the robot. The programs have been written using micro c instructions, then converted into PIC16F887 ATmega48/88/168 microcontrollers counterparts. Practical simulations show that the walking robot accurately achieves line following action and exactly recognizes the colors and avoids any obstacle in front of it.

Keywords: Mobile robot, H-Bridge, obstacle avoidance, color sensing, line following, PIC microcontroller, phototransistor

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19 Controlled Mobile Platform for Service Based Humanoid Robot System

Authors: Shrikant V. Sangludkar, Dilip I. Sangotra, Sachin T. Bagde, Abhijeet A. Khandagale


The paper discloses a controlled tracked humanoid robot moving platform. A driving and driven wheel are controlled by a control module to drive a robot body to move according to data signals of a monitoring module, in addition, remote transmission can be achieved, and a certain remote control function can be realized. A power management module circuit board looks after in used for providing electric drive for moving of the robot body and distribution of separate power source to be used in internal of robot system. An external port circuit board is arranged, the tracked robot moving platform can be used immediately for any data acquisition. The moving platform is simple and compact in structure, strong in adaptation performance, stable in operation and suitable for being operated in severe environments. Meanwhile, a layered modular installation structure is adopted, and therefore the moving platform is convenient to assemble and disassemble.

Keywords: Communication, Mobile robot, Humanoid Robot, Self-Localization, obstacle avoidance, moving platform, embedded controlled drive, museum robots

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18 OmniDrive Model of a Holonomic Mobile Robot

Authors: Hussein Altartouri


In this paper the kinematic and kinetic models of an omnidirectional holonomic mobile robot is presented. The kinematic and kinetic models form the OmniDrive model. Therefore, a mathematical model for the robot equipped with three- omnidirectional wheels is derived. This model which takes into consideration the kinematics and kinetics of the robot, is developed to state space representation. Relative analysis of the velocities and displacements is used for the kinematics of the robot. Lagrange’s approach is considered in this study for deriving the equation of motion. The drive train and the mechanical assembly only of the Festo Robotino® is considered in this model. Mainly the model is developed for motion control. Furthermore, the model can be used for simulation purposes in different virtual environments not only Robotino® View. Further use of the model is in the mechatronics research fields with the aim of teaching and learning the advanced control theories.

Keywords: Mobile robot, mathematical model, omni-direction wheel, holonomic mobile robot

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17 Two Wheels Differential Type Odometry for Robot

Authors: Abhishek Jha, Manoj Kumar


This paper proposes a new type of two wheels differential type odometry to estimate the next position and orientation of mobile robots. The proposed odometry is composed for two independent wheels with respective encoders. The two wheels rotate independently, and the change is determined by the difference in the velocity of the two wheels. Angular velocities of the two wheels are measured by rotary encoders. A mathematical model is proposed for the mobile robots to precisely move towards the goal. Using measured values of the two encoders, the current displacement vector of a mobile robot is calculated by kinematics of the mathematical model. Using the displacement vector, the next position and orientation of the mobile robot are estimated by proposed odometry. Result of simulator experiment by the developed odometry is shown.

Keywords: Mobile robot, odometry, unicycle, differential type, encoders, infrared range sensors, kinematic model

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16 A Spiral Dynamic Optimised Hybrid Fuzzy Logic Controller for a Unicycle Mobile Robot on Irregular Terrains

Authors: Abdullah M. Almeshal, Mohammad R. Alenezi, Talal H. Alzanki


This paper presents a hybrid fuzzy logic control strategy for a unicycle trajectory following robot on irregular terrains. In literature, researchers have presented the design of path tracking controllers of mobile robots on non-frictional surface. In this work, the robot is simulated to drive on irregular terrains with contrasting frictional profiles of peat and rough gravel. A hybrid fuzzy logic controller is utilised to stabilise and drive the robot precisely with the predefined trajectory and overcome the frictional impact. The controller gains and scaling factors were optimised using spiral dynamics optimisation algorithm to minimise the mean square error of the linear and angular velocities of the unicycle robot. The robot was simulated on various frictional surfaces and terrains and the controller was able to stabilise the robot with a superior performance that is shown via simulation results.

Keywords: Mobile robot, Fuzzy logic control, trajectory tracking, spiral dynamic algorithm

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15 Development of a Weed Suppression Robot for Rice Cultivation Weed Suppression and Posture Control

Authors: Shohei Nakai, Yasuhiro Yamada


Weed suppression and weeding are necessary measures for rice cultivation. Weed suppression precedes the process of weeding. It means suppressing the growth of young weeds and creating a weed-less environment. If we suppress the growth of weeds, we can reduce the number of weeds in a paddy field. This would result in a reduction of the weeding work load. In this paper, we will show how we developed a weed suppression robot for the purpose of reducing the weeding work load. The robot has a laser range finder for autonomous mobility and a robot arm for weed suppression. It travels along the rice rows without stepping on and injuring the rice plants in a paddy field. The robot arm applies force to the weed seedlings and thereby suppresses the growth of weeds. This paper will explain the methodology of the autonomous mobile, the experiment in weed suppression, and the method of controlling the robot’s posture on uneven ground.

Keywords: Mobile robot, paddy field, robot arm, weed

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14 Limit-Cycles Method for the Navigation and Avoidance of Any Form of Obstacles for Mobile Robots in Cluttered Environment

Authors: F. Boufera, F. Debbat


This paper deals with an approach based on limit-cycles method for the problem of obstacle avoidance of mobile robots in unknown environments for any form of obstacles. The purpose of this approach is the improvement of limit-cycles method in order to obtain safe and flexible navigation. The proposed algorithm has been successfully tested in different configuration on simulation.

Keywords: Navigation, Mobile robot, avoidance of obstacles, limit-cycles method

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13 The Follower Robots Tested in Different Lighting Condition and Improved Capabilities

Authors: Sultan Muhammed Fatih Apaydin


In this study, two types of robot were examined as being pioneer robot and follower robot for improving of the capabilities of tracking robots. Robots continue to tracking each other and measurement of the follow-up distance between them is very important for improvements to be applied. It was achieved that the follower robot follows the pioneer robot in line with intended goals. The tests were applied to the robots in various grounds and environments in point of performance and necessary improvements were implemented by measuring the results of these tests.

Keywords: Mobile robot, Arduino, remote and autonomous control, infra-red sensors

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12 Bilateral Telecontrol of AutoMerlin Mobile Robot Using Time Domain Passivity Control

Authors: Aamir Shahzad, Hubert Roth


This paper is presenting the bilateral telecontrol of AutoMerlin Mobile Robot having communication delay. Passivity Observers has been designed to monitor the net energy at both ports of a two port network and if any or both ports become active making net energy negative, then the passivity controllers dissipate the proper energy to make the overall system passive in the presence of time delay. The environment force is modeled and sent back to human operator so that s/he can feel it and has additional information about the environment in the vicinity of mobile robot. The experimental results have been presented to show the performance and stability of bilateral controller. The results show the whenever the passivity observers observe active behavior then the passivity controller come into action to neutralize the active behavior to make overall system passive.

Keywords: Communication Network, Mobile robot, Time Delay, bilateral control, human operator, haptic device, time domain passivity control, passivity observer, passivity controller, environment force

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11 Integration of Internet-Accessible Resources in the Field of Mobile Robots

Authors: B. Madhevan, R. Sakkaravarthi, R. Diya


The number and variety of mobile robot applications are increasing day by day, both in an industry and in our daily lives. First developed as a tool, nowadays mobile robots can be integrated as an entity in Internet-accessible resources. The present work is organized around four potential resources such as cloud computing, Internet of things, Big data analysis and Co-simulation. Further, the focus relies on integrating, analyzing and discussing the need for integrating Internet-accessible resources and the challenges deriving from such integration, and how these issues have been tackled. Hence, the research work investigates the concepts of the Internet-accessible resources from the aspect of the autonomous mobile robots with an overview of the performances of the currently available database systems. IaR is a world-wide network of interconnected objects, can be considered an evolutionary process in mobile robots. IaR constitutes an integral part of future Internet with data analysis, consisting of both physical and virtual things.

Keywords: Internet of Things, Cloud Computing, Mobile robot, Big Data Analysis, internet-accessible resources

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10 Lyapunov-Based Tracking Control for Nonholonomic Wheeled Mobile Robot

Authors: Raouf Fareh, Maarouf Saad, Sofiane Khadraoui, Tamer Rabie


This paper presents a tracking control strategy based on Lyapunov approach for nonholonomic wheeled mobile robot. This control strategy consists of two levels. First, a kinematic controller is developed to adjust the right and left wheel velocities. Using this velocity control law, the stability of the tracking error is guaranteed using Lyapunov approach. This kinematic controller cannot be generated directly by the motors. To overcome this problem, the second level of the controllers, dynamic control, is designed. This dynamic control law is developed based on Lyapunov theory in order to track the desired trajectories of the mobile robot. The stability of the tracking error is proved using Lupunov and Barbalat approaches. Simulation results on a nonholonomic wheeled mobile robot are given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the presented approach.

Keywords: Stability, Mobile robot, Lyapunov, trajectory tracking

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9 Telecontrolled Service Robots for Increasing the Quality of Life of Elderly and Disabled

Authors: Nayden Chivarov, Denis Chikurtev, Kaloyan Yovchev, Nedko Shivarov


This paper represents methods for improving the efficiency and precision of service mobile robot. This robot is used for increasing the quality of life of elderly and disabled people. The key concept of the proposed Intelligent Service Mobile Robot is its easier adaptability to achieve services for a wide range of Elderly or Disabled Person’s needs, by performing different tasks for supporting Elderly or Disabled Persons care. We developed robot autonomous navigation and computer vision systems in order to recognize different objects and bring them to the people. Web based user interface is developed to provide easy access and tele-control of the robot by any device through the internet. In this study algorithms for object recognition and localization are proposed for providing successful object recognition and accuracy in the positioning. Different methods for sending movement commands to the mobile robot system are proposed and evaluated. After executing some experiments to show the results of the research, we can summarize that these systems and algorithms provide good control of the service mobile robot and it will be more useful to help the elderly and disabled persons.

Keywords: Computer Vision, Mobile robot, autonomous navigation, ROS, service robot, web user interface

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8 Virtual 3D Environments for Image-Based Navigation Algorithms

Authors: V. B. Bastos, M. P. Lima, P. R. G. Kurka


This paper applies to the creation of virtual 3D environments for the study and development of mobile robot image based navigation algorithms and techniques, which need to operate robustly and efficiently. The test of these algorithms can be performed in a physical way, from conducting experiments on a prototype, or by numerical simulations. Current simulation platforms for robotic applications do not have flexible and updated models for image rendering, being unable to reproduce complex light effects and materials. Thus, it is necessary to create a test platform that integrates sophisticated simulated applications of real environments for navigation, with data and image processing. This work proposes the development of a high-level platform for building 3D model’s environments and the test of image-based navigation algorithms for mobile robots. Techniques were used for applying texture and lighting effects in order to accurately represent the generation of rendered images regarding the real world version. The application will integrate image processing scripts, trajectory control, dynamic modeling and simulation techniques for physics representation and picture rendering with the open source 3D creation suite - Blender.

Keywords: Simulation, Data Visualization, Mobile robot, Visual Navigation

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7 Control Strategies for a Robot for Interaction with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Vinicius Binotte, Guilherme Baldo, Christiane Goulart, Carlos Valadão, Eliete Caldeira, Teodiano Bastos


Socially assistive robotic has become increasingly active and it is present in therapies of people affected for several neurobehavioral conditions, such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In fact, robots have played a significant role for positive interaction with children with ASD, by stimulating their social and cognitive skills. This work introduces a mobile socially-assistive robot, which was built for interaction with children with ASD, using non-linear control techniques for this interaction.

Keywords: autism, Mobile robot, Autonomous Control, Socially Assistive Robotics

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6 Hydrodynamics of Undulating Ribbon-fin and Its Application in Bionic Underwater Robot

Authors: Zhang Jun, Zhai Shucheng, Bai Yaqiang, Zhang Guoping


The Gymnarchus Niioticus fish(GNF) cruises generally with high efficiency by undulating ribbon-fin propulsion while keeping its body for straight line. The swing amplitude of GNF fins is usually in 60° to 90°, and in normal state the amplitude is close to 90°, only in the control of hovering or swimming at very low speed, the amplitude is smaller (about 60°). It provides inspiration for underwater robot design. In the paper, the unsteady flow of undulating ribbon-fin propulsion is numerical simulated by the dynamic grid technique including spring-based smoothing model and local grid remeshing to adapt to the fin surface significantly deforming, and the swing amplitude of fin ray reaches 850. The numerical simulation method is validated by thrust experiments. The spatial vortex structure and its evolution with phase angle is analyzed. The propulsion mechanism is investigated by comprehensive analysis of the hydrodynamics, vortex structure, and pressure distribution on the fin surface. The numerical results indicates that there are mainly three kinds of vortexes, i.e. streamwise vortex, crescent vortex and toroidal vortex. The intensity of streamwise vortex is the strongest among all kinds of vortexes. Streamwise vortexes and crescent vortexes all alternately distribute on the two sides of mid-sagittal plane. Inside the crescent vortexes is high-speed flow, while outside is low-speed flow. The crescent vortexes mainly induce high-speed axial jet, which produces the primary thrust. This is hydrodynamic mechanism undulating ribbon-fin propulsion. The streamwise vortexes mainly induce the vertical jet, which generates the primary heave force. The effect on hydrodynamics of main geometry and movement parameters including wave length, amplitude and advanced coefficients is investigated. A bionic underwater robot with bilateral undulating ribbon-fins is designed, and its navigation performance and maneuverability are measured.

Keywords: Mobile robot, underwater robot, bionic propulsion, undulating ribbon-fins

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5 Application of Fuzzy Logic to Design and Coordinate Parallel Behaviors for a Humanoid Mobile Robot

Authors: Nguyen Chan Hung, Mai Ngoc Anh, Nguyen Xuan Ha, Tran Xuan Duc, Dang Bao Lam, Nguyen Hoang Viet


This paper presents a design and implementation of a navigation controller for a humanoid mobile robot platform to operate in indoor office environments. In order to fulfil the requirement of recognizing and approaching human to provide service while avoiding random obstacles, a behavior-based fuzzy logic controller was designed to simultaneously coordinate multiple behaviors. Experiments in real office environment showed that the fuzzy controller deals well with complex scenarios without colliding with random objects and human.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, Mobile robot, Humanoid Robot, behavior control

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4 Robot Navigation and Localization Based on the Rat’s Brain Signals

Authors: Endri Rama, Genci Capi, Shigenori Kawahara


The mobile robot ability to navigate autonomously in its environment is very important. Even though the advances in technology, robot self-localization and goal directed navigation in complex environments are still challenging tasks. In this article, we propose a novel method for robot navigation based on rat’s brain signals (Local Field Potentials). It has been well known that rats accurately and rapidly navigate in a complex space by localizing themselves in reference to the surrounding environmental cues. As the first step to incorporate the rat’s navigation strategy into the robot control, we analyzed the rats’ strategies while it navigates in a multiple Y-maze, and recorded Local Field Potentials (LFPs) simultaneously from three brain regions. Next, we processed the LFPs, and the extracted features were used as an input in the artificial neural network to predict the rat’s next location, especially in the decision-making moment, in Y-junctions. We developed an algorithm by which the robot learned to imitate the rat’s decision-making by mapping the rat’s brain signals into its own actions. Finally, the robot learned to integrate the internal states as well as external sensors in order to localize and navigate in the complex environment.

Keywords: Neural Network, Mobile robot, Decision-making, brain-machine interface

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3 Hand Controlled Mobile Robot Applied in Virtual Environment

Authors: Jozsef Katona, Attila Kovari, Tibor Ujbanyi, Gergely Sziladi


By the development of IT systems, human-computer interaction is also developing even faster and newer communication methods become available in human-machine interaction. In this article, the application of a hand gesture controlled human-computer interface is being introduced through the example of a mobile robot. The control of the mobile robot is implemented in a realistic virtual environment that is advantageous regarding the aspect of different tests, parallel examinations, so the purchase of expensive equipment is unnecessary. The usability of the implemented hand gesture control has been evaluated by test subjects. According to the opinion of the testing subjects, the system can be well used, and its application would be recommended on other application fields too.

Keywords: Mobile robot, Virtual Environment, human-machine interface (HCI), hand control

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2 Energy Management Techniques in Mobile Robots

Authors: G. Gurguze, I. Turkoglu


Today, the developing features of technological tools with limited energy resources have made it necessary to use energy efficiently. Energy management techniques have emerged for this purpose. As with every field, energy management is vital for robots that are being used in many areas from industry to daily life and that are thought to take up more spaces in the future. Particularly, effective power management in autonomous and multi robots, which are getting more complicated and increasing day by day, will improve the performance and success. In this study, robot management algorithms, usage of renewable and hybrid energy sources, robot motion patterns, robot designs, sharing strategies of workloads in multiple robots, road and mission planning algorithms are discussed for efficient use of energy resources by mobile robots. These techniques have been evaluated in terms of efficient use of existing energy resources and energy management in robots.

Keywords: Energy Management, Mobile robot, Robot Planning, robot administration, robot management

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1 An Efficient Robot Navigation Model in a Multi-Target Domain amidst Static and Dynamic Obstacles

Authors: Michael Ayomoh, Adriaan Roux, Oyindamola Omotuyi


This paper presents an efficient robot navigation model in a multi-target domain amidst static and dynamic workspace obstacles. The problem is that of developing an optimal algorithm to minimize the total travel time of a robot as it visits all target points within its task domain amidst unknown workspace obstacles and finally return to its initial position. In solving this problem, a classical algorithm was first developed to compute the optimal number of paths to be travelled by the robot amidst the network of paths. The principle of shortest distance between robot and targets was used to compute the target point visitation order amidst workspace obstacles. Algorithm premised on the standard polar coordinate system was developed to determine the length of obstacles encountered by the robot hence giving room for a geometrical estimation of the total surface area occupied by the obstacle especially when classified as a relevant obstacle i.e. obstacle that lies in between a robot and its potential visitation point. A stochastic model was developed and used to estimate the likelihood of a dynamic obstacle bumping into the robot’s navigation path and finally, the navigation/obstacle avoidance algorithm was hinged on the hybrid virtual force field (HVFF) method. Significant modelling constraints herein include the choice of navigation path to selected target points, the possible presence of static obstacles along a desired navigation path and the likelihood of encountering a dynamic obstacle along the robot’s path and the chances of it remaining at this position as a static obstacle hence resulting in a case of re-routing after routing. The proposed algorithm demonstrated a high potential for optimal solution in terms of efficiency and effectiveness.

Keywords: Mobile robot, multi-target, optimal path, static obstacles, dynamic obstacles

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