Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

mixed convection Related Abstracts

22 Entropy Production in Mixed Convection in a Horizontal Porous Channel Using Darcy-Brinkman Formulation

Authors: Mourad Magherbi, Amel Tayari, Atef Eljerry


The paper reports a numerical investigation of the entropy generation analysis due to mixed convection in laminar flow through a channel filled with porous media. The second law of thermodynamics is applied to investigate the entropy generation rate. The Darcy-Brinkman Model is employed. The entropy generation due to heat transfer and friction dissipations has been determined in mixed convection by solving numerically the continuity, momentum and energy equations, using a control volume finite element method. The effects of Darcy number, modified Brinkman number and the Rayleigh number on averaged entropy generation and averaged Nusselt number are investigated. The Rayleigh number varied between 103 ≤ Ra ≤ 105 and the modified Brinkman number ranges between 10-5 ≤ Br≤ 10-1 with fixed values of porosity and Reynolds number at 0.5 and 10 respectively. The Darcy number varied between 10-6 ≤ Da ≤10.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Numerical Methods, Porous Media, entropy generation, mixed convection, darcy, brinkman

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21 Dual Solutions in Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow: A Stability Analysis

Authors: Anuar Ishak


The mixed convection stagnation point flow toward a vertical plate is investigated. The external flow impinges normal to the heated plate and the surface temperature is assumed to vary linearly with the distance from the stagnation point. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations, which are then solved numerically using MATLAB routine boundary value problem solver bvp4c. Numerical results show that dual solutions are possible for a certain range of the mixed convection parameter. A stability analysis is performed to determine which solution is linearly stable and physically realizable.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Stability Analysis, mixed convection, dual solutions

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20 Effect of Magnetic Field on Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow over an Exponentially Shrinking Vertical Sheet with Suction

Authors: N. Bachok, N. M. Arifin, F. M. Ali, R. Nazar, I. Pop, S. S. P. M. Isa


A theoretical study has been presented to describe the boundary layer flow and heat transfer on an exponentially shrinking sheet with a variable wall temperature and suction, in the presence of magnetic field. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by similarity transformation, which are then solved numerically using the shooting method. Results for the skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, velocity profiles as well as temperature profiles are presented through graphs and tables for several sets of values of the parameters. The effects of the governing parameters on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are thoroughly examined.

Keywords: Magnetic Field, mixed convection, exponentially shrinking sheet, suction

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19 Magneto-Hydrodynamic Mixed Convection of Water-Al2O3 Nanofluid in a Wavy Lid-Driven Cavity

Authors: Farshid Fathinia


This paper examines numerically the laminar steady magneto-hydrodynamic mixed convection flow and heat transfer in a wavy lid-driven cavity filled with water-Al2O3 nanofluid using FDM method. The left and right sidewalls of the cavity have a wavy geometry and are maintained at a cold and hot temperature, respectively. The top and bottom walls are considered flat and insulated while, the bottom wall moves from left to right direction with a uniform lid-driven velocity. A magnetic field is applied vertically downward on the bottom wall of the cavity. Based on the numerical results, the effects of the dominant parameters such as Rayleigh number, Hartmann number, solid volume fraction, and wavy wall geometry parameters are examined. The numerical results are obtained for Hartmann number varying as 0 ≤ Ha ≤ 0.6, Rayleigh numbers varying as 103≤ Ra ≤105, and the solid volume fractions varying as 0 ≤ φ ≤ 0.0003. Comparisons with previously published numerical works on mixed convection in a nanofluid filled cavity are performed and good agreements between the results are observed. It is found that the flow circulation and mean Nusselt number decrease as the solid volume fraction and Hartmann number increase. Moreover, the convection enhances when the amplitude ratio of the wavy surface increases. The results also show that both the flow and thermal fields are significantly affected by the amplitude ratio (i.e., wave form) of the wavy wall.

Keywords: Nanofluid, Magnetic Field, mixed convection, wavy cavity, lid-driven, SPH method

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18 Mixed Convective Heat Transfer in Water-Based Al2O3 Nanofluid in Horizontal Rectangular Duct

Authors: Nur Irmawati, H. A. Mohammed


In the present study, mixed convection in a horizontal rectangular duct using Al2O3 is numerically investigated. The effects of different Rayleigh number, Reynolds number and radiation on flow and heat transfer characteristics were studied in detail. This study covers Rayleigh number in the range of 2×106≤Ra≤2×107 and Reynolds number in the range of 100≤Re≤1100. Results reveal that the Nusselt number increases as Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers increase. It was also found that the dimensionless temperature distribution increases as Rayleigh number increases.

Keywords: Numerical Simulation, Nanofluids, mixed convection, horizontal rectangular duct

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17 Analysis of Heat Transfer in a Closed Cavity Ventilated Inside

Authors: Benseghir Omar, Bahmed Mohamed


In this work, we presented a numerical study of the phenomenon of heat transfer through the laminar, incompressible and steady mixed convection in a closed square cavity with the left vertical wall of the cavity is subjected to a warm temperature, while the right wall is considered to be cold. The horizontal walls are assumed adiabatic. The governing equations were discretized by finite volume method on a staggered mesh and the SIMPLER algorithm was used for the treatment of velocity-pressure coupling. The numerical simulations were performed for a wide range of Reynolds numbers 1, 10, 100, and 1000 numbers are equal to 0.01,0.1 Richardson, 0.5,1 and 10.The analysis of the results shows a flow bicellular (two cells), one is created by the speed of the fan placed in the inner cavity, one on the left is due to the difference between the temperatures right wall and the left wall. Knowledge of the intensity of each of these cells allowed us to get an original result. And the values obtained from each of Nuselt convection which allow to know the rate of heat transfer in the cavity.Finally we find that there is a significant influence on the position of the fan on the heat transfer (Nusselt evolution) for values of Reynolds studied and for low values of Richardson handed this influence is negligible for high values of the latter.

Keywords: mixed convection, finite volume method, thermal transfer, square cavity

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16 Study of Mixed Convection in a Vertical Channel Filled with a Reactive Porous Medium in the Absence of Local Thermal Equilibrium

Authors: Hamid Maidat, Khedidja Bouhadef, Djamel Eddine Ameziani, Azzedine Abdedou


This work consists of a numerical simulation of convective heat transfer in a vertical plane channel filled with a heat generating porous medium, in the absence of local thermal equilibrium. The walls are maintained to a constant temperature and the inlet velocity is uniform. The dynamic range is described by the Darcy-Brinkman model and the thermal field by two energy equations model. A dimensionless formulation is developed for performing a parametric study based on certain dimensionless groups such as, the Biot interstitial number, the thermal conductivity ratio and the volumetric heat generation. The governing equations are solved using the finite volume method, gave rise to a multitude of results concerning in particular the thermal field in the porous channel and the existence or not of the local thermal equilibrium.

Keywords: Power Generation, porous medium, mixed convection, local thermal non equilibrium model

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15 Numerical Study of Mixed Convection Coupled to Radiation in a Square Cavity with a Lid-Driven

Authors: Belmiloud Mohamed Amine, Sad Chemloul Nord-Eddine


In this study we investigated numerically heat transfer by mixed convection coupled to radiation in a square cavity; the upper horizontal wall is movable. The purpose of this study is to see the influence of the emissivity and the varying of the Richardson number on the variation of the average Nusselt number. The vertical walls of the cavity are differentially heated, the left wall is maintained at a uniform temperature higher than the right wall, and the two horizontal walls are adiabatic. The finite volume method is used for solving the dimensionless governing equations. Emissivity values used in this study are ranged between 0 and 1, the Richardson number in the range 0.1 to10. The Rayleigh number is fixed to Ra = 10000 and the Prandtl number is maintained constant Pr = 0.71. Streamlines, isothermal lines and the average Nusselt number are presented according to the surface emissivity. The results of this study show that the Richardson number and emissivity affect the average Nusselt number.

Keywords: numerical study, mixed convection, lid-driven, square cavity, wall emissivity

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14 Effects of G-jitter Combined with Heat and Mass Transfer by Mixed Convection MHD Flow of Maxwell Fluid in a Porous Space

Authors: Faisal Salah, Z. A. Aziz, K. K. Viswanathan


In this article, the effects of g-jitter induced and combined with heat and mass transfer by mixed convection of MHD Maxwell fluid in microgravity situation is investigated for a simple system. This system consists of two heated vertical parallel infinite flat plates held at constant but different temperatures and concentrations. By using modified Darcy’s law, the equations governing the flow are modelled. These equations are solved analytically for the induced velocity, temperature and concentration distributions. Many interesting available results in the relevant literature (i.e. Newtonian fluid) is obtained as the special case of the present general analysis. Finally, the graphical results for the velocity profile of the oscillating flow in the channel are presented and discussed for different values of the material constants.

Keywords: Heat and Mass Transfer, porous medium, mixed convection, Maxwell fluid, g-jitter

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13 Numerical Analysis of Laminar Mixed Convection within a Complex Geometry

Authors: Y. Lasbet, A. L. Boukhalkhal, K. Loubar


The study of mixed convection is, usually, focused on the straight channels in which the onset of the mixed convection is well defined as function of the ratio between Grashof number and Reynolds number, Gr/Re. This is not the case for a complex channel wherein the mixed convection is not sufficiently examined in the literature. Our paper focuses on the study of the mixed convection in a complex geometry in which our main contribution reveals that the critical value of the ratio Gr/Re for the onset of the mixed convection increases highly in the type of geometry contrary to the straight channel. Furthermore, the accentuated secondary flow in this geometry prevents the thermal stratification in the flow and consequently the buoyancy driven becomes negligible. To perform these objectives, a numerical study in complex geometry for several values of the ratio Gr/Re with prescribed wall heat flux (H2), was realized by using the CFD code.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Complex Geometry, mixed convection, laminar flow, nusselt number

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12 Thermal Radiation Effect on Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow over a Vertical Plate with Varying Density and Volumetric Expansion Coefficient

Authors: Z. Khan, Sadia Siddiqa, M. A. Hossain


In this article, the effect of thermal radiation on mixed convection boundary layer flow of a viscous fluid along a highly heated vertical flat plate is considered with varying density and volumetric expansion coefficient. The density of the fluid is assumed to vary exponentially with temperature, however; volumetric expansion coefficient depends linearly on temperature. Boundary layer equations are transformed into convenient form by introducing primitive variable formulations. Solutions of transformed system of equations are obtained numerically through implicit finite difference method along with Gaussian elimination technique. Results are discussed in view of various parameters, like thermal radiation parameter, volumetric expansion parameter and density variation parameter on the wall shear stress and heat transfer rate. It is concluded from the present investigation that increase in volumetric expansion parameter decreases wall shear stress and enhances heat transfer rate.

Keywords: Thermal radiation, mixed convection, variable density, variable volumetric expansion coefficient

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11 CFD Investigation of Turbulent Mixed Convection Heat Transfer in a Closed Lid-Driven Cavity

Authors: S. Gao, A. Khaleel


Both steady and unsteady turbulent mixed convection heat transfer in a 3D lid-driven enclosure, which has constant heat flux on the middle of bottom wall and with isothermal moving sidewalls, is reported in this paper for working fluid with Prandtl number Pr = 0.71. The other walls are adiabatic and stationary. The dimensionless parameters used in this research are Reynolds number, Re = 5000, 10000 and 15000, and Richardson number, Ri = 1 and 10. The simulations have been done by using different turbulent methods such as RANS, URANS, and LES. The effects of using different k- models such as standard, RNG and Realizable k- model are investigated. Interesting behaviours of the thermal and flow fields with changing the Re or Ri numbers are observed. Isotherm and turbulent kinetic energy distributions and variation of local Nusselt number at the hot bottom wall are studied as well. The local Nusselt number is found increasing with increasing either Re or Ri number. In addition, the turbulent kinetic energy is discernibly affected by increasing Re number. Moreover, the LES results have shown a good ability of this method in predicting more detailed flow structures in the cavity.

Keywords: Turbulent Flow, large eddy simulation, mixed convection, lid-driven cavity, RANS model

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10 MHD Mixed Convection in a Vertical Porous Channel

Authors: Henda Kahalerras, Brahim Fersadou


This work deals with the problem of MHD mixed convection in a completely porous and differentially heated vertical channel. The model of Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer with the Boussinesq approximation is adopted and the governing equations are solved by the finite volume method. The effects of magnetic field and buoyancy force intensities are given by the Hartmann and Richardson numbers respectively, as well as the Joule heating represented by Eckert number on the velocity and temperature fields, are examined. The main results show an augmentation of heat transfer rate with the decrease of Darcy number and the increase of Ri and Ha when Joule heating is neglected.

Keywords: Magnetic Field, mixed convection, porous channel, heat sources

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9 Analysis of Three-Dimensional Longitudinal Rolls Induced by Double Diffusive Poiseuille-Rayleigh-Benard Flows in Rectangular Channels

Authors: K. Bouhadef, O. Rahli, N. Mimouni, R. Bennacer


This numerical study investigates the travelling wave’s appearance and the behavior of Poiseuille-Rayleigh-Benard (PRB) flow induced in 3D thermosolutale mixed convection (TSMC) in horizontal rectangular channels. The governing equations are discretized by using a control volume method with third order Quick scheme in approximating the advection terms. Simpler algorithm is used to handle coupling between the momentum and continuity equations. To avoid the excessively high computer time, full approximation storage (FAS) with full multigrid (FMG) method is used to solve the problem. For a broad range of dimensionless controlling parameters, the contribution of this work is to analyzing the flow regimes of the steady longitudinal thermoconvective rolls (noted R//) for both thermal and mass transfer (TSMC). The transition from the opposed volume forces to cooperating ones, considerably affects the birth and the development of the longitudinal rolls. The heat and mass transfers distribution are also examined.

Keywords: Heat and Mass Transfer, mixed convection, poiseuille-rayleigh-benard flow, rectangular duct

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8 Influence of Convective Boundary Condition on Chemically Reacting Micropolar Fluid Flow over a Truncated Cone Embedded in Porous Medium

Authors: Pradeepa Teegala, Ramreddy Chitteti


This article analyzes the mixed convection flow of chemically reacting micropolar fluid over a truncated cone embedded in non-Darcy porous medium with convective boundary condition. In addition, heat generation/absorption and Joule heating effects are taken into consideration. The similarity solution does not exist for this complex fluid flow problem, and hence non-similarity transformations are used to convert the governing fluid flow equations along with related boundary conditions into a set of nondimensional partial differential equations. Many authors have been applied the spectral quasi-linearization method to solve the ordinary differential equations, but here the resulting nonlinear partial differential equations are solved for non-similarity solution by using a recently developed method called the spectral quasi-linearization method (SQLM). Comparison with previously published work on special cases of the problem is performed and found to be in excellent agreement. The effect of pertinent parameters namely, Biot number, mixed convection parameter, heat generation/absorption, Joule heating, Forchheimer number, chemical reaction, micropolar and magnetic field on physical quantities of the flow are displayed through graphs and the salient features are explored in detail. Further, the results are analyzed by comparing with two special cases, namely, vertical plate and full cone wherever possible.

Keywords: Chemical Reaction, mixed convection, Joule heating, micropolar fluid, convective boundary condition, spectral quasi-linearization method

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7 Conjugate Mixed Convection Heat Transfer and Entropy Generation of Cu-Water Nanofluid in an Enclosure with Thick Wavy Bottom Wall

Authors: S. Bhattacharyya, Sanjib Kr Pal


Mixed convection of Cu-water nanofluid in an enclosure with thick wavy bottom wall has been investigated numerically. A co-ordinate transformation method is used to transform the computational domain into an orthogonal co-ordinate system. The governing equations in the computational domain are solved through a pressure correction based iterative algorithm. The fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are analyzed for a wide range of Richardson number (0.1 ≤ Ri ≤ 5), nanoparticle volume concentration (0.0 ≤ ϕ ≤ 0.2), amplitude (0.0 ≤ α ≤ 0.1) of the wavy thick- bottom wall and the wave number (ω) at a fixed Reynolds number. Obtained results showed that heat transfer rate increases remarkably by adding the nanoparticles. Heat transfer rate is dependent on the wavy wall amplitude and wave number and decreases with increasing Richardson number for fixed amplitude and wave number. The Bejan number and the entropy generation are determined to analyze the thermodynamic optimization of the mixed convection.

Keywords: Conjugate Heat Transfer, mixed convection, nano fluid, wall waviness

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6 Temporal and Spatio-Temporal Stability Analyses in Mixed Convection of a Viscoelastic Fluid in a Porous Medium

Authors: P. Naderi, M. N. Ouarzazi, S. C. Hirata, H. Ben Hamed, H. Beji


The stability of mixed convection in a Newtonian fluid medium heated from below and cooled from above, also known as the Poiseuille-Rayleigh-Bénard problem, has been extensively investigated in the past decades. To our knowledge, mixed convection in porous media has received much less attention in the published literature. The present paper extends the mixed convection problem in porous media for the case of a viscoelastic fluid flow owing to its numerous environmental and industrial applications such as the extrusion of polymer fluids, solidification of liquid crystals, suspension solutions and petroleum activities. Without a superimposed through-flow, the natural convection problem of a viscoelastic fluid in a saturated porous medium has already been treated. The effects of the viscoelastic properties of the fluid on the linear and nonlinear dynamics of the thermoconvective instabilities have also been treated in this work. Consequently, the elasticity of the fluid can lead either to a Hopf bifurcation, giving rise to oscillatory structures in the strongly elastic regime, or to a stationary bifurcation in the weakly elastic regime. The objective of this work is to examine the influence of the main horizontal flow on the linear and characteristics of these two types of instabilities. Under the Boussinesq approximation and Darcy's law extended to a viscoelastic fluid, a temporal stability approach shows that the conditions for the appearance of longitudinal rolls are identical to those found in the absence of through-flow. For the general three-dimensional (3D) perturbations, a Squire transformation allows the deduction of the complex frequencies associated with the 3D problem using those obtained by solving the two-dimensional one. The numerical resolution of the eigenvalue problem concludes that the through-flow has a destabilizing effect and selects a convective configuration organized in purely transversal rolls which oscillate in time and propagate in the direction of the main flow. In addition, by using the mathematical formalism of absolute and convective instabilities, we study the nature of unstable three-dimensional disturbances. It is shown that for a non-vanishing through-flow, general three-dimensional instabilities are convectively unstable which means that in the absence of a continuous noise source these instabilities are drifted outside the porous medium, and no long-term pattern is observed. In contrast, purely transversal rolls may exhibit a transition to absolute instability regime and therefore affect the porous medium everywhere including in the absence of a noise source. The absolute instability threshold, the frequency and the wave number associated with purely transversal rolls are determined as a function of the Péclet number and the viscoelastic parameters. Results are discussed and compared to those obtained from laboratory experiments in the case of Newtonian fluids.

Keywords: Instability, Porous Media, mixed convection, and viscoelastic fluid

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5 Numerical Investigation of Mixed Convection for Rarefied Gases in Square Enclosures

Authors: Wael Al-Kouz


Numerical simulations to study heat transfer and flow characteristics of mixed convection for rarefied gas in a square enclosure are utilized. Effect of the geometry in terms of the location of the inlet and exit openings are investigated. Moreover, effect of Knudsen number on the flow and heat transfer characteristics is illustrated and discussed. Results of the simulations show that there is a configuration that yields better heat transfer. This configuration is found to be the geometry in which the inlet opening is in the top left corner and the exit opening is at the bottom right corner. In addition, it is found that by increasing Knudsen number, Nusselt number will decrease.

Keywords: mixed convection, Knudsen number, square enclosure, rarefied gas

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4 Experimental on Free and Forced Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil Nanofluid in Horizontal and Inclined Microfin Tube

Authors: F. Hekmatipour, M. A. Akhavan-Behabadi, B. Sajadi


In this paper, the combined free and forced convection heat transfer of the Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil (CuO-HTO) nanofluid flow in horizontal and inclined microfin tubes is studied experimentally. The flow regime is laminar, and pipe surface temperature is constant. The effect of nanoparticle and microfin tube on the heat transfer rate is investigated with the Richardson number which is between 0.1 and 0.7. The results show an increasing nanoparticle concentration between 0% and 1.5% leads to enhance the combined free and forced convection heat transfer rate. According to the results, five correlations are proposed to provide estimating the free and forced heat transfer rate as the increasing Richardson number from 0.1 to 0.7. The maximum deviation of both correlations is less than 16%. Moreover, four correlations are suggested to assess the Nusselt number based on the Rayleigh number in inclined tubes from 1800000 to 7000000. The maximum deviation of the correlation is almost 16%. The Darcy friction factor of the nanofluid flow has been investigated. Furthermore, CuO-HTO nanofluid flows in inclined microfin tubes.

Keywords: Nanofluid, mixed convection, laminar flow, heat transfer oil, inclined tube

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3 Mixed Convection Heat Transfer of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil Nanofluid in Vertical Tube

Authors: Farhad Hekmatipour, M. A. Akhavan-Behabadi, Farzad Hekmatipour


In this paper, experiments were conducted to investigate the heat transfer of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil (CuO-HTO) nanofluid laminar flow in vertical smooth and microfin tubes as the surface temperature is constant. The effect of adding the nanoparticle to base fluid and Richardson number on the heat transfer enhancement is investigated as Richardson number increases from 0.1 to 0.7. The experimental results demonstrate that the combined forced-natural convection heat transfer rate may be improved significantly with an increment of mass nanoparticle concentration from 0% to 1.5%. In this experiment, a correlation is also proposed to predict the mixed convection heat transfer rate of CuO-HTO nanofluid flow. The maximum deviation of both correlations is less than 14%. Moreover, a correlation is presented to estimate the Nusselt number inside vertical smooth and microfin tubes as Rayleigh number is between 2´105 and 6.8´106 with the maximum deviation of 12%.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Nanofluid, mixed convection, vertical tube, microfin tube

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2 Two-Dimensional Analysis and Numerical Simulation of the Navier-Stokes Equations for Principles of Turbulence around Isothermal Bodies Immersed in Incompressible Newtonian Fluids

Authors: Sílvio M. A. Gama, Romulo D. C. Santos, Ramiro G. R. Camacho


In this present paper, the thermos-fluid dynamics considering the mixed convection (natural and forced convections) and the principles of turbulence flow around complex geometries have been studied. In these applications, it was necessary to analyze the influence between the flow field and the heated immersed body with constant temperature on its surface. This paper presents a study about the Newtonian incompressible two-dimensional fluid around isothermal geometry using the immersed boundary method (IBM) with the virtual physical model (VPM). The numerical code proposed for all simulations satisfy the calculation of temperature considering Dirichlet boundary conditions. Important dimensionless numbers such as Strouhal number is calculated using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Nusselt number, drag and lift coefficients, velocity and pressure. Streamlines and isothermal lines are presented for each simulation showing the flow dynamics and patterns. The Navier-Stokes and energy equations for mixed convection were discretized using the finite difference method for space and a second order Adams-Bashforth and Runge-Kuta 4th order methods for time considering the fractional step method to couple the calculation of pressure, velocity, and temperature. This work used for simulation of turbulence, the Smagorinsky, and Spalart-Allmaras models. The first model is based on the local equilibrium hypothesis for small scales and hypothesis of Boussinesq, such that the energy is injected into spectrum of the turbulence, being equal to the energy dissipated by the convective effects. The Spalart-Allmaras model, use only one transport equation for turbulent viscosity. The results were compared with numerical data, validating the effect of heat-transfer together with turbulence models. The IBM/VPM is a powerful tool to simulate flow around complex geometries. The results showed a good numerical convergence in relation the references adopted.

Keywords: mixed convection, Immersed Boundary Method, turbulence methods, virtual physical model

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1 Mixed Convective Heat Transfer of Flow around a Radial Heat Sink

Authors: Benkherbache Souad


This work presents the numerical results of the mixed convective heat transfer of a three-dimensional flow around a radial heat sink composed of horizontal circular base fitted with rectangular fins. The governing equations of mass, momentum, and energy equation are solved by the finite volume method using the commercially available CFD software Fluent 6.3.26. The circular base of the heat sink is subjected to uniform heat generation; the flow enters through the sides of the heat sink around the fins then the heat is transmitted from the base to the fins afterwards the fluid. In this study two fluids are utilized, in the first case, the air for the following Reynolds numbers Re=600,900,1200 and a Grashof number Gr=3.7x10⁶, in the second case a water based nano fluid for which two types of nano particles (Cu and Al₂O₃) are carried out for Re=25 and a Richardson number Ri=2.7(Ri=Gr/Re²). The effect of the number of the fins of the heat sink as well as the type and the volume fraction of nano particles of the nano fluid were investigated. Results have been presented for N=15 and N=20 fins. The effect of the nano particles concentrations and the number of fins on the temperature in the heat sink and the Nusselt number has been studied.

Keywords: heat sink, mixed convection, nano fluid, volumetric heat generation

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