Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

mitochondrial DNA Related Abstracts

7 Polymorphic Positions, Haplotypes, and Mutations Detected In The Mitochonderial DNA Coding Region By Sanger Sequence Technique

Authors: Imad H. Hameed, Mohammad A. Jebor, Ammera J. Omer


The aim of this research is to study the mitochonderial coding region by using the Sanger sequencing technique and establish the degree of variation characteristic of a fragment. FTA® Technology (FTA™ paper DNA extraction) utilized to extract DNA. Portion of coding region encompassing positions 11719 –12384 amplified in accordance with the Anderson reference sequence. PCR products purified by EZ-10 spin column then sequenced and Detected by using the ABI 3730xL DNA Analyzer. Five new polymorphic positions 11741, 11756, 11878, 11887 and 12133 are described may be suitable sources for identification purpose in future. The calculated value D= 0.95 and RMP=0.048 of the genetic diversity should be understood as high in the context of coding function of the analysed DNA fragment. The relatively high gene diversity and a relatively low random match probability were observed in Iraq population. The obtained data can be used to identify the variable nucleotide positions characterized by frequent occurrence which is most promising for various identifications.

Keywords: coding region, Iraq, mitochondrial DNA, polymorphic positions, sanger technique

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6 Forensic Analysis of MTDNA Hypervariable Region HVII by Sanger Sequence Method in Iraq Population

Authors: H. Imad, O. Aamera, Y. Cheah


The aims of this research are to study the mitochondrial non-coding region by using the Sanger sequencing technique and establish the degree of variation characteristics of a fragment. FTA® Technology (FTA™ paper DNA extraction) utilized to extract DNA. A portion of a non-coding region encompassing positions 37 to 340 amplified in accordance with the Anderson reference sequence. PCR products purified by EZ-10 spin column then sequenced and detected by using the ABI 3730xL DNA Analyzer. New polymorphic positions 57, 63, and 101 are described may in future be suitable sources for identification purpose. The data obtained can be used to identify variable nucleotide positions characterized by frequent occurrence most promising for identification variants.

Keywords: Polymorphism, Frequency, Iraq, mitochondrial DNA, encompassing nucleotide positions 37 to 340, HVII

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5 Cytochrome B Marker Reveals Three Distinct Genetic Lineages of the Oriental Latrine Fly Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Malaysia

Authors: Chee Dhang Chen, Mohd Sofian-Azirun, Rajagopal Kavitha, Van Lun Low, Mohd Yusof Farida Zuraina, Mohd Salleh Ahmad Firdaus, Navaratnam Shanti, Abdul Haiyee Zaibunnisa


This study investigated the hidden genetic lineages in the oriental latrine fly Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) across four states (i.e., Johore, Pahang, Perak and Selangor) and a federal territory (i.e., Kuala Lumpur) in Malaysia using Cytochrome b (Cyt b) genetic marker. The Cyt b phylogenetic tree and haplotype network revealed three distinct genetic lineages of Ch. megacephala. Lineage A, the basal clade was restricted to flies that originated from Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, while Lineages B and C, comprised of flies from all studied populations. An overlap of the three genetically divergent groups of Ch. megacephala was observed. However, the flies from both Kuala Lumpur and Selangor populations consisted of three different lineages, indicating that they are genetically diverse compared to those from Pahang, Perak and Johore.

Keywords: Forensic Entomology, mitochondrial DNA, calliphoridae, cryptic lineage

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4 Identifying Apis millefera Strains in Akkar District (North Lebanon) Using Mitochondrial DNA: A Step in Preserving the Local Strain A. m. Syriaca

Authors: Zeina Nasr, Bashar Merheb


The honey bee is a social insect that had driven the human interest much more than any other organism. Beekeeping practices dated the appearance of Man on earth and now it provides a hobby or a secondary work that contributes to the family revenue and requires a little time engagement and money investment. Honey production is not the only contribution of honey bees to the economy, since honey bees play an important role in the pollination. Bee keeping in Lebanon is an important part of the agricultural economy. However, a growing concern about bees is spreading globally, due to an accelerated decline of bees colonies. This raises the alert to preserve and protect local bee strains against uncontrolled introduction of foreign strains and invasive parasitic species. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers are commonly used in studying genetic variation in the Apis mellifera species. The DraI-COI-COII test is based on the analysis of the intergenic region between the two genes COI and COII. The different honey bee strains differ in the presence or absence of the p sequence and the number of Q sequences present. A. m. syriaca belonging to the lineage Z, is the native honey bee subspecies in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Palestine. A. m. syriaca is known for its high defensiveness, even though it has many important advantages. However, commercial breeder strains, such as the Italian (A. m. ligustica), and Carniolan (A. m. carnica) strains, have been introduced by beekeepers and regularly used for honey production. This raises worries about the disappearance of the local subspecies. It is obvious that identifying A. m. syriaca colonies and protecting them against uncontrolled mating with other bee strains is a crucial step to protect and improve the original local strain. This study aims to reveal the existing sub-species of honey bee in Akkar – Lebanon and to assess the influence of introgression on the hybridization of the local strain. This will help to identify areas of pure A.m. syriaca population over this district to be considered in choosing syriaca reserves. We collected samples of bees from different regions of Akkar district in order to perform mtDNA analysis. We determined the restriction fragments length of the intergenic region COI-COII, using the restriction enzyme DraI. The results showed both the C and the Z lineages. Four restriction patterns were identified among the restriction maps of the studied samples. The most abundant mitochondrial lineage is the Z lineage constituting about 60% of the identified samples. Al-Dreib region reported the lowest introgression with foreign mtDNA of 21% making it the most suitable area for a genetic reserve of syriaca in Akkar based on its lowest introgression and suitable environment in addition to the attitude of local beekeepers to conserve the local strain. Finally, this study is the first step in constructing conservation programs for the preservation of the local strain and should be generalized to the whole Lebanese population, consistent with the effort done in neighboring countries.

Keywords: mitochondrial DNA, Akkar Lebanon, Apis millefera syriaca, DraI-COI-COII test

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3 Magnetophotonics 3D MEMS/NEMS System for Quantitative Mitochondrial DNA Defect Profiling

Authors: Chih-Chia Huang, Dar-Bin Shieh, Gwo-Bin Lee, Chen-Ming Chang, Chen Sheng Yeh, Tsung-Ju Li


Mitochondrial defects have a significant impact in many human diseases and aging associated phenotypes. The pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are diverse and usually present as heteroplasmic. mtDNA 4977bps deletion is one of the common mtDNA defects, and the ratio of mutated versus normal copy is significantly associated with clinical symptoms thus their quantitative detection has become an important unmet needs for advanced disease diagnosis and therapeutic guidelines. This study revealed a Micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) enabled automatic microfluidic chip that only required minimal sample. The system integrated multiple laboratory operation steps into a Lab-on-a-Chip for high-sensitive and prompt measurement. The entire process including magnetic nanoparticle based mtDNA extraction in chip, mutation selective photonic DNA cleavage, and nanoparticle accelerated photonic quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). All subsystems were packed inside a miniature three-dimensional micro structured system and operated in an automatic manner. Integration of magnetic beads with microfluidic transportation could promptly extract and enrich the specific mtDNA. The near infrared responsive magnetic nanoparticles enabled micro-PCR to be operated by pulse-width-modulation controlled laser pulsing to amplify the desired mtDNA while quantified by fluorescence intensity captured by a complementary metal oxide system array detector. The proportions of pathogenic mtDNA in total DNA were thus obtained. Micro capillary electrophoresis module was used to analyze the amplicone products. In conclusion, this study demonstrated a new magnetophotonic based qPCR MEMS system that successfully detects and quantify specific disease related DNA mutations thus provides a promising future for rapid diagnosis of mitochondria diseases.

Keywords: mitochondrial DNA, PCR, micro-electro-mechanical-system, magnetophotonics

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2 Phylogenetic Relationships of Aproaerema Simplexella (Walker) and the Groundnut Leaf Miner Aproaerema Modicella (Deventer) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Collected from Australia, India, Mozambique, and South Africa

Authors: Makhosi Buthelezi


Mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene analyses linked the South African groundnut leaf miner (GLM) to the Australian soya bean moth Aproaerema simplexella (Walker) and Indian Aproaerema modicella (Deventer). Thus, the genetic relatedness of GLM, A. simplexela, and A. modicella was examined by performing mitochondrial and nuclear (COI, cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII), mitochondrial cytochrome b (CYTB), nuclear ribosomal 28S (28S) and intergenic spacer elongation factor-1 alpha ( EF-1 ALPHA) on 44 specimens collected from South Africa, four from Mozambique, and three each from single locations in India and Australia. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using the Maximum Parsimony (MP) and Neighbour-Joining (NJ) methods. All of the datasets of the five DNA gene regions that were sequenced were also analyzed using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) to find the closest matches for inclusion in the phylogenetic trees as outgroups and for purposes of information. In the phylogenetic trees for COI, COII, cytb and EF-1 ALPHA, a similar pattern was observed in the way that the sequences assembled into different groups; i.e., some sequences of A. simplexella from Australia were grouped separately from the others, but some Australian sequences grouped with those of the GLM from South Africa, India, and Mozambique. In the phylogenetic tree for 28S, all sequences from South Africa, Australia, India, and Mozambique grouped together and formed one group. For COI, genetic pairwise distance ranged from 0.97 to 3.60 %, for COII it ranged from 0.19% to 2.32%, for cytb it ranged from 0.25 to 9.77% and for EF-1 ALPHA it ranged 0.48 to 6.99%. Results of this study indicate that these populations are genetically related and presumably constitute a single species. Thus, further molecular and morphological studies need to be undertaken in order to resolve this apparent conundrum on the taxonomy of these populations.

Keywords: mitochondrial DNA, aproaerema modicella, aproaerema simplexella, nuclear DNA

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1 Sequence Polymorphism and Haplogroup Distribution of Mitochondrial DNA Control Regions HVS1 and HVS2 in a Southwestern Nigerian Population

Authors: Ogbonnaya O. Iroanya, Samson T. Fakorede, Osamudiamen J. Edosa, Hadiat A. Azeez


The human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is about 17 kbp circular DNA fragments found within the mitochondria together with smaller fragments of 1200 bp known as the control region. Knowledge of variation within populations has been employed in forensic and molecular anthropology studies. The study was aimed at investigating the polymorphic nature of the two hypervariable segments (HVS) of the mtDNA, i.e., HVS1 and HVS2, and to determine the haplogroup distribution among individuals resident in Lagos, Southwestern Nigeria. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from sixty individuals who are not related maternally, followed by DNA extraction and amplification of the extracted DNA using primers specific for the regions under investigation. DNA amplicons were sequenced, and sequenced data were aligned and compared to the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS) GenBank Accession number: NC_012920.1) using BioEdit software. Results obtained showed 61 and 52 polymorphic nucleotide positions for HVS1 and HVS2, respectively. While a total of three indels mutation were recorded for HVS1, there were seven for HVS2. Also, transition mutations predominate nucleotide change observed in the study. Genetic diversity (GD) values for HVS1 and HVS2 were estimated to be 84.21 and 90.4%, respectively, while random match probability was 0.17% for HVS1 and 0.89% for HVS2. The study also revealed mixed haplogroups specific to the African (L1-L3) and the Eurasians (U and H) lineages. New polymorphic sites obtained from the study are promising for human identification purposes.

Keywords: Polymorphism, mitochondrial DNA, hypervariable region, indels, random match probability

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