Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Mitigation Related Abstracts

28 Assessment of Environmental and Socio-Economic Impact of Quarring in Ebonyi State South East Nigeria: A Case Study of Umuoghara Quarry Community

Authors: G. Aloh Obianuju, C. Chukwu Kelvin, Henry Aloh


The study was undertaken to assess the environmental and socio-economic impact of quarrying in Umuoghara quarrying community of Ebonyi State, South East Nigeria. Questionnaires were distributed targeting quarry workers and people living within the community; personal interviews with other key informants were also conducted. All these were used as data gathering instruments. The study reveals that there were actually some benefits as well as marked environmental impacts in the community as a result of quarrying activities. Recommendations that can assist in mitigating these adverse impacts were suggested.

Keywords: Environment, Mitigation, Environmental Degradation, quarrying

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27 Attitude of Youth Farmers to Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in Benue State, Nigeria

Authors: Cynthia E. Nwobodo, A. E. Agwu


The study was carried out in Benue State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 120 respondents from two agricultural zones in the State. Data was collected using interview schedule. Descriptive statistics was used in data analysis. Findings showed that youth farmers in the area had positive attitude to climate change adaptation and mitigation as shown by their response to a set of positive and negative statement including: the youth are very important stakeholders in climate change issues (M= 2.91), youths should be encouraged to be climate change conscious (2.90), everybody should be involved in planting trees not just the government (M= 2.89), I will be glad to participate in climate change seminars (M= 2.89) among others. Findings on information seeking behavior indicate that majority (80.8 %) of the respondents sought climate change information from radio at an average of 19.78 times per month, 53.3 % sought from friends and neighbours at an average of 12.55 times per month and 42.5 % sought from family members at an average of 12.55 times per month among others. It was recommended that Youth farmers should be made important stakeholders in climate change policies and programmes since they have a very positive attitude to climate change adaptation and mitigation.

Keywords: Climate Change, Mitigation, Adaptation, attitude, youth farmers

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26 Predicting Ecological Impacts of Sea-Level Change on Coastal Conservation Areas in India

Authors: Mohammad Zafar-ul Islam, Shaily Menon, Xingong Li, A. Townsend Peterson


In addition to the mounting empirical data on direct implications of climate change for natural and human systems, evidence is increasing for other, indirect climate change phenomena such as sea-level rise. Rising sea levels and associated marine intrusion into terrestrial environments are predicted to be among the most serious eventual consequences of climate change. The many complex and interacting factors affecting sea levels create considerable uncertainty in sea-level rise projections: conservative estimates are on the order of 0.5-1.0 m globally, while other estimates are much higher, approaching 6 m. Marine intrusion associated with 1– 6 m sea-level rise will impact species and habitats in coastal ecosystems severely. Examining areas most vulnerable to such impacts may allow design of appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies. We present an overview of potential effects of 1 and 6 m sea level rise for coastal conservation areas in the Indian Subcontinent. In particular, we examine the projected magnitude of areal losses in relevant biogeographic zones, ecoregions, protected areas (PAs), and Important Bird Areas (IBAs). In addition, we provide a more detailed and quantitative analysis of likely effects of marine intrusion on 22 coastal PAs and IBAs that provide critical habitat for birds in the form of breeding areas, migratory stopover sites, and overwintering habitats. Several coastal PAs and IBAs are predicted to experience higher than 50% losses to marine intrusion. We explore consequences of such inundation levels on species and habitat in these areas.

Keywords: Mitigation, Protected Areas, Adaptation, Ecoregions, sea-level change, coastal inundation, marine intrusion, biogeographic zones, important bird areas

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25 Farmers' Perception of the Effects of Climate Change on Rice Production in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Authors: P. O. Fatoki, R. S. Olaleye, B. O. Adeniji


The study investigated farmers’ perception of the effects of climate change on rice production in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting a total of 248 rice farmers from the study area. Data for the study were collected through the use of interview schedule. The data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Results showed that majority (71.8%) of the respondents were married and the mean age of the respondents was 44.54 years. The results also showed that most adapted strategies for mitigating the effects of climate change on rice production were change of planting and harvesting date (67.7%), movement to another site (63.7%) and increased or reduced land size (58.5%). Relationship between the roles of extension agents in mitigating climate change effects on rice production and farmers’ perception were significant as revealed Chi-Square analysis from the study ; Dissemination of information ( = 2.16, P < 0.05) and use of demonstration methods ( = 2.15, P < 0.05). Poisson regression analysis revealed that educational status, farm size, experience and yield had significant relationship with the perception of the effects of climate change at 0.01 significance level while household size was as well significant at 0.05. It is recommended that some of the adaptive strategies and practices for mitigating the effects of climate change in rice production should be improved, while the extension outfits should be strengthened to ensure adequate dissemination of relevant information on climate change with a view to mitigate its effects on rice production.

Keywords: Climate Change, Perception, Mitigation, Adaptive Strategies, rice farmers

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24 Seismic Microzoning and Resonant Map for Urban Planning

Authors: F. Tahiri, F. Grajçevci


The cities are coping with permanent demands to extend their residential and economical capacity. The new urban zones are sometimes induced to be developed in more vulnerable environments. This study is aimed to identify and mitigate the seismic hazards in the stage of urban planning for new settlements, including the existing urban environments which initially have not considered the seismic hazard. Seismic microzoning shall study the amplification/attenuation of seismic excitations from the bedrock to the ground surface. Modification of the seismic excitation is governed from the site specific ground conditions, presented on ground surface as mean values of the ratio of maximum accelerations at the surface versus acceleration of subsoil media – presented with dynamic amplification factors (DAF). The values shall be used to create the maps with isolines of DAF and then seismic microzoning with expected maximum mean surface acceleration as a product of DAF with maximum accelerations at bedrock. Development of resonant map shall conglomerate the information’s obtained from seismic microzoning in regard to expected predominant ground periods of seismic excitation and periods of vibrations of designed/built structures. These information’s shall be used as indispensible tool in early stages of urban planning to determine the most optimal zones for construction, the constructive materials, structural systems, range of buildings height, etc. so the resonance of soil media with built structures is avoided. The information’s could be used also for assessment of seismic risk and vulnerability-damageability of existing urban environments.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Mitigation, vulnerable environment, seismic microzoning, resonant map

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23 Analysis of the Relationship between Micro-Regional Human Development and Brazil's Greenhouse Gases Emission

Authors: Dênis Antônio Da Cunha, Geanderson Eduardo Ambrósio, Marcel Viana Pires


Historically, human development has been based on economic gains associated with intensive energy activities, which often are exhaustive in the emission of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs). It requires the establishment of targets for mitigation of GHGs in order to disassociate the human development from emissions and prevent further climate change. Brazil presents itself as one of the most GHGs emitters and it is of critical importance to discuss such reductions in intra-national framework with the objective of distributional equity to explore its full mitigation potential without compromising the development of less developed societies. This research displays some incipient considerations about which Brazil’s micro-regions should reduce, when the reductions should be initiated and what its magnitude should be. We started with the methodological assumption that human development and GHGs emissions arise in the future as their behavior was observed in the past. Furthermore, we assume that once a micro-region became developed, it is able to maintain gains in human development without the need of keep growing GHGs emissions rates. The human development index and the carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (CO2e) were extrapolated to the year 2050, which allowed us to calculate when the micro-regions will become developed and the mass of GHG’s emitted. The results indicate that Brazil must throw 300 GT CO2e in the atmosphere between 2011 and 2050, of which only 50 GT will be issued by micro-regions before it’s develop and 250 GT will be released after development. We also determined national mitigation targets and structured reduction schemes where only the developed micro-regions would be required to reduce. The micro-region of São Paulo, the most developed of the country, should be also the one that reduces emissions at most, emitting, in 2050, 90% less than the value observed in 2010. On the other hand, less developed micro-regions will be responsible for less impactful reductions, i.e. Vale do Ipanema will issue in 2050 only 10% below the value observed in 2010. Such methodological assumption would lead the country to issue, in 2050, 56.5% lower than that observed in 2010, so that the cumulative emissions between 2011 and 2050 would reduce by 130 GT CO2e over the initial projection. The fact of associating the magnitude of the reductions to the level of human development of the micro-regions encourages the adoption of policies that favor both variables as the governmental planner will have to deal with both the increasing demand for higher standards of living and with the increasing magnitude of reducing emissions. However, if economic agents do not act proactively in local and national level, the country is closer to the scenario in which emits more than the one in which mitigates emissions. The research highlighted the importance of considering the heterogeneity in determining individual mitigation targets and also ratified the theoretical and methodological feasibility to allocate larger share of contribution for those who historically emitted more. It is understood that the proposals and discussions presented should be considered in mitigation policy formulation in Brazil regardless of the adopted reduction target.

Keywords: Mitigation, Human Development, Greenhouse gases, intensive energy activities

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22 Downward Vertical Evacuation for Disabilities People from Tsunami Using Escape Bunker Technology

Authors: Febrian Tegar Wicaksana, Niqmatul Kurniati, Surya Nandika


Indonesia is one of the countries that have great number of disaster occurrence and threat because it is located in not only between three tectonic plates such as Eurasia plates, Indo-Australia plates and Pacific plates, but also in the Ring of Fire path, like earthquake, Tsunami, volcanic eruption and many more. Recently, research shows that there are potential areas that will be devastated by Tsunami in southern coast of Java. Tsunami is a series of waves in a body of water caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean. When the waves enter shallow water, they may rise to several feet or, in rare cases, tens of feet, striking the coast with devastating force. The parameter for reference such as magnitude, the depth of epicentre, distance between epicentres with land, the depth of every points, when reached the shore and the growth of waves. Interaction between parameters will bring the big variance of Tsunami wave. Based on that, we can formulate preparation that needed for disaster mitigation strategies. The mitigation strategies will take the important role in an effort to reduce the number of victims and damage in the area. It will reduce the number of victim and casualties. Reducing is directed to the most difficult mobilization casualties in the tsunami disaster area like old people, sick people and disabilities people. Until now, the method that used for rescuing people from Tsunami is basic horizontal evacuation. This evacuation system is not optimal because it needs so long time and it cannot be used by people with disabilities. The writers propose to create a vertical evacuation model with an escape bunker system. This bunker system is chosen because the downward vertical evacuation is considered more efficient and faster. Especially in coastal areas without any highlands surround it. The downward evacuation system is better than upward evacuation because it can avoid the risk of erosion at the ground around the structure which can affect the building. The structure of the bunker and the evacuation process while, and even after, disaster are the main priority to be considered. The power of bunker has quake’s resistance, the durability from water stream, variety of interaction to the ground, and waterproof design. When the situation is back to normal, victim and casualties can go into the safer place. The bunker will be located near the hospital and public places, and will have wide entrance supported by large slide in it so it will ease the disabilities people. The technology of the escape bunker system is expected to reduce the number of victims who have low mobility in the Tsunami.

Keywords: Tsunami, Mitigation, Disaster Management, escape bunker, vertical evacuation

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21 Release of Legacy Persistent Organic Pollutants and Mitigating Their Effects in Downstream Communities

Authors: Kimberley Rain Miner, Karl Kreutz, Larry LeBlanc


During the period of 1950-1970 persistent organic pollutants such as DDT, dioxin and PCB were released in the atmosphere and distributed through precipitation into glaciers throughout the world. Recent abrupt climate change is increasing the melt rate of these glaciers, introducing the toxins to the watershed. Studies have shown the existence of legacy pollutants in glacial ice, but neither the impact nor quantity of these toxins on downstream populations has been assessed. If these pollutants are released at toxic levels it will be necessary to create a mitigation plan to lower their impact on the affected communities.

Keywords: Climate Change, Risk management, Mitigation, Adaptation

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20 Financial Feasibility of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Projects in India

Authors: Renuka H. Deshmukh, Snehal Nifadkar, Anil P. Dongre


The research study aims to analyze the financial performance of the companies associated with CDM projects implemented in India from 2001 to 2014 by calculating net profit with and without CDM revenue. Further the study also highlights the Year-wise and sector-wise lending to CDM projects in India as well as in the state of Maharashtra. The study further aims to examine the year-wise trend of Certified Emission Reductions (CER) issued by the CDM projects implemented in Maharashtra from 2001-2014. The study as well analyses the responses of selected corporate with respect to the challenges in implementing and obtaining finance from commercial banks.

Keywords: Mitigation, Vulnerability, adaptation costs, internal rate of return, CER

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19 Urban Seismic Risk Reduction in Algeria: Adaptation and Application of the RADIUS Methodology

Authors: Mehdi Boukri, Omar Amellal, Nacim Yousfi, Mounir Naili, Mohammed Naboussi Farsi, Mohamed Belazougui, Ahmed Mebarki, Nabila Guessoum, Brahim Mezazigh, Mounir Ait-Belkacem, Mohamed Bouaoud, Ikram Boukal, Aboubakr Fettar, Asma Souki


The seismic risk to which the urban centres are more and more exposed became a world concern. A co-operation on an international scale is necessary for an exchange of information and experiments for the prevention and the installation of action plans in the countries prone to this phenomenon. For that, the 1990s was designated as 'International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR)' by the United Nations, whose interest was to promote the capacity to resist the various natural, industrial and environmental disasters. Within this framework, it was launched in 1996, the RADIUS project (Risk Assessment Tools for Diagnosis of Urban Areas Against Seismic Disaster), whose the main objective is to mitigate seismic risk in developing countries, through the development of a simple and fast methodological and operational approach, allowing to evaluate the vulnerability as well as the socio-economic losses, by probable earthquake scenarios in the exposed urban areas. In this paper, we will present the adaptation and application of this methodology to the Algerian context for the seismic risk evaluation in urban areas potentially exposed to earthquakes. This application consists to perform an earthquake scenario in the urban centre of Constantine city, located at the North-East of Algeria, which will allow the building seismic damage estimation of this city. For that, an inventory of 30706 building units was carried out by the National Earthquake Engineering Research Centre (CGS). These buildings were digitized in a data base which comprises their technical information by using a Geographical Information system (GIS), and then they were classified according to the RADIUS methodology. The study area was subdivided into 228 meshes of 500m on side and Ten (10) sectors of which each one contains a group of meshes. The results of this earthquake scenario highlights that the ratio of likely damage is about 23%. This severe damage results from the high concentration of old buildings and unfavourable soil conditions. This simulation of the probable seismic damage of the building and the GIS damage maps generated provide a predictive evaluation of the damage which can occur by a potential earthquake near to Constantine city. These theoretical forecasts are important for decision makers in order to take the adequate preventive measures and to develop suitable strategies, prevention and emergency management plans to reduce these losses. They can also help to take the adequate emergency measures in the most impacted areas in the early hours and days after an earthquake occurrence.

Keywords: Mitigation, Seismic risk, urban areas, Algeria, Constantine, RADIUS, earthquake scenario

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18 Geochemistry Identification of Volcanic Rocks Product of Krakatau Volcano Eruption for Katastropis Mitigation Planning

Authors: Agil Gemilang Ramadhan, Novian Triandanu


Since 1929, the first appearance in sea level, Anak Krakatau volcano growth relatively quickly. During the 80 years up to 2010 has reached the height of 320 meter above sea level. The possibility of catastrophic explosive eruption could happen again if the chemical composition of rocks from the eruption changed from alkaline magma into acid magma. Until now Anak Krakatau volcanic activity is still quite active as evidenced by the frequency of eruptions that produced ash sized pyroclastic deposits - bomb. Purpose of this study was to identify changes in the percentage of rock geochemistry any results eruption of Anak Krakatau volcano to see consistency change the percentage content of silica in the magma that affect the type of volcanic eruptions. Results from this study will be produced in the form of a diagram the data changes the chemical composition of rocks of Anak Krakatau volcano. Changes in the composition of any silica eruption are illustrated in a graph. If the increase in the percentage of silica is happening consistently and it is assumed to increase in the time scale of a few percent, then to achieve silica content of 68 % (acid composition) that will produce an explosive eruption will know the approximate time. All aspects of the factors driving the increased threat of danger to the public should be taken into account. Catastrophic eruption katatropis mitigation can be planned early so that when these disasters happen later, casualties can be minimized.

Keywords: Mitigation, Krakatau volcano, rock geochemistry, catastrophic eruption

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17 Surveying Earthquake Vulnerabilities of District 13 of Kabul City, Afghanistan

Authors: Mohsen Mohammadi, Toshio Fujimi


High population and irregular urban development in Kabul city, Afghanistan's capital, are among factors that increase its vulnerability to earthquake disasters (on top of its location in a high seismic region); this can lead to widespread economic loss and casualties. This study aims to evaluate earthquake risks in Kabul's 13th district based on scientific data. The research data, which include hazard curves of Kabul, vulnerability curves, and a questionnaire survey through sampling in district 13, have been incorporated to develop risk curves. To estimate potential casualties, we used a set of M parameters in a model developed by Coburn and Spence. The results indicate that in the worst case scenario, more than 90% of district 13, which comprises mostly residential buildings, is exposed to high risk; this may lead to nearly 1000 million USD economic loss and 120 thousand casualties (equal to 25.88% of the 13th district's population) for a nighttime earthquake. To reduce risks, we present the reconstruction of the most vulnerable buildings, which are primarily adobe and masonry buildings. A comparison of risk reduction between reconstructing adobe and masonry buildings indicates that rebuilding adobe buildings would be more effective.

Keywords: Mitigation, Vulnerability, Kabul, earthquake risk evaluation

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16 Mitigating Nitrous Oxide Production from Nitritation/Denitritation: Treatment of Centrate from Pig Manure Co-Digestion as a Model

Authors: Lai Peng, Cristina Pintucci, Dries Seuntjens, José Carvajal-Arroyo, Siegfried Vlaeminck


Economic incentives drive the implementation of short-cut nitrogen removal processes such as nitritation/denitritation (Nit/DNit) to manage nitrogen in waste streams devoid of biodegradable organic carbon. However, as any biological nitrogen removal process, the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) could be emitted from Nit/DNit. Challenges remain in understanding the fundamental mechanisms and development of engineered mitigation strategies for N2O production. To provide answers, this work focuses on manure as a model, the biggest wasted nitrogen mass flow through our economies. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR; 4.5 L) was used treating the centrate (centrifuge supernatant; 2.0 ± 0.11 g N/L of ammonium) from an anaerobic digester processing mainly pig manure, supplemented with a co-substrate. Glycerin was used as external carbon source, a by-product of vegetable oil. Out-selection of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) was targeted using a combination of low dissolved oxygen (DO) levels (down to 0.5 mg O2/L), high temperature (35ºC) and relatively high free ammonia (FA) (initially 10 mg NH3-N/L). After reaching steady state, the process was able to remove 100% of ammonium with minimum nitrite and nitrate in the effluent, at a reasonably high nitrogen loading rate (0.4 g N/L/d). Substantial N2O emissions (over 15% of the nitrogen loading) were observed at the baseline operational condition, which were even increased under nitrite accumulation and a low organic carbon to nitrogen ratio. Yet, higher DO (~2.2 mg O2/L) lowered aerobic N2O emissions and weakened the dependency of N2O on nitrite concentration, suggesting a shift of N2O production pathway at elevated DO levels. Limiting the greenhouse gas emissions (environmental protection) from such a system could be substantially minimized by increasing the external carbon dosage (a cost factor), but also through the implementation of an intermittent aeration and feeding strategy. Promising steps forward have been presented in this abstract, yet at the conference the insights of ongoing experiments will also be shared.

Keywords: Mitigation, Nitrous Oxide, nitritation/denitritation, pig manure

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15 Problems of Drought and Its Management in Yobe State, Nigeria

Authors: David Oloke, Michael A. Fullen, Hassan Gana Abdullahi


Drought poses an enormous global threat to sustainable development and is expected to increase with global climate change. Drought and desertification are major problems in Yobe State (north-east Nigeria). This investigation aims to develop a workable framework and management tool for drought mitigation in Yobe State. Mixed methods were employed during the study and additional qualitative information was gathered through Focus Group Discussions (FGD). Data on socio-economic impacts of drought were thus collected via both questionnaire surveys and FGD. In all, 1,040 questionnaires were distributed to farmers in the State and 721 were completed, representing a return rate of 69.3%. Data analysis showed that 97.9% of respondents considered themselves to be drought victims, whilst 69.3% of the respondents were unemployed and had no other means of income, except through rain-fed farming. Developing a viable and holistic approach to drought mitigation is crucial, to arrest and hopefully reverse environment degradation. Analysed data will be used to develop an integrated framework for drought mitigation and management in Yobe State. This paper introduces the socio-economic and environmental effects of drought in Yobe State.

Keywords: Climate Change, Management, Mitigation, Drought, Yobe State

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14 Digital Elevation Model Analysis of Potential Prone Flood Disaster Watershed Citarum Headwaters Bandung

Authors: Faizin Mulia Rizkika, Iqbal Jabbari Mufti, Muhammad R. Y. Nugraha, Fadil Maulidir Sube


Flooding is an event of ponding on the flat area around the river as a result of the overflow of river water was not able to be accommodated by the river and may cause damage to the infrastructure of a region. This study aimed to analyze the data of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for information that plays a role in the mapping of zones prone to flooding, mapping the distribution of zones prone to flooding that occurred in the Citarum upstream using secondary data and software (ArcGIS, MapInfo), this assessment was made distribution map of flooding, there were 13 counties / districts dam flood-prone areas in Bandung, and the most vulnerable districts are areas Baleendah-Dayeuhkolot-Bojongsoang-Banjaran. The area has a low slope and the same limits with boundary rivers and areas that have excessive land use, so the water catchment area is reduced.

Keywords: Flood, Mitigation, DEM, citarum

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13 Adaptation of Extra Early Maize 'Zea Mays L.' Varieties for Climate Change Mitigation in South Western Nigeria

Authors: Akinwumi Omotayo, Badu-B Apraku, Joseph Olobasola, Petra Abdul Saghir, Yinka Sobowale


In southwestern Nigeria, climate change has led to loss of at least two months of rainfall. Consequently, only one cycle of maize can now be grown because of the shorter duration of rainy season as against two cycles in the past. The Early and Extra-early maturing varieties of maize were originally developed for the semi-arid and arid zones of West and Central Africa where there are seasonal challenges of water threatening optimum performance of the traditional maize grown, which are commonly late in maturity (115 to 120 days). The early varieties of maize mature in 90 to 95 days; while the Extra-Early maize varieties reach physiological maturity in less than 90 days. It was broadly hypothesized that the extra early varieties of maize could mitigate the effects of climate change in southwestern Nigeria with higher levels of rainfall by reinstating the original two cycles of rain-fed maize crop. Trials were therefore carried out in southwestern Nigeria on the possibility of adapting the extra early maize to mitigate the effects of climate change. The trial was the Mother/Baby design. The mother trial involves the evaluation of extra-early varieties following ideal recommendations and closely supervised centrally at the University research farm and the Agricultural Development Programmes (ADPs). This requires farmers to observe and evaluate the technology and the management regime meant to precede the second stage of evaluation at several satellite farmers field managed by selected farmers. The Baby Trial is expected to provide a realistic assessment of the technology by farmers in their own environment. A stratified selection of thirty farmers for the Baby Trial ensured appropriate representation across the different categories of the farming population by age and gender. Data from the trials indicate that extra early maize can be grown in two cycles rain fed in south west Nigeria and a third and fourth cycle could be obtained with irrigation. However the long duration varieties outyielded the extra early maize in both the mother and baby trials. When harvested green, the extra early maize served as source of food between March and May when there was scarcity of food. This represents a major advantage. The study recommends that further work needs to be done to improve the yield of extra early maize to encourage farmers to adopt.

Keywords: Climate Change, Mitigation, Adaptation, extra early, maize varieties

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12 Android-Based Edugame Application for Earthquakes Disaster Mitigation Education

Authors: Endina P. Purwandari, Yolanda Hervianti, Feri Noperman, Endang W. Winarni


The earthquakes disaster is an event that can threaten at any moment and cause damage and loss of life. Game earthquake disaster mitigation is a useful educational game to enhance children insight, knowledge, and understanding in the response to the impact of the earthquake. This study aims to build an educational games application on the Android platform as a learning media for earthquake mitigation education and to determine the effect of the application toward children understanding of the earthquake disaster mitigation. The methods were research and development. The development was to develop edugame application for earthquakes mitigation education. The research involved elementary students as a research sample to test the developed application. The research results were valid android-based edugame application, and its the effect of application toward children understanding. The application contains an earthquake simulation video, an earthquake mitigation video, and a game consisting three stages, namely before the earthquake, when the earthquake occur, and after the earthquake. The results of the feasibility test application showed that this application was included in the category of 'Excellent' which the average percentage of the operation of applications by 76%, view application by 67% and contents of application by 74%. The test results of students' responses were 80% that showed that a positive their responses toward the application. The student understanding test results show that the average score of children understanding pretest was 71,33, and post-test was 97,00. T-test result showed that t value by 8,02 more than table t by 2,001. This indicated that the earthquakes disaster mitigation edugame application based on Android platform affects the children understanding about disaster earthquake mitigation.

Keywords: Mitigation, Earthquakes, android, edugame

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11 Using Sea Cucumber for Mitigation of Marine Pollution

Authors: A. Al-Yaqout, A. Al-Alawi, T. Al-Said, E. Al-Enezi, M. Al-Roumi


Kuwait’s marine environment suffers from increased organic pollution. Sea cucumbers play an important role in the marine environment. They create a healthier environment for many types of benthic micro-organisms through their slow movement and feeding mechanism on micro-organisms and organic material. A preliminary study has been conducted in Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research to assess the possibility of using sea cucumbers for mitigation of the coastal pollution. Sediments were collected from locations identified to be heavily loaded with organic pollutants. Ten aquaria glass tanks, 65x 40x 30cm will be supplied with 10 cm height (14 kg) of the sediments added in each tank and filled with 70 L of filtered seawater. Two species were used in this study, Stichopus hermanni, and Holothuria atra. Water and sediment samples were analyzed weekly. The results showed promising possibility for using sea cucumber to lower the organic load in sediments.

Keywords: Mitigation, Sea cucumbers, organic pollution, Stichopus hermanni, Holothuria atra

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10 Projections of Climate Change in the Rain Regime of the Ibicui River Basin

Authors: Claudineia Brazil, Elison Eduardo Bierhals, Francisco Pereira, José Leandro Néris, Matheus Rippel, Luciane Salvi


The global concern about climate change has been increasing, since the emission of gases from human activities contributes to the greenhouse effect in the atmosphere, indicating significant impacts to the planet in the coming years. The study of precipitation regime is fundamental for the development of research in several areas. Among them are hydrology, agriculture, and electric sector. Using the climatic projections of the models belonging to the CMIP5, the main objective of the paper was to present an analysis of the impacts of climate change without rainfall in the Uruguay River basin. After an analysis of the results, it can be observed that for the future climate, there is a tendency, in relation to the present climate, for larger numbers of dry events, mainly in the winter months, changing the pluviometric regime for wet summers and drier winters. Given this projected framework, it is important to note the importance of adequate management of the existing water sources in the river basin, since the value of rainfall is reduced for the next years, it may compromise the dynamics of the ecosystems in the region. Facing climate change is fundamental issue for regions and cities all around the world. Society must improve its resilience to phenomenon impacts, and spreading the knowledge among decision makers and citizens is also essential. So, these research results can be subsidies for the decision-making in planning and management of mitigation measures and/or adaptation in south Brazil.

Keywords: Climate Change, Mitigation, Precipitation, hydrological potential

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9 Study of Radiation Response in Lactobacillus Species

Authors: Madhu Bala, Kanika Arora


The small intestine epithelium is highly sensitive and major targets of ionizing radiation. Radiation causes gastrointestinal toxicity either by direct deposition of energy or indirectly (inflammation or bystander effects) generating free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Oxidative stress generated as a result of radiation causes active inflammation within the intestinal mucosa leading to structural and functional impairment of gut epithelial barrier. As a result, there is a loss of tolerance to normal dietary antigens and commensal flora together with exaggerated response to pathogens. Dysbiosis may therefore thought to play a role in radiation enteropathy and can contribute towards radiation induced bowel toxicity. Lactobacilli residing in the gut shares a long conjoined evolutionary history with their hosts and by doing so these organisms have developed an intimate and complex symbiotic relationships. The objective behind this study was to look for the strains with varying resistance to ionizing radiation and to see whether the niche of the bacteria is playing any role in radiation resistance property of bacteria. In this study, we have isolated the Lactobacillus spp. from probiotic preparation and murine gastrointestinal tract, both of which were supposed to be the important source for its isolation. Biochemical characterization did not show a significant difference in the properties, while a significant preference was observed in carbohydrate utilization capacity by the isolates. Effect of ionizing radiations induced by Co60 gamma radiation (10 Gy) on lactobacilli cells was investigated. A cellular survival curve versus absorbed doses was determined. Radiation resistance studies showed that the response of isolates towards cobalt-60 gamma radiation differs from each other and significant decrease in survival was observed in a dose-dependent manner. Thus the present study revealed that the property of radioresistance in Lactobacillus depends upon the source from where they have been isolated.

Keywords: Radiation, Mitigation, Lactobacillus, dysbiosis

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8 From Conflicts to Synergies between Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change: The Case of Lisbon Downtown 2010-2030

Authors: Nuno M. Pereira


In the last thirty years, European cities have been addressing global climate change and its local impacts by implementing mitigation and adaptation strategies. Lisbon Downtown is no exception with 10 plans under implementation since 2010 with completion scheduled for 2030 valued 1 billion euros of public investment. However, the gap between mitigation and adaptation strategies is not yet sufficiently studied alongside with its nuances- vulnerability and risk mitigation, resilience and adaptation. In Lisbon Downtown, these plans are being implemented separately, therefore compromising the effectiveness of public investment. The research reviewed the common ground of mitigation and adaptation strategies of the theoretical framework and analyzed the current urban development actions in Lisbon Downtown in order to identify potential conflicts and synergies. The empirical fieldwork supported by a sounding board of experts has been developed during two years and the results suggest that the largest public investment in Lisbon on flooding mitigation will conflict with the new Cruise ship terminal and old Downton building stock, therefore increasing risk and vulnerability factors. The study concludes that the Lisbon Downtown blue infrastructure plan should be redesigned in some areas in a trans- disciplinary and holistic approach and that the current theoretical framework on climate change should focus more on mitigation and adaptation synergies articulating the gray, blue and green infrastructures, combining old knowledge tested by resilient communities and new knowledge emerging from the digital era.

Keywords: Climate Change, Mitigation, Conflict, Adaptation, Synergy, Lisbon Downtown

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7 A Case Study Report on Acoustic Impact Assessment and Mitigation of the Hyprob Research Plant

Authors: G. Elia, D. Bianco, A. Sollazzo, M. Barbarino, A. Smoraldi, N. Favaloro


The activities, described in the present paper, have been conducted in the framework of the HYPROB-New Program, carried out by the Italian Aerospace Research Centre (CIRA) promoted and funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR) in order to improve the National background on rocket engine systems for space applications. The Program has the strategic objective to improve National system and technology capabilities in the field of liquid rocket engines (LRE) for future Space Propulsion Systems applications, with specific regard to LOX/LCH4 technology. The main purpose of the HYPROB program is to design and build a Propulsion Test Facility (HIMP) allowing test activities on Liquid Thrusters. The development of skills in liquid rocket propulsion can only pass through extensive test campaign. Following its mission, CIRA has planned the development of new testing facilities and infrastructures for space propulsion characterized by adequate sizes and instrumentation. The IMP test cell is devoted to testing articles representative of small combustion chambers, fed with oxygen and methane, both in liquid and gaseous phase. This article describes the activities that have been carried out for the evaluation of the acoustic impact, and its consequent mitigation. The impact of the simulated acoustic disturbance has been evaluated, first, using an approximated method based on experimental data by Baumann and Coney, included in “Noise and Vibration Control Engineering” edited by Vér and Beranek. This methodology, used to evaluate the free-field radiation of jet in ideal acoustical medium, analyzes in details the jet noise and assumes sources acting at the same time. It considers as principal radiation sources the jet mixing noise, caused by the turbulent mixing of jet gas and the ambient medium. Empirical models, allowing a direct calculation of the Sound Pressure Level, are commonly used for rocket noise simulation. The model named after K. Eldred is probably one of the most exploited in this area. In this paper, an improvement of the Eldred Standard model has been used for a detailed investigation of the acoustical impact of the Hyprob facility. This new formulation contains an explicit expression for the acoustic pressure of each equivalent noise source, in terms of amplitude and phase, allowing the investigation of the sources correlation effects and their propagation through wave equations. In order to enhance the evaluation of the facility acoustic impact, including an assessment of the mitigation strategies to be set in place, a more advanced simulation campaign has been conducted using both an in-house code for noise propagation and scattering, and a commercial code for industrial noise environmental impact, CadnaA. The noise prediction obtained with the revised Eldred-based model has then been used for formulating an empirical/BEM (Boundary Element Method) hybrid approach allowing the evaluation of the barrier mitigation effect, at the design. This approach has been compared with the analogous empirical/ray-acoustics approach, implemented within CadnaA using a customized definition of sources and directivity factor. The resulting impact evaluation study is reported here, along with the design-level barrier optimization for noise mitigation.

Keywords: Mitigation, Industrial Noise, acoustic impact, rocket noise

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6 Fraud in the Higher Educational Institutions in Assam, India: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Kalidas Sarma


Fraud is a social problem changing with social change and it has a regional and global impact. Introduction of private domain in higher education along with public institutions has led to commercialization of higher education which encourages unprecedented mushrooming of private institutions resulting in fraudulent activities in higher educational institutions in Assam, India. Presently, fraud has been noticed in in-service promotion, fake entry qualification by teachers in different levels of work-place by using fake master degrees, master of philosophy and doctor of philosophy degree certificates. The aim and objective of the study are to identify grey areas in maintenance of quality in higher educational institutions in Assam and also to draw the contour for planning and implementation. This study is based on both primary and secondary data collected through questionnaire and seeking information through Right to Information Act 2005. In Assam, there are 301 undergraduate and graduate colleges distributed in 27 (Twenty seven) administrative districts with 11000 (Eleven thousand) college teachers. Total 421 (Four hundred twenty one) college teachers from the 14 respondent colleges have been taken for analysis. Data collected has been analyzed by using 'Hypertext Pre-processor' (PhP) application with My Sequel Structure Query Language (MySQL) and Google Map Application Programming Interface (APIs). Graph has been generated by using open source tool Chart.js. Spatial distribution maps have been generated with the help of geo-references of the colleges. The result shows: (i) the violation of University Grants Commission's (UGCs) Regulation for the awards of M. Phil/Ph.D. clearly exhibits. (ii) There is a gap between apex regulatory bodies of higher education at national and as well as state level to check fraud. (iii) Mala fide 'No Objection Certificate' (NOC) issued by the Government of Assam have played pivotal role in the occurrence of fraudulent practices in higher educational institutions of Assam. (iv) Violation of verdict of the Hon'ble Supreme Court of India regarding territorial jurisdiction of Universities for the awards of Ph.D. and M. Phil degrees in distance mode/study centre is also a responsible factor for the spread of these academic frauds in Assam and other states. The challenges and mitigation of these issues have been discussed.

Keywords: Higher Education, Mitigation, Fraud, Assam

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5 Factors Affecting Implementation of Construction Health and Safety Regulations, Their Effects and Mitigation Measures in Building Construction Project Sites of Hawassa City

Authors: Tadewos Awugchew Wudineh


Health and safety issues have always been a major problem and concern in the building construction industry. The health and safety regulations are stated to eliminate the potential hazards and to reduce the consequential risks. However, the importance of the regulations seems to be overlooked in building construction sites of Hawassa City. Accordingly, many companies don’t follow the regulations as construction workers are more likely to be injured and killed by construction accident than any other type of employment. This paper aimed to identify factors that affect the implementation of construction health and safety regulations, their effects and mitigation measures in building construction project sites of Hawassa City. To reach this objective, a review of literature as well as the Ethiopian construction health and safety regulations have been undertaken. Mainly a five-point Likert scale questionnaire was distributed, and statistical analysis was used to summarize, interpret the data, and to find the significances of the responses. In addition, interviews were carried out. Accordingly, the findings indicate that the top factors which affect the implementation of CHS regulations are, availability and development of a clear health and safety policy, health and safety inspections by top management, conducting health and safety training and orientation, provision of healthy and safe working environment and employment of trained safety officers. The study revealed that implementation or non-implementation of CHS regulations have effects on the worker’s productivity, job satisfaction, rate of accidents, and cost greatly. Thus, the suggestion to minimize the impact on worker’s job performance are, developing of a clear health and safety policy, management commitment towards implementation of health and safety regulations, health and safety education and training and conducting regular health and safety inspections. It was concluded from the study that good implementation of health and safety regulations are the results from administrative and management commitment which calls for more attention to be paid to improve the implementation of CHS regulations in building construction sites of Hawassa City.

Keywords: Mitigation, factors, effects, construction health and safety regulations

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4 Negative Environmental Impacts on Marine Seismic Survey Activities

Authors: Katherine Del Carmen Camacho Zorogastua, Victor Hugo Gallo Ramos, Jhon Walter Gomez Lora


Marine hydrocarbon exploration (oil and natural gas) activities are developed using 2D, 3D and 4D seismic prospecting techniques where sound waves are directed from a seismic vessel emitted every few seconds depending on the variety of air compressors, which cross the layers of rock at the bottom of the sea and are reflected to the surface of the water. Hydrophones receive and record the reflected energy signals for cross-sectional mapping of the lithological profile in order to identify possible areas where hydrocarbon deposits can be formed. However, they produce several significant negative environmental impacts on the marine ecosystem and in the social and economic sectors. Therefore, the objective of the research is to publicize the negative impacts and environmental measures that must be carried out during the development of these activities to prevent and mitigate water quality, the population involved (fishermen) and the marine biota (e.g., Cetaceans, fish) that are the most vulnerable. The research contains technical environmental aspects based on bibliographic sources of environmental studies approved by the Peruvian authority, research articles, undergraduate and postgraduate theses, books, guides, and manuals from Spain, Australia, Canada, Brazil, and Mexico. It describes the negative impacts on the environment and population (fishing sector), environmental prevention, mitigation, recovery and compensation measures that must be properly implemented and the cases of global sea species stranding, for which international experiences from Spain, Madagascar, Mexico, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Peru were referenced. Negative impacts on marine fauna, seawater quality, and the socioeconomic sector (fishermen) were identified. Omission or inadequate biological monitoring in mammals could alter their ability to communicate, feed, and displacement resulting in their stranding and death. In fish, they cause deadly damage to physical-physiological type and in their behavior. Inadequate wastewater treatment and waste management could increase the organic load and oily waste on seawater quality in violation of marine flora and fauna. The possible estrangement of marine resources (fish) affects the economic sector as they carry out their fishing activity for consumption or sale. Finally, it is concluded from the experiences gathered from Spain, Madagascar, Mexico, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Peru that there is a cause and effect relationship between the inadequate development of seismic exploration activities (cause) and marine species strandings (effect) since over the years, stranded or dead marine mammals have been detected on the shores of the sea in areas of seismic acquisition of hydrocarbons. In this regard, it is recommended to establish technical procedures, guidelines, and protocols for the monitoring of marine species in order to contribute to the conservation of hydrobiological resources.

Keywords: Prevention, Mitigation, Recovery, cetaceans, significant environmental impacts, environmental compensation

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3 How to Reach Net Zero Emissions? On the Permissibility of Negative Emission Technologies and the Danger of Moral Hazards

Authors: Hanna Schübel, Ivo Wallimann-Helmer


In order to reach the goal of the Paris Agreement to not overshoot 1.5°C of warming above pre-industrial levels, various countries including the UK and Switzerland have committed themselves to net zero emissions by 2050. The employment of negative emission technologies (NETs) is very likely going to be necessary for meeting these national objectives as well as other internationally agreed climate targets. NETs are methods of removing carbon from the atmosphere and are thus a means for addressing climate change. They range from afforestation to technological measures such as direct air capture and carbon storage (DACCS), where CO2 is captured from the air and stored underground. As all so-called geoengineering technologies, the development and deployment of NETs are often subject to moral hazard arguments. As these technologies could be perceived as an alternative to mitigation efforts, so the argument goes, they are potentially a dangerous distraction from the main target of mitigating emissions. We think that this is a dangerous argument to make as it may hinder the development of NETs which are an essential element of net zero emission targets. In this paper we argue that the moral hazard argument is only problematic if we do not reflect upon which levels of emissions are at stake in order to meet net zero emissions. In response to the moral hazard argument we develop an account of which levels of emissions in given societies should be mitigated and not be the target of NETs and which levels of emissions can legitimately be a target of NETs. For this purpose, we define four different levels of emissions: the current level of individual emissions, the level individuals emit in order to appear in public without shame, the level of a fair share of individual emissions in the global budget, and finally the baseline of net zero emissions. At each level of emissions there are different subjects to be assigned responsibilities if societies and/or individuals are committed to the target of net zero emissions. We argue that all emissions within one’s fair share do not demand individual mitigation efforts. The same holds with regard to individuals and the baseline level of emissions necessary to appear in public in their societies without shame. Individuals are only under duty to reduce their emissions if they exceed this baseline level. This is different for whole societies. Societies demanding more emissions to appear in public without shame than the individual fair share are under duty to foster emission reductions and are not legitimate to reduce by introducing NETs. NETs are legitimate for reducing emissions only below the level of fair shares and for reaching net zero emissions. Since access to NETs to achieve net zero emissions demands technology not affordable to individuals there are also no full individual responsibilities to achieve net zero emissions. This is mainly a responsibility of societies as a whole.

Keywords: Climate Change, Mitigation, Responsibility, Negative Emission Technologies, moral hazard

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2 Role of Social Workers in Mitigating the Effects of Climate Change in Makonde Communal Lands, Zimbabwe

Authors: Louis Nyahunda, Frans Koketso Matlakala, Jabulani Calvin Makhubele


Climate change is among the most vital environmental aspects that the human community is endowed with. Climate as a factor of life is particularly strong to low income rural communities whose livelihoods heavily depend on rain-fed subsistence agriculture like Makonde communal lands. The purpose of social work within the context of climate change is to enhance community expertise and empower members for participation in the decision-making process through all stages of risk assessment, rescue, planning and intervention for recovery and preparedness. This paper sought to explore the role of social workers in mitigating the effects of climate change in Makonde communal lands of Zimbabwe. The objectives of the study were to identify what roles if any are social workers playing in mitigating the effects of climate change and if not, what are the impediments in that sphere. A qualitative research approach was followed within the traditional framework of descriptive and exploratory designs. Simple random, purposive and snowballing sampling techniques were used to gather twenty-five participants in the study. The Thematic Content Analysis was followed to analyse data inductively. The study found that Social Workers are not directly involved in climate change interventions in the Makonde area owing it to lack of training on climate change issues. The study recommends that climate change falls within the purview of the social work practice therefore social workers must take the lead in supporting families and communities affected by climate change following the values, knowledge base, skills and principles of the profession.

Keywords: Climate Change, Mitigation, Social Workers, role, Makonde communal lands

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1 Evaluation of Wheat Varieties for Water Use Efficiency under Staggering Sowing Times and Variable Irrigation Regimes under Timely and Late Sown Conditions

Authors: Vaibhav Baliyan, S. S. Parihar


With the rise in temperature during reproductive phase and moisture stress, winter wheat yields are likely to decrease because of limited plant growth, higher rate of night respiration, higher spikelet sterility or number of grains per spike and restricted embryo development thereby reducing grain number. Crop management practices play a pivotal role in minimizing adverse effects of terminal heat stress on wheat production. Amongst various agronomic management practices, adjusting sowing date, crop cultivars and irrigation scheduling have been realized to be simple yet powerful, implementable and eco-friendly mitigation strategies to sustain yields under elevated temperature conditions. Taking into account, large variability in wheat production in space and time, a study was conducted to identify the suitable wheat varieties under both early and late planting with suitable irrigation schedule for minimizing terminal heat stress effect and thereby improving wheat production. Experiments were conducted at research farms of Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India, separately for timely and late sown conditions with suitable varieties with staggering dates of sowing from 1st November to 30th November in case of timely sown and from 1st December to 31st December for late sown condition. The irrigation schedule followed for both the experiments were 100% of ETc (evapotranspiration of crop), 80% of ETc and 60% of ETc. Results of the timely sown experiment indicated that 1st November sowing resulted in higher grain yield followed by 10th November. However, delay in sowing thereafter resulted in gradual decrease in yield and the maximum reduction was noticed under 30th November sowing. Amongst the varieties, HD3086 produced higher grain yield compared to other varieties. Irrigation applied based on 100% of ETc gave higher yield comparable to 80% of ETc but both were significantly higher than 60% of ETc. It was further observed that even liberal irrigation under 100% of ETc could not compensate the yield under delayed sowing suggesting that rise in temperature beyond January adversely affected the growth and development of crop as well as forced maturity resulting in significant reduction of yield attributing characters due to terminal heat stress. Similar observations were recorded under late sown experiment too. Planting on 1st December along with 100% ETc of irrigation schedule resulted in significantly higher grain yield as compared to other dates and irrigation regimes. Further, it was observed that reduction in yield under late sown conditions was significantly large than the timely sown conditions irrespective of the variety grown and irrigation schedule followed. Delayed sowing resulted in reducing crop growth period and forced maturity in turn led to significant deterioration in all the yield attributing characters and there by reduction in yield suggesting that terminal heat stress had greater impact on yield under late sown crop than timely sown due to temperature rise coinciding with reproductive phase of the crop.

Keywords: Climate, Mitigation, irrigation, Wheat

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