Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

misconceptions Related Abstracts

9 Prospective Teachers’ Comments on Both Students’ Misconceptions and Their

Authors: Mihriban Hacisalihoğlu Karadeniz, Figen Bozkuş, Tuğba Baran, Ümit Akar

Abstract:

Creating the correct symmetry of conceptual knowledge about students, conceptual information about the symmetry of the instructors is important. However, teachers’, the students should be aware of the existing misconceptions and be able to develop strategies to correct these misconceptions. In this study, the purpose, the prospective teachers’, the students’ explanations for corrections of misconceptions and misconceptions were asked to be introduced. The working group during the 2012-2013 academic year, Kocaeli University Faculty of Education Mathematics Education consists of studying at the twenty-six prospective teachers. The study adopted a qualitative approach. The data prepared by the researchers were obtained with an open-ended test. As a result of analysis of the data, prospective with teaching the concept of symmetry observed in more developed practical solutions. These solutions are focused on the method, students utilization mirrors, paper folding, such as using a square piece of registration of events. Prospective teachers’ who think this way, students observed that overlooked the creation of conceptual knowledge.

Keywords: symmetry concepts, misconceptions, elementary mathematics, prospective teachers-students

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8 Knowledge Transfer and the Translation of Technical Texts

Authors: Ahmed Alaoui

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This paper contributes to the ongoing debate as to the relevance of translation studies to professional practitioners. It exposes the various misconceptions permeating the links between theory and practice in the translation landscape in the Arab World. It is a thesis of this paper that specialization in translation should be redefined; taking account of the fact, that specialized knowledge alone is neither crucial nor sufficient in technical translation. It should be tested against the readability of the translated text, the appropriateness of its style and the usability of its content by end-users to carry out their intended tasks. The paper also proposes a preliminary model to establish a working link between theory and practice from the perspective of professional trainers and practitioners, calling for the latter to participate in the production of knowledge in a systematic fashion. While this proposal is driven by a rather intuitive conviction, a research line is needed to specify the methodological moves to establish the mediation strategies that would relate the components in the model of knowledge transfer proposed in this paper.

Keywords: knowledge transfer, misconceptions, specialized texts, translation theory, translation practice

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7 Exploring Students' Alternative Conception in Vector Components

Authors: Umporn Wutchana

Abstract:

An open ended problem and unstructured interview had been used to explore students’ conceptual and procedural understanding of vector components. The open ended problem had been designed based on research instrument used in previous physics education research. Without physical context, we asked students to find out magnitude and draw graphical form of vector components. The open ended problem was given to 211 first year students of faculty of science during the third (summer) semester in 2014 academic year. The students spent approximately 15 minutes of their second time of the General Physics I course to complete the open ended problem after they had failed. Consequently, their responses were classified based on the similarity of errors performed in the responses. Then, an unstructured interview was conducted. 7 students were randomly selected and asked to reason and explain their answers. The study results showed that 53% of 211 students provided correct numerical magnitude of vector components while 10.9% of them confused and punctuated the magnitude of vectors in x- with y-components. Others 20.4% provided just symbols and the last 15.6% gave no answer. When asking to draw graphical form of vector components, only 10% of 211 students made corrections. A majority of them produced errors and revealed alternative conceptions. 46.5% drew longer and/or shorter magnitude of vector components. 43.1% drew vectors in different forms or wrote down other symbols. Results from the unstructured interview indicated that some students just memorized the method to get numerical magnitude of x- and y-components. About graphical form of component vectors, some students though that the length of component vectors should be shorter than those of the given one. So then, it could be combined to be equal length of the given vectors while others though that component vectors should has the same length as the given vectors. It was likely to be that many students did not develop a strong foundation of understanding in vector components but just learn by memorizing its solution or the way to compute its magnitude and attribute little meaning to such concept.

Keywords: Vectors, misconceptions, alternative conceptions, graphical vectors, vector components

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6 Teaching English as a Foreign Language: Insights from the Philippine Context

Authors: Arlene Villarama, Micol Grace Guanzon, Zenaida Ramos

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This paper provides insights into teaching English as a Foreign Language in the Philippines. The authors reviewed relevant theories and literature, and provide an analysis of the issues in teaching English in the Philippine setting in the light of these theories. The authors made an investigation in Bagong Barrio National High School (BBNHS) - a public school in Caloocan City. The institution has a population of nearly 3,000 students. The performances of randomly chosen 365 respondents were scrutinised. The study regarding the success of teaching English as a foreign language to Filipino children were highlighted. This includes the respondents’ family background, surroundings, way of living, and their behavior and understanding regarding education. The results show that there is a significant relationship between demonstrative, communal, and logical areas that touch the efficacy of introducing English as a foreign Dialectal. Filipino children, by nature, are adventurous and naturally joyful even for little things. They are born with natural skills and capabilities to discover new things. They highly consider activities and work that ignite their curiosity. They love to be recognised and are inspired the most when given the assurance of acceptance and belongingness. Fun is the appealing influence to ignite and motivate learning. The magic word is excitement. The study reveals the many facets of the accumulation and transmission of erudition, in introduction and administration of English as a foreign phonological; it runs and passes through different channels of diffusion. Along the way, there are particles that act as obstructions in protocols where knowledge are to be gathered. Data gained from the respondents conceals a reality that is beyond one’s imagination. One significant factor that touches the inefficacy of understanding and using English as a foreign language is an erroneous outset gained from an old belief handed down from generation to generation. This accepted perception about the power and influence of the use of language, gives the novices either a negative or a positive notion. The investigation shows that a higher number of dislikes in the use of English can be tracked down from the belief of the story on how the English language came into existence. The belief that only the great and the influential have the right to use English as a means of communication kills the joy of acceptance. A significant notation has to be examined so as to provide a solution or if not eradicate the misconceptions that lie behind the substance of the matter. The result of the authors’ research depicts a substantial correlation between the emotional (demonstrative), social (communal), and intellectual (logical). The focus of this paper is to bring out the right notation and disclose the misconceptions with regards to teaching English as a foreign language. This will concentrate on the emotional, social, and intellectual areas of the Filipino learners and how these areas affect the transmittance and accumulation of learning. The authors’ aim is to formulate logical ways and techniques that would open up new beginnings in understanding and acceptance of the subject matter.

Keywords: Behaviour, accumulation, misconceptions, transmittance, facets

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5 Use of Concept Maps as a Tool for Evaluating Students' Understanding of Science

Authors: Aregamalage Sujeewa Vijayanthi Polgampala, Fang Huang

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This study explores the genesis and development of concept mapping as a useful tool for science education and its effectiveness as technique for teaching and learning and evaluation for secondary science in schools and the role played by National College of Education science teachers. Concept maps, when carefully employed and executed serves as an integral part of teaching method and measure of effectiveness of teaching and tool for evaluation. Research has shown that science concept maps can have positive influence on student learning and motivation. The success of concept maps played in an instruction class depends on the type of theme selected, the development of learning outcomes, and the flexibility of instruction in providing library unit that is equipped with multimedia equipment where learners can interact. The study was restricted to 6 male and 9 female respondents' teachers in third-year internship pre service science teachers in Gampaha district Sri Lanka. Data were collected through 15 item questionnaire provided to learners and in depth interviews and class observations of 18 science classes. The two generated hypotheses for the study were rejected, while the results revealed that significant difference exists between factors influencing teachers' choice of concept maps, its usefulness and problems hindering the effectiveness of concept maps for teaching and learning process of secondary science in schools. It was examined that concept maps can be used as an effective measure to evaluate students understanding of concepts and misconceptions. Even the teacher trainees could not identify, key concept is on top, and subordinate concepts fall below. It is recommended that pre service science teacher trainees should be provided a thorough training using it as an evaluation instrument.

Keywords: Evaluation, ​Learning Science, misconceptions, concept maps

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4 Common Misconceptions around Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Rural Uganda: Establishing the Role for Patient Education Leaflets Using Patient and Staff Surveys

Authors: Simon Collin, Kevin Jones, Harriet Bothwell, Sara Qandil, Lowri Evans

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Background: Uganda suffers from high rates of HIV. Misconceptions around HIV are known to be prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Two of the most common misconceptions in Uganda are that HIV can be transmitted by mosquito bites or from sharing food. The aim of this project was to establish the local misconceptions around HIV in a Central Ugandan population, and identify if there is a role for patient education leaflets. This project was undertaken as a student selected component (SSC) offered by Swindon Academy, based at the Great Western Hospital, to medical students in their fourth year of the undergraduate programme. Methods: The study was conducted at Villa Maria Hospital; a private, rural hospital in Kalungu District, Central Uganda. 36 patients, 23 from the hospital clinic and 13 from the community were interviewed regarding their understanding of HIV and by what channels they had obtained this understanding. Interviews were conducted using local student nurses as translators. Verbal responses were translated and then transcribed by the researcher. The same 36 patients then undertook a 'misconception' test consisting of 35 questions. Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics and results were scored based on three components of 'transmission knowledge', 'prevention knowledge' and 'misconception rejection'. Each correct response to a question was scored one point, otherwise zero e.g. correctly rejecting a misconception scored one point, but answering ‘yes’ or ‘don’t know’ scored zero. Scores ≤ 27 (the average score) were classified as having ‘poor understanding’. Mean scores were compared between participants seen at the HIV clinic and in the community, and p-values (including Fisher’s exact test) were calculated using Stata 2015. Level of significance was set at 0.05. Interviews with 7 members of staff working in the HIV clinic were undertaken to establish what methods of communication are used to educate patients. Interviews were transcribed and thematic analysis undertaken. Results: The commonest misconceptions which failed to be rejected included transmission of HIV by kissing (78%), mosquitoes (69%) and touching (36%). 33% believed HIV may be prevented by praying. The overall mean scores for transmission knowledge (87.5%) and prevention knowledge (81.1%) were better than misconception rejection scores (69.3%). HIV clinic respondents did tend to have higher scores, i.e. fewer misconceptions, although there was statistical evidence of a significant difference only for prevention knowledge (p=0.03). Analysis of the qualitative data is ongoing but several patients expressed concerns about not being able to read and therefore leaflets not having a helpful role. Conclusions: Results from this paper identified that a high proportion of the population studied held misconceptions about HIV. Qualitative data suggests that there may be a role for patient education leaflets, if pictorial-based and suitable for those with low literacy skill.

Keywords: HIV, Patient Education, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, misconceptions, Sub-Saharan Africa, Uganda

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3 Relativity in Toddlers' Understanding of the Physical World as Key to Misconceptions in the Science Classroom

Authors: Michael Hast

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Within their first year, infants can differentiate between objects based on their weight. By at least 5 years children hold consistent weight-related misconceptions about the physical world, such as that heavy things fall faster than lighter ones because of their weight. Such misconceptions are seen as a challenge for science education since they are often highly resistant to change through instruction. Understanding the time point of emergence of such ideas could, therefore, be crucial for early science pedagogy. The paper thus discusses two studies that jointly address the issue by examining young children’s search behaviour in hidden displacement tasks under consideration of relative object weight. In both studies, they were tested with a heavy or a light ball, and they either had information about one of the balls only or both. In Study 1, 88 toddlers aged 2 to 3½ years watched a ball being dropped into a curved tube and were then allowed to search for the ball in three locations – one straight beneath the tube entrance, one where the curved tube lead to, and one that corresponded to neither of the previous outcomes. Success and failure at the task were not impacted by weight of the balls alone in any particular way. However, from around 3 years onwards, relative lightness, gained through having tactile experience of both balls beforehand, enhanced search success. Conversely, relative heaviness increased search errors such that children increasingly searched in the location immediately beneath the tube entry – known as the gravity bias. In Study 2, 60 toddlers aged 2, 2½ and 3 years watched a ball roll down a ramp and behind a screen with four doors, with a barrier placed along the ramp after one of four doors. Toddlers were allowed to open the doors to find the ball. While search accuracy generally increased with age, relative weight did not play a role in 2-year-olds’ search behaviour. Relative lightness improved 2½-year-olds’ searches. At 3 years, both relative lightness and relative heaviness had a significant impact, with the former improving search accuracy and the latter reducing it. Taken together, both studies suggest that between 2 and 3 years of age, relative object weight is increasingly taken into consideration in navigating naïve physical concepts. In particular, it appears to contribute to the early emergence of misconceptions relating to object weight. This insight from developmental psychology research may have consequences for early science education and related pedagogy towards early conceptual change.

Keywords: misconceptions, conceptual development, early science education, intuitive physics, object weight

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2 Interactive Lecture Demonstration and Inquiry-Based Instruction in Addressing Students' Misconceptions in Electric Circuits

Authors: Mark Anthony Casimiro, Ivan Culaba, Cornelia Soto

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Misconceptions are the wrong concepts understood by the students which may come up based on what they experience and observe around their environment. This seemed to hinder students’ learning. In this study, six different misconceptions were determined by the researcher from the previous researches. Teachers play a vital role in the classroom. The use of appropriate strategies can contribute a lot in the success of teaching and learning Physics. The current study aimed to compare two strategies- Interactive Lecture Demonstration (ILD) and Inquiry-Based Instruction (IBI) in addressing students’ misconceptions in electric circuits. These two strategies are both interactive learning activities and student-centered. In ILD, the teacher demonstrates the activity and the students have their predictions while in IBI, students perform the experiments. The study used the mixed method in which quantitative and qualitative researches were combined. The main data of this study were the test scores of the students from the pretest and posttest. Likewise, an interview with the teacher, observer and students was done before, during and after the execution of the activities. Determining and Interpreting Resistive Electric Circuits Test version 2 (DIRECT v.2) was the instrument used in the study. Two sections of Grade 9 students from Kalumpang National High School were the respondents of the study. The two strategies were executed to each section; one class was assigned as the ILD group and the other class was the IBI group. The Physics teacher of the said school was the one who taught and executed the activities. The researcher taught the teacher the steps in doing the two strategies. The Department of Education level of proficiency in the Philippines was adopted in scoring and interpretation. The students’ level of proficiency was used in assessing students’ knowledge on electric circuits. The pretest result of the two groups had a p-value of 0.493 which was greater than the level of significance 0.05 (p >0.05) and it implied that the students’ level of understanding in the topic was the same before the execution of the strategies. The posttest results showed that the p-value (0.228) obtained was greater than the level of significance which is 0.05 (p> 0.05). This implied that the students from the ILD and IBI groups had the same level of understanding after the execution of the two strategies. This could be inferred that either of the two strategies- Interactive Lecture Demonstration and Inquiry-Based Instruction could be used in addressing students’ misconception in electric circuit as both had similar effect on the students’ level of understanding in the topic. The result of this study may greatly help teachers, administration, school heads think of appropriate strategies that can address misconceptions depending on the availability of their materials of their school.

Keywords: misconceptions, mixed method, inquiry- based instruction, interactive lecture demonstration

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1 Errors and Misconceptions for Students with Mathematical Learning Disabilities: Quest for Suitable Teaching Strategy

Authors: A. K. Tsafe

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The study investigates the efficacy of Special Mathematics Teaching Strategy (SMTS) as against Conventional Mathematics Teaching Strategy (CMTS) in teaching students identified with Mathematics Learning Disabilities (MLDs) – dyslexia, Down syndrome, dyscalculia, etc., in some junior secondary schools around Sokoto metropolis. Errors and misconceptions in learning Mathematics displayed by these categories of students were observed. Theory of variation was used to provide a prism for viewing the MLDs from theoretical perspective. Experimental research design was used, involving pretest-posttest non-randomized approach. Pretest was administered to the intact class taught using CMTS before the class was split into experimental and control groups. Experimental group of the students – those identified with MLDs was taught with SMTS and later mean performance of students taught using the two strategies was sought to find if there was any significant difference between the performances of the students. A null hypothesis was tested at α = 0.05 level of significance. T-test was used to establish the difference between the mean performances of the two tests. The null hypothesis was rejected. Hence, the performance of students, identified with MLDs taught using SMTS was found to be better than their earlier performance taught using CMTS. The study, therefore, recommends amongst other things that teachers should be encouraged to use SMTS in teaching mathematics especially when students are found to be suffering from MLDs and exhibiting errors and misconceptions in the process of learning mathematics.

Keywords: Learning, Disabilities, Errors, misconceptions

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