Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

MIPS Related Abstracts

5 A Sub-Scalar Approach to the MIPS Architecture

Authors: Kumar Sambhav Pandey, Anamika Singh


The continuous researches in the field of computer architecture basically aims at accelerating the computational speed and to gain enhanced performance. In this era, the superscalar, sub-scalar concept has not gained enough attention for improving the computation performance. In this paper, we have presented a sub-scalar approach to utilize the parallelism present with in the data while processing. The main idea is to split the data into individual smaller entities and these entities are processed with a defined known set of instructions. This sub-scalar approach to the MIPS architecture can bring out significant improvement in the computational speedup. MIPS-I is the basic design taken in consideration for the development of sub-scalar MIPS64 for increasing the instruction level parallelism (ILP) and resource utilization.

Keywords: Processor, dataword, MIPS, sub-scalar

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4 Carbon Based Classification of Aquaporin Proteins: A New Proposal

Authors: Parul Johri, Mala Trivedi


Major Intrinsic proteins (MIPs), actively involved in the passive transport of small polar molecules across the membranes of almost all living organisms. MIPs that specifically transport water molecules are named aquaporins (AQPs). The permeability of membranes is actively controlled by the regulation of the amount of different MIPs present but also in some cases by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the channel. Based on sequence similarity, MIPs have been classified into many categories. All of the proteins are made up of the 20 amino acids, the only difference is there in their orientations. Again all the 20 amino acids are made up of the basic five elements namely: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur and nitrogen. These elements are responsible for giving the amino acids the properties of hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity which play an important role in protein interactions. The hydrophobic amino acids characteristically have greater number of carbon atoms as carbon is the main element which contributes to hydrophobic interactions in proteins. It is observed that the carbon level of proteins in different species is different. In the present work, we have taken a sample set of 150 aquaporins proteins from Uniprot database and a dynamic programming code was written to calculate the carbon percentage for each sequence. This carbon percentage was further used to barcode the aqauporins of animals and plants. The protein taken from Oryza sativa, Zea mays and Arabidopsis thaliana preferred to have carbon percentage of 31.8 to 35, whereas on the other hand sequences taken from Mus musculus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens, Bos Taurus, and Rattus norvegicus preferred to have carbon percentage of 31 to 33.7. This clearly demarks the carbon range in the aquaporin proteins from plant and animal origin. Hence the atom level analysis of protein sequences can provide us with better results as compared to the residue level comparison.

Keywords: Carbon, Aquaporins, MIPS, dynamic prgramming

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3 Comparison of a Capacitive Sensor Functionalized with Natural or Synthetic Receptors Selective towards Benzo(a)Pyrene

Authors: Natalia V. Beloglazova, Pieterjan Lenain, Martin Hedstrom, Dietmar Knopp, Sarah De Saeger


In recent years polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which represent a hazard to humans and entire ecosystem, have been receiving an increased interest due to their mutagenic, carcinogenic and endocrine disrupting properties. They are formed in all incomplete combustion processes of organic matter and, as a consequence, ubiquitous in the environment. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is on the priority list published by the Environmental Agency (US EPA) as the first PAH to be identified as a carcinogen and has often been used as a marker for PAHs contamination in general. It can be found in different types of water samples, therefore, the European Commission set up a limit value of 10 ng L–1 (10 ppt) for BAP in water intended for human consumption. Generally, different chromatographic techniques are used for PAHs determination, but these assays require pre-concentration of analyte, create large amounts of solvent waste, and are relatively time consuming and difficult to perform on-site. An alternative robust, stand-alone, and preferably cheap solution is needed. For example, a sensing unit which can be submerged in a river to monitor and continuously sample BaP. An affinity sensor based on capacitive transduction was developed. Natural antibodies or their synthetic analogues can be used as ligands. Ideally the sensor should operate independently over a longer period of time, e.g. several weeks or months, therefore the use of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was discussed. MIPs are synthetic antibodies which are selective for a chosen target molecule. Their robustness allows application in environments for which biological recognition elements are unsuitable or denature. They can be reused multiple times, which is essential to meet the stand-alone requirement. BaP is a highly lipophilic compound and does not contain any functional groups in its structure, thus excluding non-covalent imprinting methods based on ionic interactions. Instead, the MIPs syntheses were based on non-covalent hydrophobic and π-π interactions. Different polymerization strategies were compared and the best results were demonstrated by the MIPs produced using electropolymerization. 4-vinylpyridin (VP) and divinylbenzene (DVB) were used as monomer and cross-linker in the polymerization reaction. The selectivity and recovery of the MIP were compared to a non-imprinted polymer (NIP). Electrodes were functionalized with natural receptor (monoclonal anti-BaP antibody) and with MIPs selective towards BaP. Different sets of electrodes were evaluated and their properties such as sensitivity, selectivity and linear range were determined and compared. It was found that both receptor can reach the cut-off level comparable to the established ML, and despite the fact that the antibody showed the better cross-reactivity and affinity, MIPs were more convenient receptor due to their ability to regenerate and stability in river till 7 days.

Keywords: river water, Antibody, capacitive sensor, MIPS, benzo(a)pyrene

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2 Synthesis of MIPs towards Precursors and Intermediates of Illicit Drugs and Their following Application in Sensing Unit

Authors: K. Graniczkowska, N. Beloglazova, S. De Saeger


The threat of synthetic drugs is one of the most significant current drug problems worldwide. The use of drugs of abuse has increased dramatically during the past three decades. Among others, Amphetamine-Type Stimulants (ATS) are globally the second most widely used drugs after cannabis, exceeding the use of cocaine and heroin. ATS are potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulants, capable of inducing euphoric static similar to cocaine. Recreational use of ATS is widespread, even though warnings of irreversible damage of the CNS were reported. ATS pose a big problem and their production contributes to the pollution of the environment by discharging big volumes of liquid waste to sewage system. Therefore, there is a demand to develop robust and sensitive sensors that can detect ATS and their intermediates in environmental water samples. A rapid and simple test is required. Analysis of environmental water samples (which sometimes can be a harsh environment) using antibody-based tests cannot be applied. Therefore, molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs), which are known as synthetic antibodies, have been chosen for that approach. MIPs are characterized with a high mechanical and thermal stability, show chemical resistance in a broad pH range and various organic or aqueous solvents. These properties make them the preferred type of receptors for application in the harsh conditions imposed by environmental samples. To the best of our knowledge, there are no existing MIPs-based sensors toward amphetamine and its intermediates. Also not many commercial MIPs for this application are available. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare different techniques to obtain MIPs with high specificity towards ATS and characterize them for following use in a sensing unit. MIPs against amphetamine and its intermediates were synthesized using a few different techniques, such as electro-, thermo- and UV-initiated polymerization. Different monomers, cross linkers and initiators, in various ratios, were tested to obtain the best sensitivity and polymers properties. Subsequently, specificity and selectivity were compared with commercially available MIPs against amphetamine. Different linkers, such as lipoic acid, 3-mercaptopioponic acid and tyramine were examined, in combination with several immobilization techniques, to select the best procedure for attaching particles on sensor surface. Performed experiments allowed choosing an optimal method for the intended sensor application. Stability of MIPs in extreme conditions, such as highly acidic or basic was determined. Obtained results led to the conclusion about MIPs based sensor applicability in sewage system testing.

Keywords: Sensor, Environment, MIPS, amphetamine type stimulants, molecular imprinted polymers

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1 Run-Time Customisation of Soft-Core CPUs on Field Programmable Gate Array

Authors: Rehab Abdullah Shendi


The use of customised soft-core processors in which instructions can be integrated into a system in application hardware is increasing in the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) field. Specifically, the partial run-time reconfiguration of FPGAs in specialised processors for a particular domain can be very beneficial. In this report, the design and implementation for the customisation of a soft-core MIPS processor using an FPGA and partial reconfiguration (PR) of FPGA technology will be addressed to achieve efficient resource use. This can be achieved using a PR design flow that helps the design fit into a smaller device. Moreover, the impact of static power consumption could be reduced due to runtime reconfiguration. This will be done by configurable custom instructions implemented in the hardware as an extension on the MIPS CPU. The aim of this project is to investigate the PR of FPGAs for run-time adaptations of the instruction set of a soft-core CPU, including the integration of custom instructions and the exploration of the potential to use the MultiBoot feature available in Xilinx FPGAs to carry out the PR process. The system will be evaluated and tested on a Nexus 3 development board featuring a Xilinx Spartran-6 FPGA. The system will be able to load reconfigurable custom instructions dynamically into user programs with the help of the trap handler when the custom instruction is called by the MIPS CPU. The results of this experiment demonstrate that custom instructions in hardware can speed up a certain function and many instructions can be saved when compared to a software implementation of the same function. Implementing custom instructions in hardware is perfectly possible and worth exploring.

Keywords: FPGA, MIPS, customisation, partial reconfiguration

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