Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Mining Related Abstracts

28 Thai Perception on Litecoin Value

Authors: Suwaree Yordchim, Toby Gibbs


This research analyzes factors affecting the success of Litecoin Value within Thailand and develops a guideline for self-reliance for effective business implementation. Samples in this study included 119 people through surveys. The results revealed four main factors affecting the success as follows: 1) Future Career training should be pursued in applied Litecoin development. 2) Didn't grasp the concept of a digital currency or see the benefit of a digital currency. 3) There is a great need to educate the next generation of learners on the benefits of Litecoin within the community. 4) A great majority didn't know what Litecoin was. The guideline for self-reliance planning consisted of 4 aspects: 1) Development planning: by arranging meet up groups to conduct further education on Litecoin and share solutions on adoption into every day usage. Local communities need to develop awareness of the usefulness of Litecoin and share the value of Litecoin among friends and family. 2) Computer Science and Business Management staff should develop skills to expand on the benefits of Litecoin within their departments. 3) Further research should be pursued on how Litecoin Value can improve business and tourism within Thailand. 4) Local communities should focus on developing Litecoin awareness by encouraging street vendors to accept Litecoin as another form of payment for services rendered.

Keywords: Mining, litecoin, confirmations, payment method

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27 Message Framework for Disaster Management: An Application Model for Mines

Authors: A. Baloğlu, A. Çınar


Different tools and technologies were implemented for Crisis Response and Management (CRM) which is generally using available network infrastructure for information exchange. Depending on type of disaster or crisis, network infrastructure could be affected and it could not be able to provide reliable connectivity. Thus any tool or technology that depends on the connectivity could not be able to fulfill its functionalities. As a solution, a new message exchange framework has been developed. Framework provides offline/online information exchange platform for CRM Information Systems (CRMIS) and it uses XML compression and packet prioritization algorithms and is based on open source web technologies. By introducing offline capabilities to the web technologies, framework will be able to perform message exchange on unreliable networks. The experiments done on the simulation environment provide promising results on low bandwidth networks (56kbps and 28.8 kbps) with up to 50% packet loss and the solution is to successfully transfer all the information on these low quality networks where the traditional 2 and 3 tier applications failed.

Keywords: Web services, Mining, crisis response and management, XML messaging, XML compression

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
26 Mine Production Index (MPi): New Method to Evaluate Effectiveness of Mining Machinery

Authors: Amol Lanke, Hadi Hoseinie, Behzad Ghodrati


OEE has been used in many industries as measure of performance. However due to limitations of original OEE, it has been modified by various researchers. OEE for mining application is special version of classic equation, carries these limitation over. In this paper it has been aimed to modify the OEE for mining application by introducing the weights to the elements of it and termed as Mine Production index (MPi). As a special application of new index MPi shovel has been developed by team of experts and researchers for evaluating the shovel effectiveness. Based on analysis, utilization followed by performance and availability were ranked in this order. To check the applicability of this index, a case study was done on four electrical and one hydraulic shovel in a Swedish mine. The results shows that MPishovelcan properly evaluate production effectiveness of shovels and determine effectiveness values in optimistic view compared to OEE. MPi with calculation not only give the effectiveness but also can predict which elements should be focused for improving the productivity.

Keywords: Mining, overall equipment efficiency (OEE), mine production index, shovels

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25 Environmental Impact Assessments in Peru: Tools for Violence

Authors: Nadia Degregori


This paper focuses on Peru’s Environmental Impact Assessment’s communication and participation mechanisms, whose rationale is to prevent conflictive situations by –supposedly- providing high-quality information about mining projects and their impacts to affected stakeholders. It is argued that, in fact, these mechanisms enhance citizens’ feelings of fear and/or mistrust towards mining projects and the companies behind them because their design follows a top-down perspective that limits “participation” to a passive reception of information, and which does not address power unbalances between communities and companies or government. As well, the paper contends that this way of managing the social aspects of Environmental Impact Assessments in Peru leads stakeholders who possess less power (typically communities) to incline towards maintaining the status quo and avoiding negotiations with either the central government or mining companies as a defence mechanism for avoiding a bad negotiation.

Keywords: Mining, Community Relations, environmental impact assessments, governance and participation, Peru

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24 Mining and Ecological Events and its Impact on the Genesis and Geo-Distribution of Ebola Outbreaks in Africa

Authors: E Tambo, O. O. Olalubi, E. C. Ugwu, J. Y. Ngogang


Despite the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of international health emergency concern, the status quo of responses and efforts to stem the worst-recorded Ebola epidemic Ebola outbreak is still precariously inadequate in most of the affected in West. Mining natural resources have been shown to play a key role in both motivating and fuelling ethnic, civil and armed conflicts that have plagued a number of African countries over the last decade. Revenues from the exploitation of natural resources are not only used in sustaining the national economy but also armies, personal enrichment and building political support. Little is documented on the mining and ecological impact on the emergence and geographical distribution of Ebola in Africa over time and space. We aimed to provide a better understanding of the interconnectedness among issues of mining natural, resource management, mining conflict and post-conflict on Ebola outbreak and how wealth generated from abundant natural resources could be better managed in promoting research and development towards strengthening environmental, socioeconomic and health systems sustainability on Ebola outbreak and other emerging diseases surveillance and responses systems prevention and control, early warning alert, durable peace and sustainable development rather than to fuel conflicts, resurgence and emerging diseases epidemics in the perspective of community and national/regional approach. Our results showed the first assessment of systematic impact of all major minerals conflict events diffusion over space and time and mining activities on nine Ebola genesis and geo-distribution in affected countries across Africa. We demonstrate how, where and when mining activities in Africa increase ecological degradation, conflicts at the local level and then spreads violence across territory and time by enhancing the financial capacities of fighting groups/ethnics and diseases onset. In addition, led process of developing minimum standards for natural resource governance; improving governmental and civil society capacity for natural resource management, including the strengthening of monitoring and enforcement mechanisms; understanding the post-mining and conflicts community or national reconstruction and rehabilitation programmes in strengthening or developing community health systems and regulatory mechanisms. In addition the quest for the control over these resources and illegal mining across the landscape forest incursion provided increase environmental and ecological instability and displacement and disequilibrium, therefore affecting the intensity and duration of mining and conflict/wars and episode of Ebola outbreaks over time and space. We highlight the key findings and lessons learnt in promoting country or community-led process in transforming natural resource wealth from a peace liability to a peace asset. The imperative necessity for advocacy and through facilitating intergovernmental deliberations on critical issues and challenges affecting Africa community transforming exploitation of natural resources from a peace liability to outbreak prevention and control. The vital role of mining in increasing government revenues and expenditures, equitable distribution of wealth and health to all stakeholders, in particular local communities requires coordination, cooperative leadership and partnership in fostering sustainable developmental initiatives from mining context to outbreak and other infectious diseases surveillance responses systems in prevention and control, and judicious resource management.

Keywords: Ecological, Mining, Impact, Ebola, Mines, outbreak, mining conflicts, mining companies, miners

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23 Gold, Power, Protest, Examining How Digital Media and PGIS are Used to Protest the Mining Industry in Colombia

Authors: Doug Specht


This research project sought to explore the links between digital media, PGIS and social movement organisations in Tolima, Colombia. The primary aim of the research was to examine how knowledge is created and disseminated through digital media and GIS in the region, and whether there exists the infrastructure to allow for this. The second strand was to ascertain if this has had a significant impact on the way grassroots movements work and produce collective actions. The third element is a hypothesis about how digital media and PGIS could play a larger role in activist activities, particularly in reference to the extractive industries. Three theoretical strands have been brought together to provide a basis for this research, namely (a) the politics of knowledge, (b) spatial management and inclusion, and (c) digital media and political engagement. Quantitative data relating to digital media and mobile internet use was collated alongside qualitative data relating to the likelihood of using digital media in activist campaigns, with particular attention being given to grassroots movements working against extractive industries in the Tolima region of Colombia. Through interviews, surveys and GIS analysis it has been possible to build a picture of online activism and the role of PPGIS within protest movement in the region of Tolima, Colombia. Results show a gap between the desires of social movements to use digital media and the skills and finances required to implement programs that utilise it. Maps and GIS are generally reserved for legal cases rather than for informing the lay person. However, it became apparent that the combination of digital/social media and PPGIS could play a significant role in supporting the work of grassroots movements.

Keywords: Social Media, Mining, Digital Media, Social Movements, GIS, Protest, Colombia, PGIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
22 Mining in Peru and Local Governance: Assessing the Contribution of CRS Projects

Authors: Sandra Carrillo Hoyos


Mining activities in South America have significantly grown during the last decades, given the abundance of natural resources, the implemented governmental policies to incentivize foreign investment as well as the boom in international prices for metals and oil between 2002 and 2008. While this context allowed the region to occupy a leading position between the top producers of minerals around the world, it has also meant an increase in socio-environmental conflicts which have generated costs and negative impacts not only for the companies but especially for the governments and local communities.During the latest decade, the mining sector in Peru has faced with the social resistance of a large number of communities, which began organizing actions against the implementation of high investing projects. The dissatisfaction has derived in the prevalence of socio-environmental conflicts associated with mining activities, some of them never solved into an agreement. In order to prevent those socio-environmental conflicts and obtain the social license from local communities, most of the mining companies have developed diverse initiatives within the framework of policies and practices of corporate social responsibility (CSR). This paper has assessed the mining sector’s contribution toward the local development management along the last decade, as part of CSR strategies as well as the policies promoted by the Peruvian State. This assessment found that, in the beginning, these initiatives have been based on a philanthropic approach and were reacting to pressures from local stakeholders to maintain the consent to operate from the surrounding communities as well as to create, as a result, a harmonious atmosphere for operations. Due to the weak State presence, such practices have increased the expectations of communities related to the participation of mining companies in solving structural development problems, especially those related to primary needs, infrastructure, education, health, among others. In other words, this paper was focused on analyze in what extent these initiatives have promoted local empowerment for development planning and integrated management of natural resources from a territorial approach. From this perspective, the analysis demonstrates that, while the design and planning of social investment initiatives have improved due to the sector´s sustainability approach, many companies have developed actions beyond their competence during this process. In some cases, the referenced actions have generated dependency with communities, even though this relationship has not exempted the companies of conflict situations with unfortunate consequences. Furthermore, the social programs developed have not necessarily generated a significant impact in improving the quality of life of affected populations. In fact, it is possible to identify that those regions with high mining resources and investment are facing with a situation of poverty and high dependency on mining production. In spite of the revenues derived from mining industry, local governments have not been able to translate the royalties into sustainable development opportunities. For this reason, the proposed paper suggests some challenges for the mining sector contribution to local development based on the best practices and lessons learnt from a benchmarking for the leading mining companies.

Keywords: Mining, Corporate Social Responsibility, Local Development, socio-environmental conflict

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21 “It Isn’t a State Problem”: The Minas Conga Mine Controversy and Exemplifying the Need for Binding International Obligations on Corporate Actors

Authors: Cindy Woods


After years of implacable neoliberal globalization, multinational corporations have moved from the periphery to the center of the international legal agenda. Human rights advocates have long called for greater corporate accountability in the international arena. The creation of the Global Compact in 2000, while aimed at fostering greater corporate respect for human rights, did not silence these calls. After multiple unsuccessful attempts to adopt a set of norms relating to the human rights responsibilities of transnational corporations, the United Nations succeeded in 2008 with the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (Guiding Principles). The Guiding Principles, praised by some within the international human rights community for their recognition of an individual corporate responsibility to respect human rights, have not escaped their share of criticism. Many view the Guiding Principles to be toothless, failing to directly impose obligations upon corporations, and call for binding international obligations on corporate entities. After decades of attempting to promulgate human rights obligations for multinational corporations, the existing legal frameworks in place fall short of protecting individuals from the human rights abuses of multinational corporations. The Global Compact and Guiding Principles are proof of the United Nations’ unwillingness to impose international legal obligations on corporate actors. In June 2014, the Human Rights Council adopted a resolution to draft international legally binding human rights norms for business entities; however, key players in the international arena have already announced they will not cooperate with such efforts. This Note, through an overview of the existing corporate accountability frameworks and a study of Newmont Mining’s Minas Conga project in Peru, argues that binding international human rights obligations on corporations are necessary to fully protect human rights. Where states refuse to or simply cannot uphold their duty to protect individuals from transnational businesses’ human rights transgressions, there must exist mechanisms to pursue justice directly against the multinational corporation.

Keywords: Human Rights, Mining, Business and human rights, Latin America, international treaty on business and human rights

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
20 Data Mining Practices: Practical Studies on the Telecommunication Companies in Jordan

Authors: Dina Ahmad Alkhodary


This study aimed to investigate the practices of Data Mining on the telecommunication companies in Jordan, from the viewpoint of the respondents. In order to achieve the goal of the study, and test the validity of hypotheses, the researcher has designed a questionnaire to collect data from managers and staff members from main department in the researched companies. The results shows improvements stages of the telecommunications companies towered Data Mining.

Keywords: Business, Development, Mining, Data

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19 Data Mining Spatial: Unsupervised Classification of Geographic Data

Authors: Chahrazed Zouaoui


In recent years, the volume of geospatial information is increasing due to the evolution of communication technologies and information, this information is presented often by geographic information systems (GIS) and stored on of spatial databases (BDS). The classical data mining revealed a weakness in knowledge extraction at these enormous amounts of data due to the particularity of these spatial entities, which are characterized by the interdependence between them (1st law of geography). This gave rise to spatial data mining. Spatial data mining is a process of analyzing geographic data, which allows the extraction of knowledge and spatial relationships from geospatial data, including methods of this process we distinguish the monothematic and thematic, geo- Clustering is one of the main tasks of spatial data mining, which is registered in the part of the monothematic method. It includes geo-spatial entities similar in the same class and it affects more dissimilar to the different classes. In other words, maximize intra-class similarity and minimize inter similarity classes. Taking account of the particularity of geo-spatial data. Two approaches to geo-clustering exist, the dynamic processing of data involves applying algorithms designed for the direct treatment of spatial data, and the approach based on the spatial data pre-processing, which consists of applying clustering algorithms classic pre-processed data (by integration of spatial relationships). This approach (based on pre-treatment) is quite complex in different cases, so the search for approximate solutions involves the use of approximation algorithms, including the algorithms we are interested in dedicated approaches (clustering methods for partitioning and methods for density) and approaching bees (biomimetic approach), our study is proposed to design very significant to this problem, using different algorithms for automatically detecting geo-spatial neighborhood in order to implement the method of geo- clustering by pre-treatment, and the application of the bees algorithm to this problem for the first time in the field of geo-spatial.

Keywords: Mining, GIS, Neighborhood, geo-clustering

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18 Assessment of Indigenous People Living Condition in Coal Mining Region: An Evidence from Dhanbad, India

Authors: Arun Kumar Yadav


Coal contributes a significant role in India’s developmental mission. But, ironically, on the other side it causes large scale population displacement and significant changes in indigenous people’s livelihood mechanism. Dhanbad which is regarded as one of the oldest and large mining area, as well as a “Coal Capital of India”. Here, mining exploration work started nearly a century ago. But with the passage of time, mining brings a lot of changes in the life of local people. In this context, study tries to do comparative situational analysis of the changes in the living condition of dwellers living in mines affected and non-mines affected villages based on livelihood approach. Since, this place has long history of mining so it is very difficult to conduct before and after comparison between mines and non-mines affected areas. Consequently, the present study is based on relative comparison approach to elucidate the actual scenario. By using primary survey data which was collected by the author during the month of September 2014 to March 2015 at Dhanbad, Jharkhand. The data were collected from eight villages, these were categorised broadly into mines and non-mines affected villages. Further at micro level, mines affected villages has been categorised into open cast and underground mines. This categorization will help us to capture the deeper understanding about the issues of mine affected villages group. Total of 400 household were surveyed. Result depicts that in every sphere mining affected villages are more vulnerable. Regarding financial capital, although mine affected villages are engaged in mining work and get higher mean income. But in contrast, non-mine affected villages are more occupationally diversified. They have an opportunity to earn money from diversified extents like agricultural land, working in mining area, selling coal informally as well as receiving remittances. Non-mines affected villages are in better physical capital which comprises of basic infrastructure to support livelihood. They have an access to secured shelter, adequate water supply & sanitation, and affordable information and transport. Mining affected villages are more prone to health risks. Regarding social capital, it shows that in comparison to last five years, law and order has been improved in mine affected villages.

Keywords: Mining, Indigenous, Displacement, livelihood

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17 Study of the Stability of Underground Mines by Numerical Method: The Mine Chaabet El Hamra, Algeria

Authors: Nakache Radouane, M. Boukelloul, M. Fredj


Method room and pillar sizes are key factors for safe mining and their recovery in open-stop mining. This method is advantageous due to its simplicity and requirement of little information to be used. It is probably the most representative method among the total load approach methods although it also remains a safe design method. Using a finite element software (PLAXIS 3D), analyses were carried out with an elasto-plastic model and comparisons were made with methods based on the total load approach. The results were presented as the optimization for improving the ore recovery rate while maintaining a safe working environment.

Keywords: Mining, elasto-plastic, room and pillar, total load approach

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16 Project Risk Assessment of the Mining Industry of Ghana

Authors: Charles Amoatey


The issue of risk in the mining industry is a global phenomenon and the Ghanaian mining industry is not exempted. The main purpose of this study is to identify the critical risk factors affecting the mining industry. The study takes an integrated view of the mining industry by examining the contribution of various risk factors to mining project failure in Ghana. A questionnaire survey was conducted to solicit the critical risk factors from key mining practitioners. About 80 respondents from 11 mining firms participated in the survey. The study identified 22 risk factors contributing to mining project failure in Ghana. The five most critical risk factors based on both probability of occurrence and impact were: (1) unstable commodity prices, (2) inflation/exchange rate, (3) land degradation, (4) high cost of living and (5) government bureaucracy for obtaining licenses. Furthermore, the study found that risk assessment in the mining sector has a direct link with mining project sustainability. Mitigation measures for addressing the identified risk factors were discussed. The key findings emphasize the need for a comprehensive risk management culture in the entire mining industry.

Keywords: Mining, Risk, Assessment, Ghana

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15 A GIS Based Composite Land Degradation Assessment and Mapping of Tarkwa Mining Area

Authors: Bernard Kumi-Boateng, Kofi Bonsu


The clearing of vegetation in the Tarkwa Mining Area (TMA) for the purposes of mining, lumbering and development of settlement for the increasing population has caused a large scale denudation of the forest cover and erosion of the top soil thereby degrading the agriculture land. It is, therefore, essential to know the current status of land degradation in TMA so as to facilitate land conservation policy-making. The types of degradation, the extents of the degradations and their various degrees were combined to develop a composite land degradation index to assess the current status of land degradation in TMA using GIS based techniques. The assessment revealed that the most significant types of degradation in TMA were open pit and quarry mining; urbanisation and other construction projects; and surface scraping during land clearing. It was found that 21.62 % of the total area of TMA (353.07 km2) had high degradation index rating. It is recommended that decision makers use this assessment as a reference point for future initiatives that will be taken in order to develop land conservation policy.

Keywords: Mining, land, GIS, degradation

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14 The Women-In-Mining Discourse: A Study Combining Corpus Linguistics and Discourse Analysis

Authors: Ylva Fältholm, Cathrine Norberg


One of the major threats identified to successful future mining is that women do not find the industry attractive. Many attempts have been made, for example in Sweden and Australia, to create organizational structures and mining communities attractive to both genders. Despite such initiatives, many mining areas are developing into gender-segregated fly-in/fly out communities dominated by men with both social and economic consequences. One of the challenges facing many mining companies is thus to break traditional gender patterns and structures. To do this increased knowledge about gender in the context of mining is needed. Since language both constitutes and reproduces knowledge, increased knowledge can be gained through an exploration and description of the mining discourse from a gender perspective. The aim of this study is to explore what conceptual ideas are activated in connection to the physical/geographical mining area and to work within the mining industry. We use a combination of critical discourse analysis implying close reading of selected texts, such as policy documents, interview materials, applications and research and innovation agendas, and analyses of linguistic patterns found in large language corpora covering millions of words of contemporary language production. The quantitative corpus data serves as a point of departure for the qualitative analysis of the texts, that is, suggests what patterns to explore further. The study shows that despite technological and organizational development, one of the most persistent discourses about mining is the conception of dangerous and unfriendly areas infused with traditional notions of masculinity ideals and manual hard work. Although some of the texts analyzed highlight gender issues, and describe gender-equalizing initiatives, such as wage-mapping systems, female networks and recruitment efforts for women executives, and thereby render the discourse less straightforward, it is shown that these texts are not unambiguous examples of a counter-discourse. They rather illustrate that discourses are not stable but include opposing discourses, in dialogue with each other. For example, many texts highlight why and how women are important to mining, at the same time as they suggest that gender and diversity are all about women: why mining is a problem for them, how they should be, and what they should do to fit in. Drawing on a constitutive view of discourse, knowledge about such conflicting perceptions of women is a prerequisite for succeeding in attracting women to the mining industry and thereby contributing to the development of future mining.

Keywords: Gender, Mining, Corpus Linguistics, discourse

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13 Environmental Monitoring by Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Images and Spatial Data: A Case Study of Mineral Exploitation in Brazilian Federal District, Brazil

Authors: Maria De Albuquerque Bercot, Caio Gustavo Mesquita Angelo, Daniela Maria Moreira Siqueira, Augusto Assucena De Vasconcellos, Rodrigo Studart Correa


Mining is an important socioeconomic activity in Brazil although it negatively impacts the environment. Mineral operations cause irreversible changes in topography, removal of vegetation and topsoil, habitat destruction, displacement of fauna, loss of biodiversity, soil erosion, siltation of watercourses and have potential to enhance climate change. Due to the impacts and its pollution potential, mining activity in Brazil is legally subjected to environmental licensing. Unlicensed mining operations or operations that not abide to the terms of an obtained license are taken as environmental crimes in the country. This work reports a case analyzed in the Forensic Institute of the Brazilian Federal District Civil Police. The case consisted of detecting illegal aspects of sand exploitation from a licensed mine in Federal District, nearby Brasilia city. The fieldwork covered an area of roughly 6 ha, which was surveyed with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) (PHANTOM 3 ADVANCED). The overflight with UAV took about 20 min, with maximum flight height of 100 m. 592 UAV georeferenced images were obtained and processed in a photogrammetric software (AGISOFT PHOTOSCAN 1.1.4), which generated a mosaic of geo-referenced images and a 3D model in less than six working hours. The 3D model was analyzed in a forensic software for accurate modeling and volumetric analysis. (MAPTEK I-SITE FORENSIC 2.2). To ensure the 3D model was a true representation of the mine site, coordinates of ten control points and reference measures were taken during fieldwork and compared to respective spatial data in the model. Finally, these spatial data were used for measuring mining area, excavation depth and volume of exploited sand. Results showed that mine holder had not complied with some terms and conditions stated in the granted license, such as sand exploration beyond authorized extension, depth and volume. Easiness, the accuracy and expedition of procedures used in this case highlight the employment of UAV imagery and computational photogrammetry as efficient tools for outdoor forensic exams, especially on environmental issues.

Keywords: Mining, Environmental Monitoring, UAV, computational photogrammetry

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12 Passive Attenuation of Nitrogen Species at Northern Mine Sites

Authors: Patrick Mueller, Alan Martin, Justin Stockwell, Robert Goldblatt


Elevated concentrations of inorganic nitrogen (N) compounds (nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia) are a ubiquitous feature to mine-influenced drainages due to the leaching of blasting residues and use of cyanide in the milling of gold ores. For many mines, the management of N is a focus for environmental protection, therefore understanding the factors controlling the speciation and behavior of N is central to effective decision making. In this paper, the passive attenuation of ammonia and nitrite is described for three northern water bodies (two lakes and a tailings pond) influenced by mining activities. In two of the water bodies, inorganic N compounds originate from explosives residues in mine water and waste rock. The third water body is a decommissioned tailings impoundment, with N compounds largely originating from the breakdown of cyanide compounds used in the processing of gold ores. Empirical observations from water quality monitoring indicate nitrification (the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate) occurs in all three waterbodies, where enrichment of nitrate occurs commensurately with ammonia depletion. The N species conversions in these systems occurred more rapidly than chemical oxidation kinetics permit, indicating that microbial mediated conversion was occurring, despite the cool water temperatures. While nitrification of ammonia and nitrite to nitrate was the primary process, in all three waterbodies nitrite was consistently present at approximately 0.5 to 2.0 % of total N, even following ammonia depletion. The persistence of trace amounts of nitrite under these conditions suggests the co-occurrence denitrification processes in the water column and/or underlying substrates. The implications for N management in mine waters are discussed.

Keywords: Water, Mining, explosives, Nitrification

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11 Identification of Environmental Damage Due to Mining Area Bangka Islands in Indonesia

Authors: Aroma Elmina Martha


Environment affects the continuity of life and human well-being and the bodies of other living. Environmental quality is very closely related to the quality of life. Sustainability must be protected from damage due to the use of natural resources, such as tin mining in Bangka island. This research is a descriptive study, which identifies the environmental damage caused by mining land and sea in Bangka district. The approach used is juridical, social and economic. The study uses primary legal materials, secondary, and tertiary, equipped with field research. The analysis technique used is qualitative analysis. The impacts of mining on land among other physical and chemical damage, erosion and widening the depth of the river, a pool of micro-climate, the quality and feasibility, vegetation, wildlife and biodiversity, land values, social and economic. This mining causes damage to the soil structure, and puddles in the former digs which were not backfilled again. The impact of mining on the ocean such as changes in current surge, erosion and abrasion basic coastal waters, shoreline change, marine water quality changes, and changes in marine communities. The findings of the research show that tin mining in the sea also potentially have a significant impact on the life of the reef, populations of marine organisms. However, mining on land needs to consider the impact of the damage, so that the damage can be minimized. In the recovery process needs to be pursued by exploiting the rest of the pile of tin. Thus, mining activities should take into account the distance of beach sediment size, wave height, wave length, wave period, and the acceleration of gravity. The process of the tin washing should be done in a fairly safe area, thus avoiding damage to the coral reefs that will eventually reduce the population of marine life.

Keywords: Mining, environmental damage, shoreline, abration

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10 The Curse of Natural Resources: An Empirical Analysis Applied to the Case of Copper Mining in Zambia

Authors: Chomba Kalunga


Many developing countries have a rich endowment of natural resources. Yet, amidst that wealth, living standards remain poor. At the same time, international markets have been surged with an increase in copper prices in the last twenty years. This is a presentation of the findings on the causal economic impact of Zambia’s copper mines, a country located in sub-Saharan Africa endowed with vast copper deposits on living standards using household data from 1996 to 2010, exploiting an episode where the copper prices on the international market were rising. Using an Instrumental Variable approach and controlling for constituency-level and microeconomic factors, the results show a significant impact of copper production on living standards. After splitting the constituencies close to and far away from the nearest mine, the results document that constituencies close to the mines benefited significantly from the increase in copper production, compared to their counterparts through increased levels of employment. Finally, the results are not consistent with the natural resource curse hypothesis; findings show a positive causal relationship between the presence of natural resources and socioeconomic outcomes in less developed countries, particularly for constituencies close to the mines in Zambia. Some key policy implications follow from the findings. The finding that increased copper production led to an increase in employment suggests that, in Zambias’ context, policies that promote local employment may be more beneficial to residents. Meaning that it is government policies that can help improve the living standards were government needs to work towards making this impact more substantial.

Keywords: Natural Resources, Mining, Local Development, copper prices

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9 Lessons from Farmers Performing Agroforestry for Reclamation of Gold Mine Spoils in Colombia

Authors: Bibiana Betancur-Corredor, Juan Carlos Loaiza, Manfred Denich, Christian Borgemeister


Alluvial gold mining generates a vast amount of deposits that cover the natural soil and negatively impacts riverbeds and valleys, causing loss of livelihood opportunities for farmers of these regions. In Colombia, more than 79,000 ha are affected by alluvial gold mining, therefore developing strategies to return this land to productivity is of crucial importance for the country. A novel restoration strategy has been created by a mining company, where the land is restored through the establishment of agroforestry systems, in which agricultural crops and livestock are combined to complement reforestation in the area. The purpose of this study is to capture the knowledge of farmers who perform agroforestry in areas with deposits created by alluvial gold mining activities. Semi structured interviews were conducted with farmers with regard to the following: indicators of soil fertility, management practices, soil heterogeneity, pest outbreaks and weeds. In order to compare the perceptions of soil fertility of farmers with physicochemical properties of soils, the farmers were asked to identify spots within their farms that have exhibited good and poor yields. Soil samples were collected in order to correlate farmer’s perceptions with soil physicochemical properties. The findings suggest that the main challenge that farmers face is the identification of fertile soil for crop establishment. They identify the fertile soil through visually analyzing soil color and compaction as well as the use of spontaneous growth of specific plants as indicator of soil fertility. For less fertile areas, nitrogen fixing plants are used as green manure to restore soil fertility for crop establishment. The findings of this study imply that if gold mining is followed by reclamation practices that involve the successful establishment of productive farmlands, agricultural productivity of these lands might improve, increasing food security of the affected communities.

Keywords: Knowledge, Mining, Agroforestry, Restoration

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8 The Use of Piezocone Penetration Test Data for the Assessment of Iron Ore Tailings Liquefaction Susceptibility

Authors: Breno M. Castilho


The Iron Ore Quadrangle, located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil is responsible for most of the country’s iron ore production. As a result, some of the biggest tailings dams in the country are located in this area. In recent years, several major failure events have happened in Tailings Storage Facilities (TSF) located in the Iron Ore Quadrangle. Some of these failures were found to be caused by liquefaction flowslides. This paper presents Piezocone Penetration Test (CPTu) data that was used, by applying Olson and Peterson methods, for the liquefaction susceptibility assessment of the iron ore tailings that are typically found in most TSF in the area. Piezocone data was also used to determine the steady-state strength of the tailings so as to allow for comparison with its drained strength. Results have shown great susceptibility for liquefaction to occur in the studied tailings and, more importantly, a large reduction in its strength. These results are key to understanding the failures that took place over the last few years.

Keywords: Mining, iron ore tailings, Piezocone Penetration Test CPTu, liquefaction susceptibility assessment

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7 Heavy Metal Contamination of Mining-Impacted Mangrove Sediments and Its Correlation with Vegetation and Sediment Attributes

Authors: Jumel Christian P. Nicha, Severino G. Salmo III


This study investigated the concentration of heavy metals (HM) in mangrove sediments of Lake Uacon, Zambales, Philippines. The relationship among the studied HM (Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, Cd, Fe) and the mangrove vegetation and sediment characteristics were assessed. Fourteen sampling plots were designated across the lake (10 vegetated and 4 un-vegetated) based on distance from the mining effluents. In each plot, three sediment cores were collected at 20 cm depth. Among the dominant mangrove species recorded were (in order of dominance): Sonneratia alba, Rhizophora stylosa, Avicennia marina, Excoecaria agallocha and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Sediment samples were digested with aqua regia, and the HM concentrations were quantified using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Results showed that HM concentrations were higher in the vegetated plots as compared to the un-vegetated sites. Vegetated sites had high Ni (mean: 881.71 mg/kg) and Cr (mean: 776.36 mg/kg) that exceeded the threshold values (cf. by the United States Environmental Protection Agency; USEPA). Fe, Pb, Cu and Cd had a mean concentration of 2597.92 mg/kg, 40.94 mg/kg, 36.81 mg/kg and 2.22 mg/kg respectively. Vegetation variables were not significantly correlated with HM concentration. However, the HM concentration was significantly correlated with sediment variables particularly pH, redox, particle size, nitrogen, phosphorus, moisture and organic matter contents. The Pollution Load Index (PLI) indicated moderate to high pollution in the lake. Risk assessment and management should be designed in order to mitigate the ecological risk posed by HM. The need of a regular monitoring scheme for lake and mangrove rehabilitation programs and management should be designed.

Keywords: Mining, Heavy Metals, Sediment, Philippines, mangrove vegetation

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6 Defining Processes of Gender Restructuring: The Case of Displaced Tribal Communities of North East India

Authors: Bitopi Dutta


Development Induced Displacement (DID) of subaltern groups has been an issue of intense debate in India. This research will do a gender analysis of displacement induced by the mining projects in tribal indigenous societies of North East India, centering on the primary research question which is 'How does DID reorder gendered relationship in tribal matrilineal societies?' This paper will not focus primarily on the impacts of the displacement induced by coal mining on indigenous tribal women in the North East India; it will rather study 'what' are the processes that lead to these transformations and 'how' do they operate. In doing so, the paper will locate the cracks in traditional social systems that the discourse of displacement manipulates for its own benefit. DID in this sense will not only be understood as only physical displacement, but also as social and cultural displacement. The study will cover one matrilineal tribe in the state of Meghalaya in the North East India affected by several coal mining projects in the last 30 years. In-depth unstructured interviews used to collect life narratives will be the primary mode of data collection because the indigenous culture of the tribes in Meghalaya, including the matrilineal tribes, is based on oral history where knowledge and experiences produced under a tradition of oral history exist in a continuum. This is unlike modern societies which produce knowledge in a compartmentalized system. An interview guide designed around specific themes will be used rather than specific questions to ensure the flow of narratives from the interviewee. In addition to this, a number of focus groups will be held. The data collected through the life narrative will be supplemented and contextualized through documentary research using government data, and local media sources of the region.

Keywords: Mining, Displacement, gender-relations, matriliny

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5 Sampling and Chemical Characterization of Particulate Matter in a Platinum Mine

Authors: Patricia Forbes, Vesta Kohlmeier, George C. Dragan, Juergen Orasche, Ralf Zimmermann, Gert Jakobi


Underground mining poses a difficult environment for both man and machines. At more than 1000 meters underneath the surface of the earth, ores and other mineral resources are still gained by conventional and motorised mining. Adding to the hazards caused by blasting and stone-chipping, the working conditions are best described by the high temperatures of 35-40°C and high humidity, at low air exchange rates. Separate ventilation shafts lead fresh air into a mine and others lead expended air back to the surface. This is essential for humans and machines working deep underground. Nevertheless, mines are widely ramified. Thus the air flow rate at the far end of a tunnel is sensed to be close to zero. In recent years, conventional mining was supplemented by mining with heavy diesel machines. These very flat machines called Load Haul Dump (LHD) vehicles accelerate and ease work in areas favourable for heavy machines. On the other hand, they emit non-filtered diesel exhaust, which constitutes an occupational hazard for the miners. Combined with a low air exchange, high humidity and inorganic dust from the mining it leads to 'black smog' underneath the earth. This work focuses on the air quality in mines employing LHDs. Therefore we performed personal sampling (samplers worn by miners during their work), stationary sampling and aethalometer (Microaeth MA200, Aethlabs) measurements in a platinum mine in around 1000 meters under the earth’s surface. We compared areas of high diesel exhaust emission with areas of conventional mining where no diesel machines were operated. For a better assessment of health risks caused by air pollution we applied a separated gas-/particle-sampling tool (or system), with first denuder section collecting intermediate VOCs. These multi-channel silicone rubber denuders are able to trap IVOCs while allowing particles ranged from 10 nm to 1 µm in diameter to be transmitted with an efficiency of nearly 100%. The second section is represented by a quartz fibre filter collecting particles and adsorbed semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC). The third part is a graphitized carbon black adsorber – collecting the SVOCs that evaporate from the filter. The compounds collected on these three sections were analyzed in our labs with different thermal desorption techniques coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). VOCs and IVOCs were measured with a Shimadzu Thermal Desorption Unit (TD20, Shimadzu, Japan) coupled to a GCMS-System QP 2010 Ultra with a quadrupole mass spectrometer (Shimadzu). The GC was equipped with a 30m, BP-20 wax column (0.25mm ID, 0.25µm film) from SGE (Australia). Filters were analyzed with In-situ derivatization thermal desorption gas chromatography time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (IDTD-GC-TOF-MS). The IDTD unit is a modified GL sciences Optic 3 system (GL Sciences, Netherlands). The results showed black carbon concentrations measured with the portable aethalometers up to several mg per m³. The organic chemistry was dominated by very high concentrations of alkanes. Typical diesel engine exhaust markers like alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected as well as typical lubrication oil markers like hopanes.

Keywords: Mining, aethalometer, diesel emission, personal sampling

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4 Optimization of Air Pollution Control Model for Mining

Authors: Zhi Chen, Zunaira Asif


The sustainable measures on air quality management are recognized as one of the most serious environmental concerns in the mining region. The mining operations emit various types of pollutants which have significant impacts on the environment. This study presents a stochastic control strategy by developing the air pollution control model to achieve a cost-effective solution. The optimization method is formulated to predict the cost of treatment using linear programming with an objective function and multi-constraints. The constraints mainly focus on two factors which are: production of metal should not exceed the available resources, and air quality should meet the standard criteria of the pollutant. The applicability of this model is explored through a case study of an open pit metal mine, Utah, USA. This method simultaneously uses meteorological data as a dispersion transfer function to support the practical local conditions. The probabilistic analysis and the uncertainties in the meteorological conditions are accomplished by Monte Carlo simulation. Reasonable results have been obtained to select the optimized treatment technology for PM2.5, PM10, NOx, and SO2. Additional comparison analysis shows that baghouse is the least cost option as compared to electrostatic precipitator and wet scrubbers for particulate matter, whereas non-selective catalytical reduction and dry-flue gas desulfurization are suitable for NOx and SO2 reduction respectively. Thus, this model can aid planners to reduce these pollutants at a marginal cost by suggesting control pollution devices, while accounting for dynamic meteorological conditions and mining activities.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Optimization, Mining, Treatment Technologies, Linear Programming

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3 Development of Column-Filters of Sulfur Limonene Polysulfide to Mercury Removal from Contaminated Effluents

Authors: Galo D. Soria, Jenny S. Casame, Eddy F. Pazmino


In Ecuador, mining operations have significantly impacted water sources. Artisanal mining extensively relies in mercury amalgamation. Mercury is a neurotoxic substance even at low concentrations. The objective of this investigation is to exploit Hg-removal capacity of sulfur-limonene polysulfide (SLP), which is a low-cost polymer, in order to prepare granular media (sand) coated with SLP to be used in laboratory scale column-filtration systems. Preliminary results achieved 85% removal of Hg⁺⁺ from synthetic effluents using 20-cm length and 5-cm diameter columns at 119m/day average pore water velocity. During elution of the column, the SLP-coated sand indicated that Hg⁺⁺ is permanently fixed to the collector surface, in contrast, uncoated sand showed reversible retention in Hg⁺⁺ in the solid phase. Injection of 50 pore volumes decreased Hg⁺⁺ removal to 46%. Ongoing work has been focused in optimizing the synthesis of SLP and the polymer content in the porous media coating process to improve Hg⁺⁺ removal and extend the lifetime of the column-filter.

Keywords: Mining, Water Treatment, Mercury, column-filter, polysulfide

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2 Treatment of Cyanide Effluents with Platinum Impregned on Mg-Al Layered Hydroxides

Authors: María R. Contreras, Diana Endara


Cyanide leaching is the most used technology for gold mining industry, which produces large amounts of effluents requiring treatment. In Ecuador the development of gold mining industry has increased, causing significant environmental impacts due to the highly use of cyanide, it is estimated that 10 gr of extracted gold generates 7000 liters of water contaminated with 300mg/L of free cyanide. The most common methods used nowadays are the treatment with peroxodisulfuric acid, ozonation, H₂O₂ and other reactants which are expensive and present disadvantages. Several methods have been developed to treat this contaminant such as heterogeneous catalysts. Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have received much attention due to their wide applications like a catalysis support. Therefore, in this study, Mg-Al/ LDH was synthetized by coprecipitation method and then platinum was impregned on it, in order to enhance its catalytic activity. Two methods of impregnation were used, the first one, called incipient wet impregnation and the second one was developed by continuous agitation of LDH in contact with chloroplatinic acid solution for 24 h. The support impregnated was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, FTIR and SEM. Finally, the oxidation of cyanide ion was performed by preparing synthetic solutions of sodium cyanide (NaCN) with an initial concentration of 500 mg/L at pH 10,5 and air flow of 180 NL/h. After 8 hours of treatment, an 80% of oxidation of ion cyanide was achieved.

Keywords: Mining, Catalysis, cyanide, LDHs

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1 The Clash between Environmental and Heritage Laws: An Australian Case Study

Authors: Andrew R. Beatty


The exploitation of Australia’s vast mineral wealth is regulated by a matrix of planning, environment and heritage legislation, and despite the desire for a ‘balance’ between economic, environmental and heritage values, Aboriginal objects and places are often detrimentally impacted by mining approvals. The Australian experience is not novel. There are other cases of clashes between the rights of traditional landowners and businesses seeking to exploit mineral or other resources on or beneath those lands, including in the United States, Canada, and Brazil. How one reconciles the rights of traditional owners with those of resource companies is an ongoing legal problem of general interest. In Australia, planning and environmental approvals for resource projects are ordinarily issued by State or Territory governments. Federal legislation such as the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Heritage Protection Act 1984 (Cth) is intended to act as a safety net when State or Territory legislation is incapable of protecting Indigenous objects or places in the context of approvals for resource projects. This paper will analyse the context and effectiveness of legislation enacted to protect Indigenous heritage in the planning process. In particular, the paper will analyse how the statutory objects of such legislation need to be weighed against the statutory objects of competing legislation designed to facilitate and control resource exploitation. Using a current claim in the Federal Court of Australia for the protection of a culturally significant landscape as a case study, this paper will examine the challenges faced in ascribing value to cultural heritage within the wider context of environmental and planning laws. Our findings will reveal that there is an inherent difficulty in defining and weighing competing economic, environmental and heritage considerations. An alternative framework will be proposed to guide regulators towards making decisions that result in better protection of Indigenous heritage in the context of resource management.

Keywords: Mining, Environmental Law, Indigenous rights, heritage law

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