Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Minerals Related Abstracts

16 Antioxidant Properties and Nutritive Value of Raw and Cooked Pool barb (Puntius sophore) of Eastern Himalayas

Authors: Wahengbam Sarjubala Devi, Chungkham Sarojnalini

Abstract:

Antioxidant properties and nutritive values of raw and cooked Pool barb, Puntius sophore (Hamilton-Buchanan) of Eastern Himalayas, India were determined. Antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of the raw, steamed, fried and curried Pool barb was evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay. In DPPH scavenging assay the IC50 value of the raw, steamed, fried and curried Pool barb was 1.66 microgram/ml, 16.09 microgram/ml, 8.99 microgram/ml, 0.59 microgram/ml whereas the IC50 of the reference ascorbic acid was 46.66 microgram/ml. This results shows that the fish have high antioxidant activity. Protein content was found highest in raw (20.50±0.08%) and lowest in curried (18.66±0.13%). Moisture content in raw, fried and curried was 76.35±0.09, 46.27±0.14 and 57.46±0.24 respectively. Lipid content was recorded 2.46±0.14% in raw and 21.76±0.10% in curried. Ash content varies from 12.57±0.11 to 22.53±0.07%. The total aminoacids were varied from 36.79±0.02 and 288.43±0.12 mg/100 g. Eleven essential mineral elements were found abundant in all the samples. The samples had a considerable amount of Fe ranging from 152.17 to 320.39 milligram/100 gram, Ca 902.06 to 1356.02 milligram/100 gram, Zn 91.07 to 138.14 milligram/100 gram, K 193.25 to 261.56 milligram/100 gram, Mg 225.06 to 229.10 milligram/100 gram. Ni was not detected in the curried fish. The Mg and K contents were significantly decreased in frying method; however the Fe, Cu, Ca, Co and Mn content were increased significantly in all the cooked samples. The Mg and Na contents were significantly increased in curried sample and the Cr content was decreased significantly (p<0.05) in all the cooked samples.

Keywords: Minerals, antioxidant property, pool barb, aminoacids, proximate composition, cooking methods

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15 Oil Palm Shell Ash: Cement Mortar Mixture and Modification of Mechanical Properties

Authors: Abdoullah Namdar, Fadzil Mat Yahaya

Abstract:

The waste agriculture materials cause environment pollution, recycle of these materials help sustainable development. This study focused on the impact of used oil palm shell ash on the compressive and flexural strengths of cement mortar. Two different cement mortar mixes have been designed to investigate the impact of oil palm shell ash on strengths of cement mortar. Quantity of 4% oil palm shell ash has been replaced in cement mortar. The main objective of this paper is, to modify mechanical properties of cement mortar by replacement of oil palm ash in it at early age of seven days. The results have been revealed optimum quantity of oil palm ash for replacement in cement mortar. The deflection, load to failure, time to failure of compressive strength and flexural strength of all specimens have significantly been improved. The stress-strain behavior has been indicated ability of modified cement mortar in control stress path and strain. The micro property of cement paste has not been investigated.

Keywords: Minerals, compressive strength, flexural strength, additive, modulus of elasticity

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14 Development and Mineral Profile Analysis of Fruit, Vegetable and Wild Herb Based Juices to Be Consumed in Elderly Centres in Durban, South Africa

Authors: Mkhize Xolile, Davies Theopheluis

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to develop a variety of fruit, vegetable and indigenous wild herb (amaranth) based juices, which can increase mineral consumption (of Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Zn). Ten samples of juice varieties were developed. The concentration range for the standards was between 10 and 150 ppm. Standards and samples were analysed using Perkin Elmer Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and the AAnalyst 400 model was used. The indigenous herb based juice was the most nutritious than all the other varieties developed. Mg and Fe could contribute significantly in improving cardio vascular health, bone functionality and immunity of elderly.

Keywords: Minerals, Hypertension, Intervention, Elderly, juice

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13 Scenario of Some Minerals and Impact of Promoter Hypermethylation of DAP-K Gene in Gastric Carcinoma Patients of Kashmir Valley

Authors: Showkat Ahmad Bhat, Iqra Reyaz, Falaque ul Afshan, Ahmad Arif Reshi, Muneeb U. Rehman, Manzoor R. Mir, Sabhiya Majid, Sonallah, Sheikh Bilal, Ishraq Hussain

Abstract:

Background: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of worldwide cancer-related deaths, with a wide variation in incidence rates across different geographical areas. The current view of cancer is that a malignancy arises from a transformation of the genetic material of a normal cell, followed by successive mutations and by chain of alterations in genes such as DNA repair genes, oncogenes, Tumor suppressor genes. Minerals are necessary for the functioning of several transcriptional factors, proteins that recognize certain DNA sequences and have been found to play a role in gastric cancer. Material Methods:The present work was a case control study and its aim was to ascertain the role of minerals and promoter hypermethylation of CpG islands of DAP-K gene in Gastric cancer patients among the Kashmiri population. Serum was extracted from all the samples and mineral estimation was done by AAS from serum, DNA was also extracted and was modified using bisulphite modification kit. Methylation-specific PCR was used for the analysis of the promoter hypermethylation status of DAP-K gene. The epigenetic analysis revealed that unlike other high risk regions, Kashmiri population has a different promoter hypermethylation profile of DAP-K gene and has different mineral profile. Results: In our study mean serum copper levels were significantly different for the two genders (p<0.05), while as no significant differences were observed for iron and zinc levels. In Methylation-specific PCR the methylation status of the promoter region of DAP-K gene was as 67.50% (27/40) of the gastric cancer tissues showed methylated DAP-K promoter and 32.50% (13/40) of the cases however showed unmethylated DAP-K promoter. Almost all 85% (17/20) of the histopathologically confirmed normal tissues showed unmethylated DAP-K promoter except only in 3 cases where DAP-K promoter was found to be methylated. The association of promoter hypermethylation with gastric cancer was evaluated by χ2 (Chi square) test and was found to be significant (P=0.0006). Occurrence of DAP-K methylation was found to be unequally distributed in males and females with more frequency in males than in females but the difference was not statistically significant (P =0.7635, Odds ratio=1.368 and 95% C.I=0.4197 to 4.456). When the frequency of DAP-K promoter methylation was compared with clinical staging of the disease, DAP-K promoter methylation was found to be certainly higher in Stage III/IV (85.71%) compared to Stage I/ II (57.69%) but the difference was not statistically significant (P =0.0673). These results suggest that DAP-K aberrant promoter hypermethylation in Kashmiri population contributes to the process of carcinogenesis in Gastric cancer and is reportedly one of the commonest epigenetic changes in the development of Gastric cancer.

Keywords: Minerals, gastric cancer, AAS, hypermethylation, CpG islands, DAP-K gene

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12 Oxidative Status and Some Serum Macro Minerals during Estrus, Anestrous and Repeat Breeding in Cholistani Cattle

Authors: Farah Ali, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi, Riaz Hussain, Muhammad Sufyan

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to determine the macro mineral profile and biomarkers of oxidative stress in Cholistani cattle kept at a public farm and various villages in district Bahawalpur. For this purpose 90 blood samples were collected each from estrual, anestrous and repeat breeding cattle having different age and lactation number. Reproductive tract examination of all the cattle was carried out to determine the reproductive status. Blood samples without EDTA were collected for serum separation at day of estrus (normal cyclic), repeat breeder and anestrous cows. The serum calcium levels were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in anestrous (7.31±0.02 mg/dl) cattle as compared to estrus. However, these values were non-significantly different between repeat breeder and cattle having estrus phase. The concentrations of serum phosphorus were significantly higher (P<0.01) in normal estrual (4.99±0.08 mg/dl) as compared torepeat breeder (3.90±0.06 mg/dl) and anestrous (3.82±0.04 mg/dl) Cholistani cattle. Mean serum MDA (nmol/ml) levels of repeat breeder (2.68±0.18) and anestrous (2.54±0.22) were significantly(P<0.01) higher than the estrous (1.71±0.03) cattle. Moreover, the serum nitric oxide levels(µmol/L) were also increased significantly (P<0.01) in repeat breeder(58.28±4.01)and anestrous (61.40±9.40) than the normalestrous (31.67±6.71) cattle. The ratio of Ca: P in normal cyclic animals was lower (1.73:1) as compared to the anestrous animals (1.92:1). It can be concluded from the present study that the level of Ca: P should also be near to 1.5:1 for better reproductive performance.

Keywords: Minerals, Oxidative Stress, anestrus, cholistani cattle, repeat breeder

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11 Nutritional Potentials of Two Nigerian Green Leafy Vegetables

Authors: Philippa C. Ojimelukwe, Felix C. Okpalanma, Emmanuel A. Mazi

Abstract:

The carotenoid content, vitamins (ascorbic acid, riboflavin, thiamin, niacin and vitamin K) and mineral contents (K, Ca, Mg, Zn and Fe) of raw, cooked (moist heat treatment) and stored Gnetum africanum and Pterocarpus mildbraedii leaves were investigated in the present research. Raw G. africanum contained higher total carotenoids (246.93µg/g edible portion) than P. mildbraedii (83.53µg/g edible portion) However, moist heat treatment significantly improved the total carotenoid content of P. mildbraedii. The carotenoid profiles of P. mildbraedii and G. africanum showed improved contents of beta cryptoxanthin , 9-cis, 11-cis and 13 cis beta carotenes due to moist heat treatment. Lutein contents of the two green leafy vegetables were quite high in raw, heat treated and stored samples. The two green leafy vegetables were good sources of vitamin K (118-120 µg). Moist heat treatment significantly (p < 0.05) increased the mineral contents of P.mildbraedii and G. africanum. The vitamin contents were reduced. Storage at ambient temperature (30oC) in the dark led to good retention of the minerals but not the vitamins.

Keywords: Minerals, Vitamins, Pterocarpus mildbraedii, Gnetum africanum, carotenoid profile

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10 Study on Metabolic and Mineral Balance, Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetic Patients on Different Therapy

Authors: E. Nemes-Nagy, E. Fogarasi, M. Croitoru, A. Nyárádi, K. Komlódi, S. Pál, A. Kovács, O. Kopácsy, R. Tripon, Z. Fazakas, C. Uzun, Z. Simon-Szabó, V. Balogh-Sămărghițan, E. Ernő Nagy, M. Szabó, M. Tilinca

Abstract:

Intense oxidative stress, increased glycated hemoglobin and mineral imbalance represent risk factors for complications in diabetic patients. Cardiovascular complications are most common in these patients, including nephropathy. This study was conducted in 2015 at the Procardia Laboratory in Tîrgu Mureș, Romania on 40 type 2 diabetic adults. Routine biochemical tests were performed on the Konleab 20XTi analyzer (serum glucose, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine, urea). We also measured serum uric acid, magnesium and calcium concentration by photometric procedures, potassium, sodium and chloride by ion selective electrode, and chromium by atomic absorption spectrometry in a group of patients. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) dosage was made by reflectometry. Urine analysis was performed using the HandUReader equipment. The level of oxidative stress was measured by serum malondialdehyde dosage using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method. MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) formula was applied for calculation of creatinine-derived glomerular filtration rate. GraphPad InStat software was used for statistical analysis of the data. The diabetic subject included in the study presented high MDA concentrations, showing intense oxidative stress. Calcium was deficient in 5% of the patients, chromium deficiency was present in 28%. The atherogenic cholesterol fraction was elevated in 13% of the patients. Positive correlation was found between creatinine and MDRD-creatinine values (p<0.0001), 68% of the patients presented increased creatinine values. The majority of the diabetic patients had good control of their diabetes, having optimal HbA1c values, 35% of them presented fasting serum glucose over 120 mg/dl and 18% had glucosuria. Intense oxidative stress and mineral deficiencies can increase the risk of cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients in spite of their good metabolic balance. More than two third of the patients present biochemical signs of nephropathy, cystatin C dosage and microalbuminuria could reveal better the kidney disorder, but glomerular filtration rate calculation formulas are also useful for evaluation of renal function.

Keywords: Minerals, Type 2 diabetes, homocysteine, metformin, malondialdehyde, cardiovascular risk, vitamin B12

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9 Yield, Biochemical Responses and Evaluation of Drought Tolerance of Two Barley Accessions 'Ardhaoui' under Deficit Drip Irrigation Using Saline Water in Southern Tunisia

Authors: Mohamed Bagues, Ikbel Souli, Feiza Boussora, Kamel Nagaz

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In southern Tunisia, two local barley accessions CV. Ardhaoui; 'Bengardeni' and 'Karkeni' were cultivated in the field under deficit drip irrigation with saline water. Three treatments were used: control or full irrigation T0 (100%ETc) and stressed T1 (75%ETc), T2 (50%ETc). Proline and soluble sugars contents increase significantly under drought between accessions compared to control and varies between growth stages. Moreover, the increasing of Ca2+ concentration enhances the absorption of Na+ ion, consequently K+/Na+ decrease significantly between accessions, these results suggest that a high tolerance of Bengardeni accession to drought stress. Therefore, drought tolerance indices (STI, SSI, MP, GMP, YSI and TOL) were used to identify high yielding and drought tolerant between accessions. MP explained the variation of GYi. GMP and STI explained the variation of GYs. The high values of MP, STI and GMP were associated with higher yielding accession. Higher TOL value is associated with significant grain yield reduction in stressed environment suggesting higher stress responses of accessions. Significant positive correlations between MP, STI and GMP and negative between YSI and SSI. MP, STI, GMP and YSI, TOL, SSI are not correlated with each other.

Keywords: Minerals, Yield, Drought, proline, barley, soluble sugars, drought tolerance indices

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8 Spectral Mapping of Hydrothermal Alteration Minerals for Geothermal Exploration Using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Short Wave Infrared Data

Authors: Aliyu J. Abubakar, Mazlan Hashim, Amin B. Pour

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Exploiting geothermal resources for either power, home heating, Spa, greenhouses, industrial or tourism requires an initial identification of suitable areas. This can be done cost-effectively using remote sensing satellite imagery which has synoptic capabilities of covering large areas in real time and by identifying possible areas of hydrothermal alteration and minerals related to Geothermal systems. Earth features and minerals are known to have unique diagnostic spectral reflectance characteristics that can be used to discriminate them. The focus of this paper is to investigate the applicability of mapping hydrothermal alteration in relation to geothermal systems (thermal springs) at Yankari Park Northeastern Nigeria, using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite data for resource exploration. The ASTER Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) bands are used to highlight and discriminate alteration areas by employing sophisticated digital image processing techniques including image transformations and spectral mapping methods. Field verifications are conducted at the Yankari Park using hand held Global Positioning System (GPS) monterra to identify locations of hydrothermal alteration and rock samples obtained at the vicinity and surrounding areas of the ‘Mawulgo’ and ‘Wikki’ thermal springs. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) results of rock samples obtained from the field validated hydrothermal alteration by the presence of indicator minerals including; Dickite, Kaolinite, Hematite and Quart. The study indicated the applicability of mapping geothermal anomalies for resource exploration in unmapped sparsely vegetated savanna environment characterized by subtle surface manifestations such as thermal springs. The results could have implication for geothermal resource exploration especially at the prefeasibility stages by narrowing targets for comprehensive surveys and in unexplored savanna regions where expensive airborne surveys are unaffordable.

Keywords: Minerals, Geothermal Exploration, Image Enhancement, spectral mapping

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7 Effect of Herbal Mineral Blend on Growth Performance of Broilers

Authors: S. Ahmad, M. Rizwan, U. Farooq, U. Mahmood, S. U. Rehman, P. Akhtar

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This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of herbal and mineral mixture on growth performance of boilers. One hundred and eighty birds were randomly distributed into 6 experimental units of 3 replicates (10 birds/replicate) as: negative control (basal diet), positive control (Lincomycin at the rate of 5g/bag), commercially available herbal-mineral product FitFat™ at the rate of 150g/bag and 200g/bag, and herbal-mineral mixture at the rate of 150g/bag and herbal-mineral mixture at the rate of 300g/bag. The data regarding weekly feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were recorded, and fecal samples were collected at the end of starter and finisher phase for nutrient digestibility trial. The results of body weight gain showed significant (P < 0.05) differences in 3rd week of age (506.90g), also, feed intake showed significant (P < 0.05) results in 1st (297.22g), 3rd (936.7g) and 4th (967.8g) week and feed conversion ratio indicated significant (P < 0.05) variations in 1st (1.14) and 3rd (1.74) week of age. The starter phase indicated significant (P < 0.05) differences among all treatments groups in body weight gain (902.2g), feed intake (1843.9g) and feed conversion ratio (1.78). In case of nutrient digestibility trial, results showed significant (P < 0.05) values of dry matter, crude protein, and crude fat in starter phase as 77.74%, 69.37%, and 61.18% respectively and 77.65%, 68.79% and 61.03% respectively, in finisher phase. Based on overall results, it was concluded that the dietary inclusion of combination of herbs and mineral can increase the production performance of broilers.

Keywords: Minerals, broiler, nutrient digestibility, herbal blend, crop filling

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6 Borassus aethiopum Mart Mature Fruits Macro-Composition, Drying Temperature Effect on Its Pulp Protein, Fat, Sugars, Metabolizable Energy, and Fatty Acids Profile

Authors: Tagouelbe Tiho, Amissa Augustin Adima, Yao Casimir Brou, Nabayo Traore, Gouha Firmin Kouassi, Thierry Roland Kouame, Maryline Kouba

Abstract:

The work aimed to study Borassus aethiopum Mart (B.a) dried pulp nutritional value for its incorporation in human and poultry diets. Firstly, the mature fruit macro-composition was assessed. Secondly, the pulp was dried at 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80ᵒC. Thereafter, the analysis was performed for fat, protein, total sugars, Ca, P, Mg, and fatty acid profile monitoring. As a result, the fruits weighed 1,591.35, delivered 516.73, and 677.82 grams of pulp and seeds, respectively. Mainly, increasing heat adversely affected the outputs. Consequently, the fat results were 14.12, 12.97, 8.93, 8.89ᶜ, and 5.56%; protein contents were 11.64, 10.15, 8.97, 8.84, and 8.42%; total sugar deliveries were 6.28, 6.05, 5.26, 5.02, and 4.76% (P < 0.01). Thereafter, the metabolizable energies were 3,785.22; 3,834.28; 3,616.62; 3,667.03; and 3,608.33 kcal/kg (DM). Additionally, Calcium (Ca) contents were 0.51, 0.55, 0.69, 0.77, and 0.81%, while phosphorus (P) mean was 0.17%, and the differences were not significant (P < 0.01). So, the Ca/P ratios were 2.79, 3.04, 4.10, 4.71, and 4.95. Finally, fatty acids (FA) assessments revealed 22.33 saturated (SFA), 77.67 unsaturated (UFA), within which 67.59% were monounsaturated (MUFA). Interestingly, the rising heat depressed n-6/n-3 ratios that were 1.1, 1.1, 0.45 and 0.38, respectively at 40, 50, 70 and 80ᵒC. In short, drying did not only enhance the product shelf life but it also improved the nutritional value. Thus, B.a mature fruit pulps dried at 70ᵒC are good functional foods, with more than 66% MUFA, and energy source for human and poultry nutrition.

Keywords: Minerals, Protein, Fatty Acids, metabolizable energy, Borassus aethiopum Mart

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5 Evaluation of Bone and Body Mineral Profile in Association with Protein Content, Fat, Fat-Free, Skeletal Muscle Tissues According to Obesity Classification among Adult Men

Authors: Orkide Donma, Mustafa M. Donma

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Obesity is associated with increased fat mass as well as fat percentage. Minerals are the elements, which are of vital importance. In this study, the relationships between body as well as bone mineral profile and the percentage as well as mass values of fat, fat-free portion, protein, skeletal muscle were evaluated in adult men with normal body mass index (N-BMI), and those classified according to different stages of obesity. A total of 103 adult men classified into five groups participated in this study. Ages were within 19-79 years range. Groups were N-BMI (Group 1), overweight (OW) (Group 2), first level of obesity (FLO) (Group 3), second level of obesity (SLO) (Group 4) and third level of obesity (TLO) (Group 5). Anthropometric measurements were performed. BMI values were calculated. Obesity degree, total body fat mass, fat percentage, basal metabolic rate (BMR), visceral adiposity, body mineral mass, body mineral percentage, bone mineral mass, bone mineral percentage, fat-free mass, fat-free percentage, protein mass, protein percentage, skeletal muscle mass and skeletal muscle percentage were determined by TANITA body composition monitor using bioelectrical impedance analysis technology. Statistical package (SPSS) for Windows Version 16.0 was used for statistical evaluations. The values below 0.05 were accepted as statistically significant. All the groups were matched based upon age (p > 0.05). BMI values were calculated as 22.6 ± 1.7 kg/m2, 27.1 ± 1.4 kg/m2, 32.0 ± 1.2 kg/m2, 37.2 ± 1.8 kg/m2, and 47.1 ± 6.1 kg/m2 for groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Visceral adiposity and BMR values were also within an increasing trend. Percentage values of mineral, protein, fat-free portion and skeletal muscle masses were decreasing going from normal to TLO. Upon evaluation of the percentages of protein, fat-free portion and skeletal muscle, statistically significant differences were noted between NW and OW as well as OW and FLO (p < 0.05). However, such differences were not observed for body and bone mineral percentages. Correlation existed between visceral adiposity and BMI was stronger than that detected between visceral adiposity and obesity degree. Correlation between visceral adiposity and BMR was significant at the 0.05 level. Visceral adiposity was not correlated with body mineral mass but correlated with bone mineral mass whereas significant negative correlations were observed with percentages of these parameters (p < 0.001). BMR was not correlated with body mineral percentage whereas a negative correlation was found between BMR and bone mineral percentage (p < 0.01). It is interesting to note that mineral percentages of both body as well as bone are highly affected by the visceral adiposity. Bone mineral percentage was also associated with BMR. From these findings, it is plausible to state that minerals are highly associated with the critical stages of obesity as prominent parameters.

Keywords: Minerals, Obesity, Bone, men

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4 Zeolite Origin within the Pliocene Sedimentary-Pyroclastic Deposits in the Southwestern Part of Syria

Authors: Abdulsalam Turkmani, Mohammed Khaled Yezbek, Farouk Al Imadi

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Geological surveys in the southwestern part of Syria showed the presence of sedimentary-pyroclastic deposits, volcanic tuff, to the age of the Upper Pliocene and contain the following minerals according petrographical study and XRD, SEM, XRF analysis and surface properties. X-Ray diffraction results indicate the presence of analcime, phillipsite and chabazite in in all the studied localities. There are also amorphous materials and clay minerals such as illite and montmorillonite. The non-zeolite constituents include olivine, clinopyroxene orthopyroxene and spinel, and less of magnetite and feldspar. Some major oxides were determined through XRF geochemical analyses which include SiO₂, Al₂O₃, K₂O, Fe₂O₃, and CaO for volcanic tuff and zeolite. The formation of these depositions can be summarized in the following stages during the Pliocene: Volcanic activity at the edges of Al Rutba uplift and Jabal Al Arab depression was a rich by tuff bearing ultra basic and basic xenoliths plus second phase by scoria, during the early Pliocene. Volcanic calm with the activity of erosion and form lakes in which deposition of a set of wastes, including olivine resulting from the disintegration of xenoliths during the middle Pliocene. Zeolites minerals form later, which make up about 15-20% and increase and decrease in reverse relation with the olivine sand. Zeolite is formed from volcanic glass, and the results of SEM show that the zeolites minerals very well crystallized.

Keywords: Minerals, Zeolite, origin, pyroclastic

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3 The Gravitational Impact of the Sun and the Moon on Heavy Mineral Deposits and Dust Particles in Low Gravity Regions of the Earth

Authors: T. B. Karu Jayasundara

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The Earth’s gravity is not uniform. The satellite imageries of the Earth’s surface from NASA reveal a number of different gravity anomaly regions all over the globe. When the moon rotates around the earth, its gravity has a major physical influence on a number of regions on the earth. This physical change can be seen by the tides. The tides make sea levels high and low in coastal regions. During high tide, the gravitational force of the Moon pulls the Earth’s gravity so that the total gravitational intensity of Earth is reduced; it is further reduced in the low gravity regions of Earth. This reduction in gravity helps keep the suspended particles such as dust in the atmosphere, sand grains in the sea water for longer. Dramatic differences can be seen from the floating dust in the low gravity regions when compared with other regions. The above phenomena can be demonstrated from experiments. The experiments have to be done in high and low gravity regions of the earth during high and low tide, which will assist in comparing the final results. One of the experiments that can be done is by using a water filled cylinder about 80 cm tall, a few particles, which have the same density and same diameter (about 1 mm) and a stop watch. The selected particles were dropped from the surface of the water in the cylinder and the time taken for the particles to reach the bottom of the cylinder was measured using the stop watch. The times of high and low tide charts can be obtained from the regional government authorities. This concept is demonstrated by the particle drop times taken at high and low tides. The result of the experiment shows that the particle settlement time is less in low tide and high in high tide. The experiment for dust particles in air can be collected on filters, which are cellulose ester membranes and using a vacuum pump. The dust on filters can be used to make slides according to the NOHSC method. Counting the dust particles on the slides can be done using a phase contrast microscope. The results show that the concentration of dust is high at high tide and low in low tide. As a result of the high tides, a high concentration of heavy minerals deposit on placer deposits and dust particles retain in the atmosphere for longer in low gravity regions. These conditions are remarkably exhibited in the lowest low gravity region of the earth, mainly in the regions of India, Sri Lanka and in the middle part of the Indian Ocean. The biggest heavy mineral placer deposits are found in coastal regions of India and Sri Lanka and heavy dust particles are found in the atmosphere of India, particularly in the Delhi region.

Keywords: Minerals, Atmosphere, Gravity, Tides, Moon, costal

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2 Physicochemical Properties of Low Viscosity Banana Juice

Authors: Victor Vicent, Oscar Kibazohi

Abstract:

Banana (Musa acuminata) is one of the most largely consumed fruits in the world. It is an excellent source of potassium, antioxidants, and fiber. In East and Central African countries, banana is used to produce low viscosity clear juice using traditional kneading of ripe banana and grasses until juice oozes out. Recently, an improved method involving blending of the banana followed by pressing to separate the juice from pulp has been achieved. This study assessed the physicochemical properties of banana juice prior to product formulation. Two different banana juices from two cultivars: Pisang awak and Mbile an East African Highland Banana (EAHB) were evaluated for viscosity, sugars (sucrose, fructose, and glucose), organic acids (malic, citric and succinic acids) and minerals using the HPLC and AAS. Juice extracted from Pisang awak had a viscosity of 3.43 × 10⁻⁵ N.m⁻² s while EAHB juice had a viscosity of 6.02 × 10⁻⁵ N.m⁻² s. Sugar concentrations varied with banana place of origin. Pisang awak juice had a higher dissolved solids value of 24-28ᵒ Brix then EAHB, whose value was 18-24ᵒ Brix. Juice viscosity was 3.5–5.3 mPa.s, specific gravity was 1.0-1.1, and pH was 4.3-4.8. The average concentration of sucrose, fructose, and glucose was 1.10 g/L, 70 g/L 70 g/l, respectively for Pisang awak from lower altitude compared to 45-200 g/L 45-120 g/l and 45-120 g/L, respectively for Pisang awak from higher altitude. On the other hand, EAHB from North East Tanzania produced juice corresponding concentrations of 45 g/L, 56 g/L, and 55 g/L, respectively while another EAHB from North West of Tanzania had sucrose and fructose and glucose concentration of 155 g/L and 145 g/L. respectively. Dominant acids were malic and citric acids for pisang awak but succinic for EAHB. Dominant minerals in all cultivars were potassium 2.7-3.1 g/L followed by magnesium 0.6-2 g/L.

Keywords: Minerals, Quality Analysis, acids, banana juice, sugar content

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1 Chemical Composition and Nutritional Value of Leaves and Pods of Leucaena Leucocephala, Prosopis Laevigata and Acacia Farnesiana in a Xerophyllous Shrubland

Authors: Miguel Mellado, Cecilia Zapata

Abstract:

Goats can be exploited in harsh environments due to their capacity to adjust to limited quantity and quality forage sources. In these environments, leguminous trees can be used as supplementary feeds as foliage and fruits of these trees can contribute to maintain or improve production efficiency in ruminants. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional value of three leguminous trees heavily selected by goats in a xerophyllous shrubland. Chemical composition and in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) of leaves and pods from leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala), mesquite (Prosopis laevigata) and huisache (Acacia farnesiana) is presented. Crude protein (CP) ranged from 17.3% for leaves of huisache to 21.9% for leucaena. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content ranged from 39.0 to 40.3 with no difference among fodder threes. Across tree species, mean IVDMD was 61.6% for pods and 52.2% for leaves. IVDMD for leaves was highest (P < 0.01) for leucaena (54.9%) and lowest for huisache (47.3%). Condensed tannins in an acetonic extract were highest for leaves of huisache (45.3 mg CE/g DM) and lowest for mesquite (25.9 mg CE/g DM). Pods and leaves of huisache presented the highest number of secondary metabolites, mainly related to hydrobenzoic acid and flavonols; leucaena and mesquite presented mainly flavonols and anthocyanins. It was concluded that leaves and pods of leucaena, mesquite and huisache constitute valuable forages for ruminant livestock due to its low fiber, high CP levels, moderate in vitro fermentation characteristics and high mineral content. Keywords: Fodder tree; ruminants; secondary metabolites; minerals; tannins

Keywords: Minerals, Secondary Metabolites, Ruminants, tannins, fodder tree

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