Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Mineralization Related Abstracts

20 Occurrence and Geological Setting of the Black Shales Outcrops in Malaysia

Authors: Hassan M. Baioumy, Yuniarti Ulfa

Abstract:

Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic black shales that can be a potential source of energy and precious metals are widely distributed in Malaysia Peninsula, Sarawak and Sabah. Two Paleozoic black shales outcrops were reported in the Langkawi Island belonging to the Cambrian fluvial Machinchang Formation and the Silurian glaciomarine Singa Formation. More the seventeen occurrences of Paleozoic black shales outcrops have been found in the Peninsular Malaysia that range in age from Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian in the Terengganu, Perlis, Pahang, and Perak States. Mesozoic black shales outcrops occur in several places in both the Peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak. In the Peninsular Malaysia, Triassic black shales occur in the Nami area, Northern Kedah and in the Pahang area. In Sarawak, Triassic black shales have been reported in the Bau area. Cenozoic black shales outcrops were reported in both Sarawak at Miri area and Sabah at the Ranau and Tenom areas. Preliminary mineralogical and geochemical investigations on some of these black shales outcrops showed distinct compositional variations among these black shales outcrops probably due to variations in their source area composition and/or depositional and diagenetic settings of these shales. Some of these shalese also subjected to post-depositional hydrothermal mineralization that enriched these shales with Au-bearing minerals such as pyrite, calchopyrite, and arsenopyrite. Many of the studied black shales outcrops look rich in organic matter, which increase the possibility of using these black shales as an unconventional energy resource.

Keywords: Energy, Mineralization, Malaysia, black shales

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
19 Integrated Electric Resistivity Tomography and Magnetic Techniques in a Mineralization Zone, Erkowit, Red Sea State, Sudan

Authors: Khalid M. Kheiralla, Georgios Boutsis, Mohammed Y. Abdelgalil, Mohammed A. Ali, Nuha E. Mohamed

Abstract:

The present study focus on integrated geoelectrical surveys carried out in the mineralization zone in Erkowit region, Eastern Sudan to determine the extensions of the potential ore deposits on the topographically high hilly area and under the cover of alluvium along the nearby wadi and to locate other occurrences if any. The magnetic method (MAG) and the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) were employed for the survey. Eleven traverses were aligned approximately at right angles to the general strike of the rock formations. The disseminated sulfides are located on the alteration shear zone which is composed of granitic and dioritic highly ferruginated rock occupying the southwestern and central parts of the area, this was confirmed using thin and polished sections mineralogical analysis. The magnetic data indicates low magnetic values for wadi sedimentary deposits in its southern part of the area, and high anomalies which are suspected as gossans due to magnetite formed during wall rock alteration consequent to mineralization. The significant ERT images define low resistivity zone as traced as sheared zones which may associated with the main loci of ore deposition. By itself, no geophysical anomaly can simply be correlated with lithology, instead, magnetic and ERT anomalies raised due to variations in some specific physical properties of rocks which were extremely useful in mineral exploration.

Keywords: Magnetic, Mineralization, ERT, sudan, Red Sea

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
18 Effect of Organic Fertilizers on the Improvement of Soil Microbiological Functioning under Saline Conditions of Arid Regions: Impact on Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization

Authors: Oustani Mabrouka, Halilat Md Tahar, Hannachi Slimane

Abstract:

This study was conducted on representative and contrasting soils of arid regions. It focuses on the compared influence of two organic fertilizers: poultry manure (PM) and bovine manure (BM) on improving the microbial functioning of non-saline (SS) and saline (SSS) soils, in particularly, the process of mineralization of nitrogen and carbon. The microbiological activity was estimated by respirometric test (CO2–C emissions) and the extraction of two forms of mineral nitrogen (NH4+-N and NO3--N). Thus, after 56 days of incubation under controlled conditions (28 degrees and 80 per cent of the field capacity), the two types of manures showed that the mineralization activity varies according to type of soil and the organic substrate itself. However, the highest cumulative quantities of CO2–C, NH4+–N and NO3-–N obtained at the end of incubation were recorded in non-saline (SS) soil treated with poultry manure with 1173.4, 4.26 and 8.40 mg/100 g of dry soil, respectively. The reductions in rates of release of CO2–C and of nitrification under saline conditions were 21 and 36, 78 %, respectively. The influence of organic substratum on the microbial density shows a stimulating effect on all microbial groups studied. The whole results show the usefulness of two types of manures for the improvement of the microbiological functioning of arid soils.

Keywords: Carbon, Nitrogen, Microorganisms, Organic Matter, Salinity, Mineralization, arid regions

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17 Integrated ERT and Magnetic Surveys in a Mineralization Zone in Erkowit, Red Sea State, Sudan

Authors: N. E. Mohamed, K. M. Kheiralla, M. A. Ali, M. Y. Abdelgalil, G. Boutsis

Abstract:

The present study focus on integrated geophysical surveys carried out in the mineralization zone in Erkowit region, Eastern Sudan to determine the extensions of the potential ore deposits on the topographically high hilly area and under the cover of alluvium along the nearby wadi and to locate other occurrences if any. The magnetic method (MAG) and the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) were employed for the survey. Eleven traverses were aligned approximately at right angles to the general strike of the rock formations. The disseminated sulfides are located on the alteration shear zone which is composed of granitic and dioritic highly ferruginated rock occupying the southwestern and central parts of the area, this was confirmed using thin and polished sections mineralogical analysis. The magnetic data indicates low magnetic values for wadi sedimentary deposits in its southern part of the area, and high anomalies which are suspected as gossans due to magnetite formed during wall rock alteration consequent to mineralization. The significant ERT images define low resistivity zone as traced as sheared zones which may associated with the main loci of ore deposition. The study designates that correlation of magnetic and ERT anomalies with lithology are extremely useful in mineral exploration due to variations in some specific physical properties of rocks.

Keywords: Magnetic, Mineralization, ERT, sudan, Red Sea

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
16 Typology of the Physic-Chemical Quality of the Water of the Area of Touggourt Case: Aquifers of the Intercalary Continental and the Terminal Complex, S-E of Algeria

Authors: Habes Sameh, Bettahar Asma, Nezli Imad Eddine

Abstract:

The region of Touggourt is situated in the southern part is Algeria, it receives important quantities of waters, the latter are extracted from the fossil groundwater (the Intercalary Continental and the Terminal Complex). The mineralization of these waters of the Terminal Complex is between 3 and 6,5 g/l and for waters of Intercalary Continental is 1,8 and 8,7 g/l, thus it constitutes an obstacle as for its use. To highlight the origins of this mineralization, we used the hydrochemical tool. So the chemical analyses in our ownership, were treated by means of the software "Statistica", what allowed us to realize an analysis in main components (ACP), the latter showed a competition between sodic or magnesian chlorinated water and calcic bicarbonate water, rich in potassium for the TC, while for the IC, we have a competition between sodic or calcic chlorinated and magnesian water treated with copper sulphate waters. The simulation realized thermodynamics showed a variation of the index of saturation which do not exceed zero, for waters of two aquifer TC and IC, so indicating one under saturation of waters towards minerals, highlighting the influence of the geologic formation in the outcrop on the quality of waters. However, we notice that these waters remain acceptable for the irrigation of plants but must be treated before what are consumed by the human being.

Keywords: Continental, Mineralization, ACP, intercalary, Terminal Complex

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
15 Black Shales Outcrops in Malaysia: Occurrence and Geological Setting

Authors: Yuniarti Ulfa, Hassan Baioumy, Mohd Nawawi, Mohammad Noor Akmal Anuar

Abstract:

Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic black shales that can be a potential source of energy and precious metals are widely distributed in Malaysia Peninsula, Sarawak and Sabah. Two Paleozoic black shales outcrops were reported in the Langkawi Island belonging to the Cambrian fluvial Machinchang Formation and the Silurian glaciomarine Singa Formation. More the seventeen occurrences of Paleozoic black shales outcrops have been found in the Peninsular Malaysia that range in age from Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian in the Terengganu, Perlis, Pahang, and Perak States. Mesozoic black shales outcrops occur in several places in both the Peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak. In the Peninsular Malaysia, Triassic black shales occur in the Nami area, Northern Kedah and in the Pahang area. In Sarawak, Triassic black shales have been reported in the Bau area. Cenozoic black shales outcrops were reported in both Sarawak at Miri area and Sabah at the Ranau and Tenom areas. Preliminary mineralogical and geochemical investigations on some of these black shales outcrops showed distinct compositional variations among these black shales outcrops probably due to variations in their source area composition and/or depositional and diagenetic settings of these shales. Some of these shalese also subjected to post-depositional hydrothermal mineralization that enriched these shales with Au-bearing minerals such as pyrite, calchopyrite, and arsenopyrite. Many of the studied black shales outcrops look rich in organic matter, which increase the possibility of using these black shales as an unconventional energy resource.

Keywords: Energy, Mineralization, Malaysia, black shales

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
14 Structural and Morphological Characterization of Inorganic Deposits in Spinal Ligaments

Authors: Sylwia Orzechowska, Andrzej Wróbel, Eugeniusz Rokita

Abstract:

The mineralization is a curious problem of connective tissues. Factors which may play a decisive role in the regulation of the yellow ligaments (YL) mineralization are still open questions. The aim of the studies was a detailed description of the chemical composition and morphology of mineral deposits in the human yellow ligaments. Investigations of the structural features of deposits were used to explain the impact of various factors on mineralization process. The studies were carried out on 24 YL samples, surgically removed from patients suffer from spinal canal stenosis and the patients who sustained a trauma. The micro-computed tomography was used to describe the morphology of mineral deposits. The X-ray fluorescence method and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were applied to determine the chemical composition of the samples. In order to eliminate the effect of blur in microtomographic images, the correction method of partial volume effect was used. The mineral deposits appear in 60% of YL samples, both in patients with a stenosis and following injury. The mineral deposits have a heterogeneous structure and they are a mixture of the tissue and mineral grains. The volume of mineral grains amounts to (1.9 ± 3.4)*10-3 mm3 while the density distribution of grains occurs in two distinct ranges (1.75 - 2.15 and 2.15-2.5) g/cm3. Application of the partial volume effect correction allows accurate calculations by eliminating the averaging effect of gray levels in tomographic images. The B-type carbonate-containing hydroxyapatite constitutes the mineral phase of majority YLs. The main phase of two samples was calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD). The elemental composition of minerals in all samples is almost identical. This pathology may be independent on the spine diseases and it does not evoke canal stenosis. The two ranges of grains density indicate two stages of grains growth and the degree of maturity. The presence of CPPD crystals may coexist with other pathologies.

Keywords: Mineralization, FTIR, micro-tomography, spinal ligaments

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13 Synthesized Doped TiO2 Photocatalysts for Mineralization of Quinalphos from Aqueous Streams

Authors: Dhiraj Sud, Nidhi Sharotri

Abstract:

Water pollution by pesticides constitutes a serious ecological problem due to their potential toxicity and bioaccumulation. The widespread use of pesticides in industry and agriculture along with their resistance to natural decomposition, biodegradation, chemical and photochemical degradation under typical environmental conditions has resulted in the emergence of these chemicals and their transformed products in natural water. Among AOP’s, heterogeneous photocatalysis using TiO2 as photocatalyst appears as the most emerging destructive technology for mineralization of the pollutant in aquatic streams. Among the various semiconductors (TiO2, ZnO, CdS, FeTiO3, MnTiO3, SrTiO2 and SnO2), TiO2 has proven to be the most efficient photocatalyst for environmental applications due to its biological and chemical inertness, high photo reactivity, non-toxicity, and photo stability. Semiconductor photocatalysts are characterized by an electronic band structure in which valence band and conduction band are separated by a band gap, i.e. a region of forbidden energy. Semiconductor based photocatalysts produces e-/h+ pairs which have been employed for degradation of organic pollutants. The present paper focuses on modification of TiO2 photocatalyst in order to shift its absorption edge towards longer wavelength to make it active under natural light. Semiconductor TiO2 photocatalysts was prepared by doping with anion (N), cation (Mn) and double doped (Mn, N) using greener approach. Titanium isopropoxide is used as titania precursor and ethanedithiol, hydroxyl amine hydrochloride, manganous chloride as sulphur, nitrogen and manganese precursors respectively. Synthesized doped TiO2 nanomaterials are characterized for surface morphology (SEM, TEM), crystallinity (XRD) and optical properties (absorption spectra and band gap). EPR data confirms the substitutional incorporation of Mn2+ in TiO2 lattice. The doping influences the phase transformation of rutile and anatase phase crystal and thereby the absorption spectrum changes were observed. The effect of variation of reaction parameters such as solvent, reaction time and calcination temperature on the yield, surface morphology and optical properties was also investigated. The TEM studies show the particle size of nanomaterials varies from 10-50 nm. The calculated band gap of nanomaterials varies from 2.30-2.60 eV. The photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutant organophosphate pesticide (Quinalphos) has been investigated by studying the changes in UV absorption spectrum and the promising results were obtained under visible light. The complete mineralization of quinalphos has occurred as no intermediates were recorded after 8 hrs of degradation confirmed from the HPLC studies.

Keywords: EPR, Mineralization, quinalphos, doped-TiO2

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12 Evolution of Chemistry in the Waters of Superposed Aquifer System Terminal Complex in the Valley of the Oued Righ - Arid Area Algeria

Authors: Asma Bettahar, Imed Eldine Nezli, Sameh Habes

Abstract:

Groundwater resources in the Oued Righ valley are represented like the parts of the eastern basin of the Algerian Sahara, superposed by two major aquifers: the Intercalary Continental (IC) and the Terminal Complex (TC). From a qualitative point of view, various studies have highlighted that the waters of this region showed excessive mineralization, including the waters of the terminal complex (EC Avg equal 5854.61 S/cm). The present article is a statistical approach by two multi methods various complementary (ACP CAH), applied to the analytical data of multilayered aquifer waters Terminal Complex of the Oued Righ valley. The approach is to establish a correlation between the chemical composition of water and the lithological nature of different aquifer levels formations, and predict possible connection between groundwater’s layers. The results show that the mineralization of water is from geological origin. They concern the composition of the layers that make up the complex terminal.

Keywords: Mineralization, Oued Righ, complex terminal, infill continental

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11 Comparative Study of Ozone Based AOP's for Mineralization of Reactive Black 5

Authors: Jayesh Ruparelia, Sandip Sharma

Abstract:

The present work focuses on the comparative study of ozone based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs): O3, O3/UV and O3/UV/Persulfate for mineralization of synthetic wastewater containing Reactive Black5 (RB5) dye. The effect of various parameters: pH, ozone flow rate, initial concentration of dye and intensity of UV light was analyzed to access performance efficiency of AOPs. The performance of all the three AOPs was evaluated on the basis of decolorization, % TOC removal and ozone consumption. The highest mineralization rate of 86.83% was achieved for O3/UV/Persulfate followed by 71.53% and 66.82 % for O3/UV and O3 respectively. This is attributed to the fact that Persulfate ions (S2O82-) upon activation produce sulfate radical (SO4-●) which is very strong oxidant capable of degrading a wide variety of recalcitrant organic compounds, moreover to enhance the performance of Persulfate it is activated using UV irradiation. On increasing the intensity of UV irradiation from 11W to 66W, TOC removal efficiency is increased by 59.04%. Ozone based AOPs gives better mineralization on basic conditions, at pH 12 it gives 68.81%, 60.01% and 40.32% TOC removal for O3/UV/Persulfate, O3/UV and O3 process respectively. The result also reveals that decolorization of 98.95%, 95.17% and 94.71% was achieved by O3/UV/Persulfate, O3/UV and O3 process respectively. In addition to above, ozone consumption was also considerably decreased by 17% in case of O3/UV/Persulfate, as efficiency of process is enhanced by means of activation of persulfate through UV irradiation. Thus study reveals that mineralization follows: O3/UV/Persulfate> O3/UV> O3.

Keywords: Mineralization, AOP, TOC, recalcitrant organic compounds

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10 UV Light-Activated Peroxydisulfate Oxidation of Imidacloprid in Synthetic Wastewater

Authors: Yao-Hui Huang, Yi-An Liao, Lu-Wei Kuo, Yu-Jen Shih

Abstract:

Abstract—Imidacloprid (IMI, a widely used pesticide, iImidacloprid (IMI), a widely used pesticide, is known to affect the bee populations. A sulfate radical-based oxidation method was utilized to remove the commercial pesticide consisted of IMI, dimethylacetamide, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, and methanol (TOC0 = 497 ppm). The experimental results evidenced that sulfate radicals created by UV activation (254nm, 6.4 mW/cm2) of S2O82- could remove 97% of total organic carbon (TOC) from the synthetic wastewater in 4 h using 120 mM of oxidant dosage. The dose of oxidant, temperature and the light flux were the key factors to further improve the mineralization efficiency, while the ferrous ions decreased the efficacy of UV/S2O82- reaction due to the competition of UV-adsorption by complex formation of FeSO4+.s known to affect the bee populations. A sulfate radical-based oxidation method was utilized to remove the commercial pesticide consisted of IMI, dimethylacetamide, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, and methanol (TOC0 = 497 ppm). The experimental results evidenced that sulfate radicals created by UV activation (254nm, 6.4 mW/cm2) of S2O82- could remove 97% of total organic carbon (TOC) from the synthetic wastewater in 4 h using 120 mM of oxidant dosage. The dose of oxidant, temperature and the light flux were the key factors to further improve the mineralization efficiency, while the ferrous ions decreased the efficacy of UV/S2O82- reaction due to the competition of UV-adsorption by complex formation of FeSO4+.

Keywords: Mineralization, organic nitrogen, photochemical oxidation, imidacloprid, UV-persulfate

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9 Geostatistical and Geochemical Study of the Aquifer System Waters Complex Terminal in the Valley of Oued Righ-Arid Area Algeria

Authors: Asma Bettahar, Sameh Habes, Imed Eddine Nezli

Abstract:

Groundwater resources in the Oued Righ valley are represented like the parts of the eastern basin of the Algerian Sahara, superposed by two major aquifers: the Intercalary Continental (IC) and the Terminal Complex (TC). From a qualitative point of view, various studies have highlighted that the waters of this region showed excessive mineralization, including the waters of the terminal complex (EC Avg equal 5854.61 S/cm) .The present article is a statistical approach by two multi methods various complementary (ACP, CAH), applied to the analytical data of multilayered aquifer waters Terminal Complex of the Oued Righ valley. The approach is to establish a correlation between the chemical composition of water and the lithological nature of different aquifer levels formations, and predict possible connection between groundwater’s layers. The results show that the mineralization of water is from geological origin. They concern the composition of the layers that make up the complex terminal.

Keywords: Mineralization, Oued Righ, complex terminal, statistical approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
8 Mineralized Nanoparticles as a Contrast Agent for Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Jae Won Lee, Kyung Hyun Min, Hong Jae Lee, Sang Cheon Lee

Abstract:

To date, imaging techniques have attracted much attention in medicine because the detection of diseases at an early stage provides greater opportunities for successful treatment. Consequently, over the past few decades, diverse imaging modalities including magnetic resonance (MR), positron emission tomography, computed tomography, and ultrasound (US) have been developed and applied widely in the field of clinical diagnosis. However, each of the above-mentioned imaging modalities possesses unique strengths and intrinsic weaknesses, which limit their abilities to provide accurate information. Therefore, multimodal imaging systems may be a solution that can provide improved diagnostic performance. Among the current medical imaging modalities, US is a widely available real-time imaging modality. It has many advantages including safety, low cost and easy access for patients. However, its low spatial resolution precludes accurate discrimination of diseased region such as cancer sites. In contrast, MR has no tissue-penetrating limit and can provide images possessing exquisite soft tissue contrast and high spatial resolution. However, it cannot offer real-time images and needs a comparatively long imaging time. The characteristics of these imaging modalities may be considered complementary, and the modalities have been frequently combined for the clinical diagnostic process. Biominerals such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and calcium phosphate (CaP) exhibit pH-dependent dissolution behavior. They demonstrate pH-controlled drug release due to the dissolution of minerals in acidic pH conditions. In particular, the application of this mineralization technique to a US contrast agent has been reported recently. The CaCO3 mineral reacts with acids and decomposes to generate calcium dioxide (CO2) gas in an acidic environment. These gas-generating mineralized nanoparticles generated CO2 bubbles in the acidic environment of the tumor, thereby allowing for strong echogenic US imaging of tumor tissues. On the basis of this previous work, it was hypothesized that the loading of MR contrast agents into the CaCO3 mineralized nanoparticles may be a novel strategy in designing a contrast agent for dual imaging. Herein, CaCO3 mineralized nanoparticles that were capable of generating CO2 bubbles to trigger the release of entrapped MR contrast agents in response to tumoral acidic pH were developed for the purposes of US and MR dual-modality imaging of tumors. Gd2O3 nanoparticles were selected as an MR contrast agent. A key strategy employed in this study was to prepare Gd2O3 nanoparticle-loaded mineralized nanoparticles (Gd2O3-MNPs) using block copolymer-templated CaCO3 mineralization in the presence of calcium cations (Ca2+), carbonate anions (CO32-) and positively charged Gd2O3 nanoparticles. The CaCO3 core was considered suitable because it may effectively shield Gd2O3 nanoparticles from water molecules in the blood (pH 7.4) before decomposing to generate CO2 gas, triggering the release of Gd2O3 nanoparticles in tumor tissues (pH 6.4~7.4). The kinetics of CaCO3 dissolution and CO2 generation from the Gd2O3-MNPs were examined as a function of pH and pH-dependent in vitro magnetic relaxation; additionally, the echogenic properties were estimated to demonstrate the potential of the particles for the tumor-specific US and MR imaging.

Keywords: Ultrasound Imaging, Magnetic resonance imaging, Mineralization, calcium carbonate

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7 Degradation and Detoxification of Tetracycline by Sono-Fenton and Ozonation

Authors: Chikang Wang, Jhongjheng Jian, Poming Huang

Abstract:

Among a wide variety of pharmaceutical compounds, tetracycline antibiotics are one of the largest groups of pharmaceutical compounds extensively used in human and veterinary medicine to treat and prevent bacterial infections. Because it is water soluble, biologically active, stable and bio-refractory, release to the environment threatens aquatic life and increases the risk posed by antibiotic-resistant pathogens. In practice, due to its antibacterial nature, tetracycline cannot be effectively destructed by traditional biological methods. Hence, in this study, two advanced oxidation processes such as ozonation and sono-Fenton processes were conducted individually to degrade the tetracycline for investigating their feasibility on tetracycline degradation. Effect of operational variables on tetracycline degradation, release of nitrogen and change of toxicity were also proposed. Initial tetracycline concentration was 50 mg/L. To evaluate the efficiency of tetracycline degradation by ozonation, the ozone gas was produced by an ozone generator (Model LAB2B, Ozonia) and introduced into the reactor with different flows (25 - 500 mL/min) at varying pH levels (pH 3 - pH 11) and reaction temperatures (15 - 55°C). In sono-Fenton system, an ultrasonic transducer (Microson VCX 750, USA) operated at 20 kHz combined with H₂O₂ (2 mM) and Fe²⁺ (0.2 mM) were carried out at different pH levels (pH 3 - pH 11), aeration gas and flows (air and oxygen; 0.2 - 1.0 L/min), tetracycline concentrations (10 - 200 mg/L), reaction temperatures (15 - 55°C) and ultrasonic powers (25 - 200 Watts), respectively. Sole ultrasound was ineffective on tetracycline degradation, where the degradation efficiencies were lower than 10% with 60 min reaction. Contribution of Fe²⁺ and H₂O₂ on the degradation of tetracycline was significant, where the maximum tetracycline degradation efficiency in sono-Fenton process was as high as 91.3% followed by 45.8% mineralization. Effect of initial pH level on tetracycline degradation was insignificant from pH 3 to pH 6 but significantly decreased as the pH was greater than pH 7. Increase of the ultrasonic power was slightly increased the degradation efficiency of tetracycline, which indicated that the hydroxyl radicals dominated the oxidation of tetracycline. Effects of aeration of air or oxygen with different flows and reaction temperatures were insignificant. Ozonation showed better efficiencies in tetracycline degradation, where the optimum reaction condition was found at pH 3, 100 mL O₃/min and 25°C with 94% degradation and 60% mineralization. The toxicity of tetracycline was significantly decreased due to the mineralization of tetracycline. In addition, less than 10% of nitrogen content was released to solution phase as NH₃-N, and the most degraded tetracycline cannot be full mineralized to CO₂. The results shown in this study indicated that both the sono-Fenton process and ozonation can effectively degrade the tetracycline and reduce its toxicity at profitable condition. The costs of two systems needed to be further investigated to understand the feasibility in tetracycline degradation.

Keywords: Detoxification, Mineralization, degradation, ozonation, sono-Fenton process, tetracycline

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6 Fluid Inclusions Analysis of Fluorite from the Hammam Jedidi District, North-Eastern Tunisia

Authors: Miladi Yasmine, Bouhlel Salah, Garnit Hechmi

Abstract:

Hydrothermal vein-type deposits of the Hammam Jedidi F-Ba(Pb-Zn-Cu) are hosted in Lower Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary series, and located near a very important structural lineament (NE-SW) corresponding to the Hammam Jedidi Fault in the Tunisian Dorsale. The circulation of the ore forming fluid is triggered by a regional tectonic compressive phase which occurred during the miocène time. Mineralization occurs as stratabound and vein-type orebodies adjacent to the Triassic salt diapirs and within fault in Jurassic limestone. Fluid inclusions data show that two distinct fluids were involved in the mineralisation deposition: a warmer saline fluid (180°C, 20 wt % NaCl equivalent) and cooler less saline fluid (126°C, 5wt%NaCl equivalent). The contrasting salinities and halogen ratios suggest that this two fluid derived from one of the brine originated after the dissolution of halite as suggested by its high salinity. The other end member, as indicated by the low Cl/Br ratios, acquired its low salinity by dilution of Br enriched evaporated seawater. These results are compatible with Mississippi-Valley- type mineralization.

Keywords: Mineralization, Jebel Oust, fluid inclusions, North Eastern Tunisia

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5 Poly(L-Lactic Acid) Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Aleksandra BužArovska, Gordana Bogoeva Gaceva

Abstract:

Biodegradable polymers have received significant scientific attention in tissue engineering (TE) application, in particular their composites consisting of inorganic nanoparticles. In the last 15 years, they are subject of intensive research by many groups, aiming to develop polymer scaffolds with defined biodegradability, porosity and adequate mechanical stability. The most important characteristic making these materials attractive for TE is their biodegradability, a process that could be time controlled and long enough to enable generation of a new tissue as a replacement for the degraded polymer scaffold. In this work poly(L-lactic acid) scaffolds, filled with TiO2 nanoparticles functionalized with oleic acid, have been prepared by thermally induced phase separation method (TIPS). The functionalization of TiO2 nanoparticles with oleic acid was performed in order to improve the nanoparticles dispersibility within the polymer matrix and at the same time to inhibit the cytotoxicity of the nanofiller. The oleic acid was chosen as amphiphilic molecule belonging to the fatty acid family because of its non-toxicity and possibility for mediation between the hydrophilic TiO2 nanoparticles and hydrophobic PLA matrix. The produced scaffolds were characterized with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical compression measurements. The bioactivity for bone tissue engineering application was tested in supersaturated simulated body fluid. The degradation process was followed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed anisotropic morphology with elongated open pores (100 µm), high porosity (around 92%) and perfectly dispersed nanofiller. The compression moduli up to 10 MPa were identified independent on the nanofiller content. Functionalized TiO2 nanoparticles induced formation of hydroxyapatite clusters as much as unfunctionalized TiO2. The prepared scaffolds showed properties ideal for scaffold vascularization, cell attachment, growth and proliferation.

Keywords: biodegradation, Bone Tissue Engineering, Mineralization, PLA scaffolds

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4 Bank Filtration System in Highly Mineralized Groundwater

Authors: Medalson Ronghang, Pranjal Barman, Heemantajeet Medhi

Abstract:

Bank filtration (BF) being a natural method of abstracting surface water from the river or lake via sub-surface. It can be intensively used and operated under various operating conditions for sustainability. Field investigations were carried out at various location of Kokrajhar (Assam) and Srinagar (Uttarakhand) to assess the ground water and their bank filtration wells to compare and characterized the quality. Results obtained from the analysis of the data suggest that major water quality parameter were much below the drinking water standard of BIS 10500 (2012). However, the iron concentration was found to be more than permissible limit in more than 50% of the sampled hand pump; the concentration ranged between 0.33-3.50 mg/L with acidic in nature (5.4 to 7.4) in Kokrajhar and high nitrate in Srinagar. But the abstracted water from the RBF wells has attenuated water quality with no iron concentration in Kokrajhar. The aquifers and riverbed material collected along the bank of Rivers Gaurang and Alaknanda were sieved and classified as coarse silt to medium gravel. The hydraulic conductivity was estimated in the range 5×10⁻³ to 1.4×10⁻²- 3.09×10⁻⁴-1.29 ×10⁻³ for Kokrajhar and Srinagar respectively suggesting a good permeability of the aquifer. The maximum safe yield of the well was estimated to be in the range of 4000 to 7500 L/min. This paper aims at demonstrating bank filtration method as an alternative to mineralized groundwater for drinking water.

Keywords: Groundwater, Water Quality, Mineralization, Riverbank filtration

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3 Quality of So-Called Organic Fertilizers in Vietnam's Market

Authors: Hoang Thi Quynh, Shima Kazuto

Abstract:

Organic farming is gaining interest in Vietnam. However, organic fertilizer production is not sufficiently regulated, resulting in unknown quality. This study investigated characteristics of so-called organic fertilizers in the Vietnam’s market and their mineralization in soil-plant system. We collected 15 commercial products (11 domestic and 4 imported) which labelled 'organic fertilizer' in the market to analyze nutrients composition. A 20 day-incubation experiment was carried on with 80 g sandy-textured soil, amended with the fertilizer at a rate of 109.4 mgN.kg⁻¹soil in 150 mL glass bottle at 25℃. We categorized them according to nutrients content and mineralization rate, and then selected 8 samples for cultivation experiment. The experiment was conducted by growing Komatsuna (Brassica campestris) in sandy-textured soil using an automatic watering apparatus in a greenhouse. The fertilizers were applied to the top one-third of the soil stratum at a rate of 200 mgN.kg⁻¹ soil. Our study also analyzed material flow of coffee husk compost in Central Highland of Vietnam. Total N, P, K, Ca, Mg and C: N ratio varied greatly cross the domestic products, whereas they were quite similar among the imported materials. The proportion of inorganic-N to T-N of domestic products was higher than 25% in 8 of 11 samples. These indicate that N concentration increased dramatically in most domestic products compared with their raw materials. Additionally, most domestic products contained less P, and their proportions of Truog-P to T-P were greatly different. These imply that some manufactures were interested in adjusting P concentration, but some ones were not. Furthermore, the compost was made by mixing with chemical substances to increase nutrients content (N, P), and also added construction surplus soil to gain weight before packing product to sell in the market as 'organic fertilizer'. There was a negative correlation between C:N ratio and mineralization rate of the fertilizers. There was a significant difference in N efficiency among the fertilizer treatments. N efficiency of most domestic products was higher than chemical fertilizer and imported organic fertilizers. These results suggest regulations on organic fertilizers production needed to support organic farming that is based on internationally accepted standards in Vietnam.

Keywords: Mineralization, inorganic N, N efficiency, so-called organic fertilizers, Vietnam’s market

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2 Modeling and Estimating Reserve of the Ali Javad Porphyry Copper-Gold Deposit, East Azerbaijan, Iran

Authors: Behzad Hajalilou, Nasim Hajalilou, Saeid Ansari

Abstract:

The study area is located in East Azerbaijan province, north of Ahar city, and 1/100000 geological map of Varzgan. This region is located in the middle of Iran zone. Ali Javad Porphyry copper-gold ore deposit has been created in a magmatic complex containing intrusive masses, combining Granodiorite and quartz Monzonite that penetrates into the Eocene volcanic aggregate. The most important mineralization includes primary oxides minerals (magnetite), sulfide (pyrite, chalcopyrite, Molybdenite, Bornite, Chalcocite, Covollite), secondary oxide or hydroxide minerals (hematite, goethite, limonite), and carbonate (malachite and Azurite). The mineralization forms into the vein-veinlets and scattered system. The alterations observed in the region include intermediate Argillic, advanced Argillic, Phyllic, silica, Propylitic, chlorite and Potassic. The 3D model of mineralization of the Alijavad is provided by Data DATAMINE software and based on the study of 700 polished sections of 32 drilled boreholes in the region. This model is completely compatible with the model provided by Lowell and Gilbert for the mineralization of porphyry copper deposits of quartz Monzonite type. The estimated cumulative residual value of copper for Ali Javad deposit is 81.5 million tons with 0.75 percent of copper, and for gold is 8.37 million tons with 1.8 ppm.

Keywords: Modeling, Mineralization, porphyry copper, Ali Javad, reserve estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
1 Effect of Inorganic Fertilization on Soil N Dynamics in Agricultural Plots in Central Mexico

Authors: Karla Sanchez-Ortiz, Yunuen Tapia-Torres, John Larsen, Felipe Garcia-Oliva

Abstract:

Due to food demand production, the use of synthetic nitrogenous fertilizer has increased in agricultural soils to replace the N losses. Nevertheless, the intensive use of synthetic nitrogenous fertilizer in conventional agriculture negatively affects the soil and therefore the environment, so alternatives such as organic agriculture have been proposed for being more environmentally friendly. However, further research in soil is needed to see how agricultural management affects the dynamics of C and N. The objective of this research was to evaluate the C and N dynamics in the soil with three different agricultural management: an agricultural plot with intensive inorganic fertilization, a plot with semi-organic management and an agricultural plot with recent abandonment (2 years). For each plot, the soil C and N dynamics and the enzymatic activity of NAG and β-Glucosidase were characterized. Total C and N concentration of the plant biomass of each site was measured as well. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was higher in abandoned plot, as well as this plot had higher total carbon (TC) and total nitrogen (TN), besides microbial N and microbial C. While the enzymatic activity of NAG and β-Glucosidase was greater in the agricultural plot with inorganic fertilization, as well as nitrate (NO₃) was higher in fertilized plot, in comparison with the other two plots. The aboveground biomass (AB) of maize in the plot with inorganic fertilization presented higher TC and TN concentrations than the maize AB growing in the semiorganic plot, but the C:N ratio was highest in the grass AB in the abandoned plot. The C:N ration in the maize grain was greater in the semi-organic agricultural plot. These results show that the plot under intensive agricultural management favors the loss of soil organic matter and N, degrading the dynamics of soil organic compounds, promoting its fertility depletion.

Keywords: Soil degradation, nitrogen cycle, Mineralization, soil nutrients

Procedia PDF Downloads 54