Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Mineral Related Abstracts

12 Preparation of Geopolymer Cements from Tunisian Illito-Kaolinitic Clay Mineral

Authors: N. Hamdi, E. Srasra


In this work geopolymer cement are synthesized from Tunisian (illito-kaolinitic) clay. This product can be used as binding material in place of cement Portland. The clay fractions used were characterized with physico-chemical and thermal analyses. The clays materials react with alkaline solution (10, 14 and 18 mol(NaOH)/L) in order to produce geopolymer cements whose pastes were characterized by determining their water adsorption and compressive strength. The compressive strength of the hardened geopolymer cement paste samples aged 28 days attained its highest value (32.3MPa) around 950°C for NaOH concentration of 14M. The water adsorption value of the prepared samples decreased with increasing the calcination temperature of clay fractions. It can be concluded that the most suitable temperature for the calcination of illitio-kaolinitic clays in view of producing geopolymer cements is around 950°C.

Keywords: Mineral, Geopolymer Cement, compressive strength, illitio-kaolinitic clay

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11 Evaluation of the Potability Qualities of Pretreated Distilled Water Produced from Biomass Fuelled Water Distiller

Authors: E. I. Oluwasola, J. A. V. Famurewa, R. Aboloma, K. Adesina


Water samples with pretreatment and without pretreatment were obtained from locally constructed biomass fuelled stainless steel water distiller. The water samples were subjected to Microbial, Physicochemical and Minerals analyses for comparison with NAFDAC and WHO Standards for potable water. The results of the physicochemical and microbiological properties of the raw water(A), and the two distilled water samples (B; distill water without pretreatment) and (C; distill water with pretreatment) showed reduction in most of the quality parameters evaluated in the distilled water samples to the level that conforms to the W.H.O standards for drinking water however, lower values were obtained for the pretreated distilled water sample. The values of 0.0016mg/l, 0.0052mg/l and 0.0528mg/l for the arsenic, chromium and lead content respectively in the raw water were within the permissible limit specified by WHO however; the values of cadmium (0.067mg/l) and mercury (0.0287mg/l) are above the maximum tolerable for drinking water thus, making the raw water unsafe for human consumption. Similarly, the high total plate count (278cfu /ml) and coliform count (1100/100ml) indicate that the raw water is potentially harmful while the distilled water samples showed nil coliform count and low total plate count (35cfu/ml,18cfu/ml) for B and C respectively making the distilled water microbiologically safer for human consumption.

Keywords: biomass, Distillation, Mineral, physicochemical, potable

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10 The Role of Ionic Strength and Mineral Size to Zeta Potential for the Adhesion of P. putida to Mineral Surfaces

Authors: Fathiah Mohamed Zuki, Robert George Edyvean


Electrostatic interaction energy (∆EEDL) is a part of the Extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) theory, which, together with van der Waals (∆EVDW) and acid base (∆EAB) interaction energies, has been extensively used to investigate the initial adhesion of bacteria to surfaces. Electrostatic or electrical double layer interaction energy is considerably affected by surface potential, however it cannot be determined experimentally and is usually replaced by zeta (ζ) potential via electrophoretic mobility. This paper focuses on the effect of ionic concentration as a function of pH and the effect of mineral grain size on ζ potential. It was found that both ionic strength and mineral grain size play a major role in determining the value of ζ potential for the adhesion of P. putida to hematite and quartz surfaces. Higher ζ potential values lead to higher electrostatic interaction energies and eventually to higher total XDLVO interaction energy resulting in bacterial repulsion.

Keywords: Mineral, zeta potential, XDLVO, electrostatic interaction energy, P. putida

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9 Protein and Mineral Removal from Dairy Waste-Water Using Precipitation Process

Authors: Zahra Akbari, Farzin Zokaee, Talat Ghomashchi


Whey is a by-product of the dairy industry whose major components are lactose (44–52 g/L), proteins (6–8 g/L) and mineral salts (4–9 g/L). Approximately 50% of 121 million tons of whey produced in the world in 1993 were disposed into rivers, lakes or other water bodies, treated in wastewater treatment plants or loaded onto land. This represents a significant loss of resources and causes serious pollution problems since whey is a heavy organic pollutant with high COD and BOD values, 40–60 g/L and 50–80 g/L, respectively. The removal of cheese whey proteins and minerals represent an important task both in environmental and in food sciences. The most important treatments which are considered in this study, have been done by using lime, Al2O3, FeCl3 and AlCl3 along with heating and also acidic-alkaline method. Results show that the best way for removal of protein is accomplished with adding HCl to decrease pH from 6 to 4, boiling for 20 min, and filtering protein aggregates. Also partial demineralization in whey solution for reducing ash is accomplished by adding NaOH to increase pH to 7.2 and heating solution for 20 min.

Keywords: Mineral, Protein, Precipitation, Dairy Industry, whey treatment

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8 Nutritional Composition of Selected Wild Fruits from Minna Area of Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: John O. Jacob, Abdullahi Mann, Olanrewaju I. Adeshina, Mohammed M. Ndamitso


Strychnos spinosa, Detarium microcarpum, Diospyros mespiliformis, Dialium guineese and Gardenia ternifolia are some of the wild fruits consume in the villages around Minna, Niger State. This investigation was conducted to assess the nutritional potentials of these fruits both for human consumption and for possible application in animal feed formulations. Standard analytical methods were employed in the determination of the various nutritional parameters. The proximate analysis results showed that the moisture contents ranged between (6.17-10.70%); crude fat (2.04-8.85%); crude protein (5.16-6.80%); crude fibre (7.23-19.65%); Ash (3.46-5.56%); carbohydrate (57.77-69.79%); energy value (284.49-407 kcal/mg); Vitamin C (7.2-39.93 mg/100g). The mineral analysis shows that the selected wild fruits could contribute considerable amount of both micro and macro elements to human nutrition potassium, sodium and calcium range between; potassium (343.27-764.71%); sodium (155.04-348.44%); calcium (52.47-101%). The macro element for the fruits pulp were in the order K>Na>Mg>Ca, hence, they could be included in diet to supplement daily nutrient requirement and in animal feed formulations. The domestication of these fruits is also encouraged.

Keywords: Mineral, micro-elements, macro-elements, feed suppleme

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7 Reflectance Imaging Spectroscopy Data (Hyperspectral) for Mineral Mapping in the Orientale Basin Region on the Moon Surface

Authors: V. Sivakumar, R. Neelakantan


Mineral mapping on the Moon surface provides the clue to understand the origin, evolution, stratigraphy and geological history of the Moon. Recently, reflectance imaging spectroscopy plays a significant role in identifying minerals on the planetary surface in the Visible to NIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) onboard Chandrayaan-1 provides unprecedented spectral data of lunar surface to study about the Moon surface. Here we used the M3 sensor data (hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy) for analysing mineralogy of Orientale basin region on the Moon surface. Reflectance spectrums were sampled from different locations of the basin and continuum was removed using ENvironment for Visualizing Images (ENVI) software. Reflectance spectra of unknown mineral composition were compared with known Reflectance Experiment Laboratory (RELAB) spectra for discriminating mineralogy. Minerals like olivine, Low-Ca Pyroxene (LCP), High-Ca Pyroxene (HCP) and plagioclase were identified. In addition to these minerals, an unusual type of spectral signature was identified, which indicates the probable Fe-Mg-spinel lithology in the basin region.

Keywords: Mineral, Moon, chandryaan-1, moon mineralogy mapper, mare orientale

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6 Mineral Status of Feeds and Fodder and Its Subsequent Effect on Plasma of Livestock and Its Products in Red Lateritic Zone of West Bengal, India

Authors: S. K. Pyne, M. Mondal, G. Samanta


A survey was carried out in red lateritic zone of West Bengal to compare the mineral status in plasma of livestock grazing over red lateritic region. Sufficient number of samples of soil, feeds, fodder and blood were collected from four districts of red lateritic zone namely, West Midnapore, Birbhum, Bankura and Purulia respectively. The samples were analysed for Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn) and Iron (Fe). Concentration of Cu, Mn and Fe in soil were above the minimum critical level, whereas, Zn deficiency is wide spread in red lateritic soil. Paddy straw is deficient in Ca, P, Zn and Mn in the region. Green fodders are also deficient in P, Cu, Zn. The richness of iron (Fe) in soil, feeds, fodder and tree leaves is the characteristics of this region. Phosphorus is deficient in plasma of all categories of livestock with the exception of bullock. Cu is deficient in plasma of calf. Plasma Mn and Fe were higher (p<0.01) in the animals of red lateritic zone. The study reveals that the overall deficiency of phosphorus in different categories of livestock and there is need of dietary supplementation.

Keywords: plasma, Mineral, red lateritic zone, grazing livestock

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5 Phytochemical Screening, Anti-Microbial and Mineral Determination of Stachtarpheta indica Extract

Authors: Nasiru Ibrahim, Ibrahim Isah Lakan


These Phytochemical screening, Antimicrobial activities and mineral Determination of aqueous extract of Stachtarpheta indica were assessed. The result reveals the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, glycosides and anthraquinones. The disc diffusion of aqueous extract showed Escherichia coli, 13 and antibiotic, 19 mm; Bacillus subtilis, 10 and anti –biotic, 17 mm; Klebsiller pnemuoniae , 14 and antibiotic, 24mm and Pseudmonas aeruginosa, 24 and antibiotic, 36 mm which are all comparable with the standard antibiotic cyprotomycin. The mineral content determination by flame photometer revealed that 1.25 (Na+), 0.85 (K +), 1.75 (Ca 2+) % which is a clear indication of the safety of the extract for the hypertensive patients and could be used to lower blood pressure.

Keywords: Mineral, Phytochemicals, microbials, stachtarpheta indica extracts

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4 The Mineral and Petroleum Sectors of Papua New Guinea: An Overview

Authors: James Wapyer, Simon A. Kawagle


The current downturn in the metal and oil prices has significantly affected the mineral and petroleum sectors of Papua New Guinea. The sectors have not grown substantially in the last three years compared to previous years. Resources of several projects have not been proved up as well as feasibility studies not undertaken on advanced projects. In the 2012-2015 periods, however, development licences for four projects have been granted - the Solwara-1 project in the Manus Basin, the Woodlark project, the Crater Mountains project and the Stanley gas-condensate project. There has been some progress on three advanced projects – Frieda River copper-gold porphyry, Mount Kare gold, and the Wafi-Golpu projects. The oilfields are small by world standard but have been high rates of production. The developments of liquefied natural gas projects are progressing well and the first LNG project with ExxonMobil and partners shipped its first cargo in May 2014, the second with Total and partners involving Elk-Antelope gas-condensate fields is in its development stage, and the third with Horizon Oil and partners involving gas fields in the western Papuan basin is in the planning stage. Significantly, in the years 2012-2015, the country has exported liquefied natural gas, nickel, cobalt and chromium, and has granted exploration licences for iron-sands and coal measures for the first time.

Keywords: Petroleum, Mineral, Exploration, Papua New Guinea

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3 Characteristics of Pyroclastic and Igenous Rocks Mineralogy of Lahat Regency, South Sumatra

Authors: Ridho Widyantama Putra, Endang Wiwik Dyah Hastuti


The study area is located in Lahat Regency, South Sumatra and is part of a 500 m – 2000 m elevated perbukitan barisan zone controlled by the main fault of Sumatra (Semangko Fault), administratively located on S4.08197 - E103.01403 and S4.16786 - E103.07700, the product of Semangko Fault in the form of normal fault flight trending north-southeast, composed of lithologic is a pyroclastic rock, volcanic rock and plutonic rock intrusion. On the Manna and Enggano sheets of volcanic quartenary products are located along perbukitan barisan zone. Petrology types of pyroclastic rocks encountered in the form of welded tuff, tuff lapilli, agglomerate, pyroclastic sandstone, pyroclastic claystone, and lava. Some pyroclastic material containing sulfide minerals (pyrite), the type of sedimentation flow with different grain size from ash to lapilli. The present of tuff lapilli covers almost 50% of the total research area, through observation petrography encountered minerals in the form of glass, quartz, palgioklas, and biotite. Lava in this area has been altered characterized by the presence of minerals such as chlorite and secondary biotite, this change is caused by the structure that develops in the hilly zone and is proved by the presence of secondary structures in the form of stocky and normal faults as well as the primary structure of columnar joint, From medial facies to distal facies, the division of facies is divided based on geomorphological observations and dominant types of lithology.

Keywords: Mineral, volcanic, Petrography, lava, tuff lapili, pyroclastic

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2 Regional Low Gravity Anomalies Influencing High Concentrations of Heavy Minerals on Placer Deposits

Authors: T. B. Karu Jayasundara


Regions of low gravity and gravity anomalies both influence heavy mineral concentrations on placer deposits. Economically imported heavy minerals are likely to have higher levels of deposition in low gravity regions of placer deposits. This can be found in coastal regions of Southern Asia, particularly in Sri Lanka and Peninsula India and areas located in the lowest gravity region of the world. The area about 70 kilometers of the east coast of Sri Lanka is covered by a high percentage of ilmenite deposits, and the southwest coast of the island consists of Monazite placer deposit. These deposits are one of the largest placer deposits in the world. In India, the heavy mineral industry has a good market. On the other hand, based on the coastal placer deposits recorded, the high gravity region located around Papua New Guinea, has no such heavy mineral deposits. In low gravity regions, with the help of other depositional environmental factors, the grains have more time and space to float in the sea, this helps bring high concentrations of heavy mineral deposits to the coast. The effect of low and high gravity can be demonstrated by using heavy mineral separation devices.  The Wilfley heavy mineral separating table is one of these; it is extensively used in industries and in laboratories for heavy mineral separation. The horizontally oscillating Wilfley table helps to separate heavy and light mineral grains in to deferent fractions, with the use of water. In this experiment, the low and high angle of the Wilfley table are representing low and high gravity respectively. A sample mixture of grain size <0.85 mm of heavy and light mineral grains has been used for this experiment. The high and low angle of the table was 60 and 20 respectively for this experiment. The separated fractions from the table are again separated into heavy and light minerals, with the use of heavy liquid, which consists of a specific gravity of 2.85. The fractions of separated heavy and light minerals have been used for drawing the two-dimensional graphs. The graphs show that the low gravity stage has a high percentage of heavy minerals collected in the upper area of the table than in the high gravity stage. The results of the experiment can be used for the comparison of regional low gravity and high gravity levels of heavy minerals. If there are any heavy mineral deposits in the high gravity regions, these deposits will take place far away from the coast, within the continental shelf.

Keywords: Mineral, Gravity, influence, anomaly

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1 Effect of Short-Term Enriching of Algae with Selenium and Zinc on Growth and Mineral Composition of Marine Rotifer

Authors: Sirwe Ghaderpour, Nasrollah Ahmadifard, Naser Agh, Zakaria Vahabzadeh


Rotifers are used in many hatcheries for feeding the earliest stages of fish larvae and crustaceans due to their small size, slow movements, fast reproduction, and easy cultivation. One of the disadvantages of using rotifers as live prey is their lower content of some nutrients compared to copepods, so it is necessary to increase the amounts of these nutrients by means of enrichment. Minerals are a group of micro-elements, essential to fish, that is lacking in the rotifers, for example, selenium (30 fold) and zinc (5 fold) are present in lower quantities than the minimum amounts found in copepods. In this study, the condensed Isochrysis aff. galbana (T-ISO) and Nannochloropsis oculata were suspended at concentration of 18 × 109 cell mL⁻¹ of water with 20 ppt of salinity. Four different levels (0, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg L⁻¹) of each Na₂SeO₃ and ZnSO₄.7H₂O separately were prepared, and 1 mL of each stock was poured to the algae enrichment vessels for 1 h simultaneously. After that, the material was centrifuged (at 4000 rpm for 5 min), and the precipitated enriched algae was used for rotifer feeding. The contents of Se, Zn, Cu, and Mn were determined in enriched microalgae and rotifer by Atomic absorption. The highest content of both minerals was observed in 0.4 Zn + 0.4 Se treatment and also rotifer enriched with these enriched microalgae. The enrichment of microalgae with Zn and Se does not affect the content of Cu in the microalgae. Also, the content of Cu in rotifer fed with the enriched microalgae showed the highest Cu content in the treatments than the control. But, the enrichment with both minerals had a negative effect on the content Mn in enriched mixed microalgae except 0.4 Zn + 0.4 Se. The Mn content in enriched rotifer decreased in the treatments than the control except for 0.1 Zn + 0.1 Se. There was no significant effect on rotifer growth in combined enrichment with both minerals (p < 0.05). Overall, rotifers enrichment with Se and Zn mixed microalgae resulted in increasing Se, Zn, and Cu. This will allow Se and Zn microalgae enriched rotifers to be used as the minerals delivery method for fish larvae nutritional requirements.

Keywords: Mineral, Microalgae, Enrichment, larvae, rotifer

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