Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Mindfulness Related Abstracts

32 A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effects of Meditation Awareness Training (Mat) on Work-Related Stress and Job Performance

Authors: Edo Shonin, William Van Gordon, Mark D. Griffiths

Abstract:

Due to its potential to concurrently improve Work-Related Wellbeing (WRW) and job performance; occupational stakeholders are becoming increasingly interested in meditation. Despite this, there is a scarcity of methodologically robust research examining the utility of meditation within occupational contexts. This study conducted the first randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of meditation on outcomes relating to both WRW and job performance. Office-based middle-hierarchy managers (n=152) were allocated to either an eight-week meditation intervention (Meditation Awareness Training: MAT) or an active control intervention. MAT participants demonstrated significant improvements (with strong effect-sizes) over control-group participants in levels of work-related stress, job satisfaction, psychological distress, and employer-rated job performance. It is concluded that MAT appears to be effective for improving both WRW and job performance in middle-hierarchy managers. There are a number of novel implications: (i) meditation can effectuate a perceptual shift in how employees experience their work and psychological environment and may thus constitute a cost-effective WRW intervention, (ii) meditation-based (i.e., present-moment-focused) working styles may be more effective than goal-based (i.e., future-orientated) working styles, and (iii) meditation may reduce the separation made by employees between their own interests and those of the organizations they work for.

Keywords: Mindfulness, Occupational Stress, Job Performance, Work-Related Stress, workplace wellbeing, meditation awareness training

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31 Protection against the Hazards of Stress on Health in Older Adults through Mindfulness

Authors: Cindy de Frias, Erum Whyne

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Objectives: The current study examined whether the link between stress and health-related quality of life was buffered by protective factors, namely mindfulness, in a sample of middle-aged and older adults. Method: In this cross-sectional study, 134 healthy, community-dwelling adults (aged 50–85 years) were recruited from Dallas, Texas. The participants were screened for depressive symptoms and severity (using the Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]). All participants completed measures of self-reported health status (i.e., SF-36v2: mental and physical health composites), life stress (using the Elder’s Life Stress Inventory [ELSI]), and trait mindfulness (i.e., Mindful Attention Awareness Scale). Results: Hierarchical regressions (covarying for age, gender, and education) showed that life stress was inversely related to physical and mental health. Mindfulness was positively related to mental health. The negative effect of life stress on mental health was weakened for those individuals with greater trait mindfulness. Discussion: The results suggest that mindfulness is a powerful, adaptive strategy that may protect middle-aged and older adults from the well-known harmful effects of stress on healthy aging.

Keywords: Aging, Health, stress, Mindfulness

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30 Single Stage Holistic Interventions: The Impact on Well-Being

Authors: L. Matthewman, J. Nowlan

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Background: Holistic or Integrative Psychology emphasizes the interdependence of physiological, spiritual and psychological dynamics. Studying “wholeness and well-being” from a systems perspective combines innovative psychological science interventions with Eastern orientated healing wisdoms and therapies. The literature surrounding holistic/integrative psychology focuses on multi-stage interventions in attempts to enhance the mind-body experiences of well-being for participants. This study proposes a new single stage model as an intervention for UG/PG students, time-constrained workplace employees and managers/leaders for improved well-being and life enhancement. The main research objective was to investigate participants’ experiences of holistic and mindfulness interventions for impact on emotional well-being. The main research question asked was if single stage holistic interventions could impact on psychological well-being. This is of consequence because many people report that a reason for not taking part in mind-body or wellness programmes is that they believe that they do not have sufficient time to engage in such pursuits. Experimental Approach: The study employed a mixed methods pre-test/post-test research design. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and interpretative phenomenological analysis. Purposive sampling methods were employed. An adapted mindfulness measurement questionnaire (MAAS) was administered to 20 volunteer final year UG student participants prior to the single stage intervention and following the intervention. A further post-test longitudinal follow-up took place one week later. Intervention: The single stage model intervention consisted of a half hour session of mindfulness, yoga stretches and head and neck massage in the following sequence: Mindful awareness of the breath, yoga stretches 1, mindfulness of the body, head and neck massage, mindfulness of sounds, yoga stretches 2 and finished with pure awareness mindfulness. Results: The findings on the pre-test indicated key themes concerning: “being largely unaware of feelings”, “overwhelmed with final year exams”, “juggling other priorities” , “not feeling in control”, “stress” and “negative emotional display episodes”. Themes indicated on the post-test included: ‘more aware of self’, ‘in more control’, ‘immediately more alive’ and ‘just happier’ compared to the pre-test. Themes from post-test 2 indicated similar findings to post-test 1 in terms of themes. but on a lesser scale when scored for intensity. Interestingly, the majority of participants reported that they would now seek other similar interventions in the future and would be likely to engage with a multi-stage intervention type on a longer-term basis. Overall, participants reported increased psychological well-being after the single stage intervention. Conclusion: A single stage one-off intervention model can be effective to help towards the wellbeing of final year UG students. There is little indication to suggest that this would not be generalizable to others in different areas of life and business. However this study must be taken with caution due to low participant numbers. Implications: Single stage one-off interventions can be used to enhance peoples’ lives who might not otherwise sign up for a longer multi-stage intervention. In addition, single stage interventions can be utilized to help participants progress onto longer multiple stage interventions. Finally, further research into one stage well-being interventions is encouraged.

Keywords: Well-being, Yoga, Mindfulness, holistic/integrative psychology

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29 Observing the Effects of Mindfulness-Based Meditation on Anxiety and Depression in Chronic Pain Patients

Authors: Kim Rod

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People whose chronic pain limits their independence are especially likely to become anxious and depressed. Mindfulness training has shown promise for stress-related disorders. Methods: Chronic pain patients who complained of anxiety and depression and who scored higher than moderate in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) as well as moderate in Quality of Life Scale (QOLS) were observed for eight weeks, three days a week for an hour of Mindfulness Meditation training with an hour daily home Mindfulness Meditation practice. Pain was evaluated on study entry and completion, and patients were given the Patients’ Global Impression of Change (PGIC) to score at the end of the training program. Results: Forty-seven patients (47) completed the Mindfulness Meditation Training program. Over the year-long observation, patients demonstrated noticeable improvement in depression, anxiety, pain, and global impression of change. Conclusion: Chronic pain patients who suffer with anxiety and depression may benefit from incorporating Mindfulness Meditation into their treatment plans.

Keywords: Depression, Anxiety, Meditation, Chronic Pain, Mindfulness

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28 Examining the Predicting Effect of Mindfulness on Psychological Well-Being among Undergraduate Students

Authors: Piyanee Klainin-Yobas, Debbie Ramirez, Zenaida Fernandez, Jenneth Sarmiento, Wareerat Thanoi, Jeanette Ignacio, Ying Lau

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In many countries, university students experience various stressors that may negatively affect their psychological well-being (PWB). Hence, they are at risk for physical and mental problems. This research aimed to examine the predicting effects of mindfulness, self-efficacy, and social support on psychological well-being among undergraduate students. A non-experimental research was conducted at a university in the Philippines. All students enrolled in undergraduate programs were eligible for this study unless they had chronic medical or mental health problems. Power analysis was used to calculate an adequate sample size and a convenience sampling of 630 was recruited. Data were collected through online self-reported questionnaires from year 2013 to 2015. All self-reported scales used in this study had sound psychometric properties. Descriptive statistics, correlational analyses, and structural equation modeling were performed to analyze the research data. Results showed that the participants were mostly Filipino, female, Christian, and in Schools of Nursing. Mindfulness, self-efficacy, support from family, support from friends, and support from significant others were significant predictors of psychological well-being. Mindfulness was the strongest predictor of positive psychological well-being whereas self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of negative psychological well-being. In conclusion, findings from this study add knowledge to the existing literature regarding the predictors of psychological well-being. Psychosocial interventions, with the focus on strengthening mindfulness and self-efficacy, could be delivered to undergraduate students to help them enhance psychological well-being. More studies can be undertaken to test the interventions and multi-centered research can be conducted to enhance generalizability of research findings.

Keywords: Social Support, Self-efficacy, Mindfulness, psychological wellbeing

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27 Electroencephalogram Study of Change Blindness in Mindful Subjects

Authors: Lea Lachaud, Aida Raoult, Marion Trousselard, Francois B. Vialatte

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This paper addresses mindfulness from a psychological and neuroscientific perspective, by studying how it modulates attention. Being mindful defines a state characterized by 1-an attention directed to the subjective experience of present moment, 2-an unconditional acceptance of this experience, and 3-the rejection of systematic rationalization in favor of plain awareness. The aim of this study is to investigate whether perceptual salience filters are lowered in a ‘mindful’ condition by exploring the role of being mindful in focused visual attention. Over the past decade, mindfulness therapies have seen a surge in popularity. While the outcomes of these therapies have been widely discussed, the mechanisms whereby meditation affects the brain remain mostly unknown. To explore the role of mindfulness in focused visual attention, we conducted a change blindness experiment on 24 subjects, 12 of them being mindful according to the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI) scale. Our results suggest that mindful subjects are less affected by change blindness than non-mindful subjects. Furthermore, EEG measurements performed during the experiments may expose neural correlates specific to the mindful state on P300 evoked potentials. Finally, the analysis of both amplitude and latency caused by the perception of a change over 864 recordings may reveal biomarkers that are typical of this state. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of these results for further research.

Keywords: Perception, eeg, Visual Attention, Mindfulness, change blindness, p300

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26 Eradication of Mental Illness through Buddhism

Authors: Deshar Bashu Dev

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In this modern age, most people in developed and developing countries are affected by mental illness. There are many mental illnesses, and their differing symptoms impact peoples’ lives in different ways. These illnesses affect the way people think and feel, as well as how they behave with others. Mental illness results from compound interactions between the mind, body, and environment. New technologies and sciences make the world a better place. These technologies are becoming smarter and are being developed every day to help make daily life easier However, people suffer from mental illness in every part of the world. The philosophy propounded by the Buddha, Buddhism, teaches that all life is connected, from the microcosm to macrocosm. In the 2,500 years that elapsed since the death of the Buddha, his disciples have spread his teachings and developed sophisticated psycho-therapeutic methodologies. We can find many examples in Buddhist texts and in the modern age where Buddhist philosophy modern science could not solve. The Noble Eightfold Path, which is one of the main philosophies of Buddhism; it eradicates hatred and ill will and cultivates good deeds, kindness, and compassion. Buddhism, as a practice of dialectic conversation and mindfulness training, is full of rich therapeutic tools that the mental health community has adopted to help people. Similarly, Buddhist meditation is very necessary; it purifies thoughts and avoids unnecessary thinking. This research aims to study different causes of mental illness; analyzes the different approaches to eradicate mental illness problems and provides conclusions and recommendations present solutions through Buddhism in this modern age.

Keywords: Mental Illness, Buddhism, Mindfulness, Buddhist practices

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25 Mindfulness and Employability: A Course on the Control of Stress during the Search for Work

Authors: O. Lasaga

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Defining professional objectives and the search for work are some of the greatest stress factors for final year university students and recent graduates. To manage correctly the stress brought about by the uncertainty, confusion and frustration this process often generates, a course to control stress based on mindfulness has been designed and taught. This course provides tools based on relaxation, mindfulness and meditation that enable students to address personal and professional challenges in the transition to the job market, eliminating or easing the anxiety involved. The course is extremely practical and experiential, combining theory classes and practical classes of relaxation, meditation and mindfulness, group dynamics, reflection, application protocols and session integration. The evaluation of the courses highlighted on the one hand the high degree of satisfaction and, on the other, the usefulness for the students in becoming aware of stressful situations and how these affect them and learning new coping techniques that enable them to reach their goals more easily and with greater satisfaction and well-being.

Keywords: Employability, stress, Meditation, Mindfulness, relaxation techniques

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24 Mindfulness among Educators in General and Special Education at Independent Schools in Qatar and Its Effects on Their Academic Performance and Self-Efficacy

Authors: Mohamed S. Osman, Mohamed R. Nosair

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The study aims to determine the effects of mindfulness on self-efficacy and professional success among educators of general and special education at Qatar Independent. The study sample will consist of 100 educators from the males and females divided to (50) educators of general education and (50) educators of Special Education in primary, and high schools. They will response to mindfulness scale and the scale of self-efficacy. In addition, use reports of the assessment by the Department of Education for their performance and assessments of their supervisors. The study will examine the effect of some variables such as differences between educators from general and special education, as well as the differences between males and females and years of experience. The study will use a statistic descriptive approach and Correlative analysis such as; means and the Pearson correlation coefficient. The study may predicts differences between educators in all variables study.

Keywords: Special Education, Self-efficacy, Mindfulness, Academic Performance, general education, educators

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23 The Relationship between Dispositional Mindfulness, Adult Attachment Orientations, and Emotion Regulation

Authors: Jodie Stevenson, Lisa-Marie Emerson, Abigail Millings

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Mindfulness has been conceptualized as a dispositional trait, which is different across individuals. Previous research has independently identified both adult attachment orientations and emotion regulation abilities as correlates of dispositional mindfulness. Research has also presented a two-factor model of the relationship between these three constructs. The present study aimed to further develop this model and investigated theses relationships in a sample of 186 participants. Participants completed the Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire Short Form (FFMQ-SF), the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale for global attachment (ECR), the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERC), and the Adult Disorganized Attachment scale (ADA). Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 3-factor solution accounting for 59% of the variance across scores on these measures. The first factor accounted for 32% of the variance and loaded highly on attachment and mindfulness subscales. The second factor accounted for 15% of the variance with strong loadings on emotion regulation subscales. The third factor accounted for 12% of the variance with strong loadings on disorganized attachment, and the mindfulness observes subscale. The results further confirm the relationship between attachment, mindfulness, and emotion regulation along with the unique addition of disorganized attachment. The extracted factors will then be used to predict well-being outcomes for an undergraduate student population.

Keywords: Well-being, Mindfulness, emotion regulation, adult attachment

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22 Senior Leadership Team Coaching in Action: Creating High-Performance Teams

Authors: Siqi Fang, Jingxi Hou

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Positive psychology and coaching psychology share a number of fundamental assumptions and common themes. Blending positive psychology, mindfulness, and coaching psychology, our work in team coaching with leaders enhances both leadership and team effectiveness. Although individual coaching has proven to be effective, this article advocates the benefits of leadership coaching in team settings, because durable changes in leadership behaviors are more likely to occur. Does leadership team coaching really work? Does it help improve senior leadership team effectiveness and productivity? This action research study answers these questions by tracking the progress of three typical senior leadership teams consisting of 31 executives participating in a six-month team coaching program. Assessments (pre- and post), workshops, and feedback based on ego development theories and mindfulness were applied to upgrade the senior leadership teams’ transformational stages and reframe their organizational leadership cultures. Results suggest that the team effectiveness of the three leadership teams increased up to 43 percent according to post-survey feedback from superior, direct report, and peers. Discussion is offered to show that senior leadership team coaching help teams to achieve a consensus on common purposes, establish a foundation of trust, improve collective skills, and promote efficient operation. All factors translate into better team performance. Implications of the results for future executive development programs are discussed and specific recommendations are provided.

Keywords: Mindfulness, Team Effectiveness, action research, ego development, senior leadership team coaching, transformational stages

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21 Examining the Antecedents and Consequences of Work-Family Enrichment

Authors: Rujuta Matapurkar, Shivganesh Bhargava

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This paper discusses work-family enrichment and its relationship with certain antecedents and outcomes while considering effect of mindfulness and organizational pride as moderators. The work-family enrichment has been the topic of interest for researchers as well as practitioners for decades now. It focusses on the positive side of work family interaction rather that the scarcity or balance principle. Research shows that work family enrichment is linked to multiple work place outcomes like job satisfaction, organization citizenship behavior and turnover intention. Enrichment is also linked to life outcomes like life satisfaction, wellbeing. Thus not only the individuals but the organizations too want to engage in the activities resulting in the positive spillover between work and non-work domains. One of the recent focus areas in organization behavior literature has been Mindfulness. Mindfulness is defined as a trait or state in which the mind focuses on the present. It is the conscious attention and awareness of the present thought. The research in the area of mindfulness at work suggests that the same is related to work family balance and job satisfaction. This paper discusses the possibility of mindfulness having effect on the relationship between antecedents of enrichment and enrichment. On the outcome side job embeddedness and job ambivalence are the newest additions to the retention literature. Job ambivalence talks about having strong positive as well as negative feelings about the job. Job ambivalence is the work outcome which is linked to turnover intention. This paper talks about the relationship between enrichment and job ambivalence. Another measure for work place outcomes which is discussed in recent research is job embeddedness. This term talks about the advantages of continuing with the job rather than quitting it. It is described as like a net or a web in which an individual can become stuck and is focused on why people stay rather than on how they leave. The research has have found that establishing or increasing job embeddedness is likely to increase retention, attendance, citizenship and job performance. This paper studies the relationship between enrichment and embeddedness. Lastly this paper studies whether organizational pride has an an effect on the relationship between enrichment and its outcomes. This paper concludes with the direction for future research.

Keywords: Mindfulness, work-family enrichment, job embeddedness, job ambivalence, organizational pride

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20 Exploration of FOMO, or the 'Fear of Missing out' and the Use of Mindfulness and Values-Based Interventions for Alleviating Its Effects and Bolstering Well-Being

Authors: Chasity O'Connell

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The use of social media and networking sites play a significant role in the lives of adolescents and adults. While research supports that social support and connectedness in general is beneficial; the nature of communication and interaction through social media and its subsequent benefits and impacts could be arguably different. As such, this research aims to explore a specific facet of social media interaction called fear of missing out, or 'FOMO' and investigate its relationship within the context of life stressors, social media usage, anxiety and depressive-symptoms, mindfulness, and psychological well-being. FOMO is the 'uneasy and sometimes all-consuming feeling that you’re missing out—that your peers are doing, in the know about, or in possession of more or something better than you'. Research suggests that FOMO can influence an individual’s level of engagement with friends and social media consumption, drive decisions on participating in various online or offline activities, and ultimately impact mental health. This study hopes to explore the potentially mitigating influence of mindfulness and values-based interventions in reducing the discomfort and distress that can accompany FOMO and increase the sense of psychological well-being in allowing for a more thoughtful and deliberate engagement in life. This study will include an intervention component wherein participants (comprised of university students and adults in the community) will partake in a six-week, group-based intervention focusing on learning practical mindfulness skills and values-exploration exercises (along with a waitlist control group). In doing so, researchers hope to understand if interventions centered on increasing one’s awareness of the present moment and one’s internal values impact decision-making and well-being with regard to social interaction and relationships.

Keywords: Values, Intervention, stress, Distress, Mindfulness, psychological well-being, FOMO

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19 Effects of Arts-Mediated Mother-Child Dyads Mindfulness-Based Intervention for Korean Children with ADHD: On Behaviors in Children and Subjective Psychological States in Mothers

Authors: Jeongil Kim

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The present study examined the effects of arts-mediated mother-child dyads mindfulness-based intervention for Korean children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their mothers, on behaviors in children and subjective psychological states in mothers. Four elementary school boys with ADHD and their mothers participated in the study. Using a multiple baseline design across four mother-child dyads, data were collected on the target behaviors (disruptive behavior, on-task behavior, and compliance in class) in children using a 10-second partial interval recording system and on the subjective psychological states in mothers using four questionnaires (on perceived stress, burnout, mindfulness, and satisfaction with life). The intervention consisted of a) mindfulness training, b) mindfulness practice, and c) mindful management of body and feeling. The arts activities, making a coiled clay pot and Korean traditional music performance, were utilized to facilitate the environment to help each participant to understand the content and progress of the intervention program. The results showed that all four dyads showed improvement in adaptive behaviors in the children (increase in on-task behavior; decrease in disruptive behavior) and positive change in subjective psychological states in the mothers (increase in scores of mindfulness and satisfaction with life; decrease in scores of perceived stress and burnout). The changes in the children’s behaviors and in the mothers’ subjective psychological states were maintained when the intervention was drawn and generalized in novel settings. The results suggest that arts-mediated mother-child dyads mindfulness-based intervention would be a mutual benefiting strategy to support both children with ADHD and their mothers who experience diverse challenges in behavioral and psychological aspects.

Keywords: Behavior, Mindfulness, psychological well-being, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), arts-mediated, child-mother

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18 Methadone Maintenance Treatment Patients' and Medical Students' Common Trait: Low Mindfulness Trait Associated with High Perceived Stress

Authors: Einat Peles, Anat Sason, Ariel Claman, Gabriel Barkay, Miriam Adelson

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Individuals with opioid addiction are characterized as suffering from stress responses disturbance, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and autonomic nervous system function. HPA axis is known to be stabilized during methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Mindfulness (present-oriented, nonjudgmental awareness of cognitions, emotions, perceptions, and habitual behavioral reactions in daily life) counteracts stress. To our knowledge, the relation between perceived stress and mindfulness trait among MMT patients has never been studied. To measure indices of mindfulness and their relation to perceived stress among MMT patients, a cross-sectional random sample of current MMT patients was performed using questionnaires for perceived stress (PSS) and mindfulness trait (FFMQ- yields a total score and individual scores for five internally consistent mindfulness factors: Observing, Describing, Acting with awareness and consciousness, Non-judging the inner experience, Non-reactivity to the inner experience). Two additional groups were studied to serve as reference groups; Medical students that are known to suffer from stress, and Axis II psychiatric diagnosis patients that are known to characterized with poor mindfulness trait. Results: Groups included 41 MMT patients, 27 Axis II patients and 36 medical students. High perceived stressed (PSS≥18) defined among 61% of the MMT patients and 50% of the medical students. Highest mindfulness score observed among non-stressed MMT patients (153.5±17.2) followed by the groups of stressed MMT and non-stressed student (128.9±17.0 and 130.5±13.3 respectively), with the lowest score among stressed students (116.3±17.9) (multivariate analyses, corrected model p (F=14.3) < 0.0005, p (group) < 0.0005, p (stress) < 0.0005, p (interaction) =0.2). Linear inverse correlations were found between perceived stress score and mindfulness score among MMT patients (R=-0.65, p < 0.0005) and students (R=-0.51, p=0.002). Axis II patients had the lowest mindfulness score (103.4±25.3). Conclusion: High prevalence of high perceived stressed which characterized with poor mindfulness trait observed in both MMT patients and medical students, two different population groups. The effectiveness of mindfulness treatment in reducing stress and improve mindfulness trait should be evaluated to improve rehabilitation of MMT patients, and students success.

Keywords: stress, Mindfulness, medical students, methadone maintenance treatment

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17 Mindfulness, Acceptance and Meaning in Life for Adults with Cancer

Authors: Fernanda F. Zimmermann, Beverley Burrell, Jennifer Jordan

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Introduction: Supportive care for people affected by cancer is recognised as a priority for research but yet there is little solid evidence of the effectiveness of psychological treatments for those with advanced cancer. The literature suggests that mindfulness-based interventions may be acceptable and beneficial for this population. This study aims to develop a mindfulness intervention to provide emotional support for advanced cancer population. The treatment package includes mindfulness meditation, developing an acceptance attitude and reflections on meaning in life. Methods: This study design is a one-group pre-post test with a mixed methods approach. Participants are recruited through public and private hospitals in Christchurch, NZ. Quantitative measures are the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II, Mindful Coping Scale and, the Meaning in Life Questionnaire. Qualitative semi-structured interviews enquire about emotional support before and after the diagnosis, participants’ thoughts about meaning in life, expectations and reflections on the mindfulness training. Qualitative data will be analysed using thematic analysis. Treatment consists of one to one 30 minutes session weekly for 4 weeks using a pre-recorded CD/podcast of the mindfulness training. This research is part of the presenter’s PhD study. Findings: This project is currently underway. The presenter will provide preliminary data on the acceptability of the mindfulness training package being delivered to participants along with the recruitment strategies. We anticipate that this novel treatment used as a self-management tool will reduce psychological distress and enable better coping for patients with advanced cancer.

Keywords: Cancer, Meaning in Life, Mindfulness, acceptance

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16 The Effect of Mindfulness on Eating Enjoyment and Behavior in Preschool and Elementary Children: A Field Experiment across Four Schools

Authors: Phan Hong, David Lishner, Matthew Hanson

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Sixty-five children across four school research sites participated in the present experiment, which was designed to examine whether mindfulness promotes eating enjoyment and diverse eating behaviors in preschool- and early elementary-age children. Children, ages 3-9 years old, were randomly assigned to a 4-week mindfulness intervention condition or a 4-week exposure, control condition. Each week for four days, children received one of four different foods (celery, cauliflower, kidney beans, or garbanzo beans). Children either received instructions to mindfully engage with the food or were given the food and allowed to eat without mindfulness prompts from the researchers. Following the eating exercise, they recorded the amount eaten and rated their enjoyment level. Across all sessions, researchers modeled eating behaviors for the children by eating all the offered food. Results suggested that a brief mindfulness intervention promoted more diverse eating behaviors and more overall food consumption of typically not preferred and unfamiliar foods (celery, cauliflower, and garbanzo beans), compared with an exposure, control condition in preschool children and elementary-age children. However, food enjoyment ratings did not significantly differ between the two conditions for any of the foods. Implications of the finding for addressing eating behavior of young children are considered.

Keywords: Children, Mindfulness, Schools, Eating Behavior, control trial, eating enjoyment

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15 The Relationship between the Content of Inner Human Experience and Well-Being: An Experience Sampling Study

Authors: Xinqi Guo, Karen R. Dobkins

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Background and Objectives: Humans are probably the only animals whose minds are constantly filled with thoughts, feelings and emotions. Previous studies have investigated human minds from different dimensions, including its proportion of time for not being present, its representative format, its personal relevance, its temporal locus, and affect valence. The current study aims at characterizing human mind by employing Experience Sampling Methods (ESM), a self-report research procedure for studying daily experience. This study emphasis on answering the following questions: 1) How does the contents of the inner experience vary across demographics, 2) Are certain types of inner experiences correlated with level of mindfulness and mental well-being (e.g., are people who spend more time being present happier, and are more mindful people more at-present?), 3) Will being prompted to report one’s inner experience increase mindfulness and mental well-being? Methods: Participants were recruited from the subject pool of UC San Diego or from the social media. They began by filling out two questionnaires: 1) Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire-Short Form, and 2) Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale, and demographic information. Then they participated in the ESM part by responding to the prompts which contained questions about their real-time inner experience: if they were 'at-present', 'mind-wandering', or 'zoned-out'. The temporal locus, the clarity, and the affect valence, and the personal importance of the thought they had the moment before the prompt were also assessed. A mobile app 'RealLife Exp' randomly delivered these prompts 3 times/day for 6 days during wake-time. After the 6 days, participants completed questionnaire (1) and (2) again. Their changes of score were compared to a control group who did not participate in the ESM procedure (yet completed (1) and (2) one week apart). Results: Results are currently preliminary as we continue to collect data. So far, there is a trend that participants are present, mind-wandering and zoned-out, about 53%, 23% and 24% during wake-time, respectively. The thoughts of participants are ranked to be clearer and more neutral if they are present vs. mind-wandering. Mind-wandering thoughts are 66% about the past, consisting 80% of inner speech. Discussion and Conclusion: This study investigated the subjective account of human mind by a tool with high ecological validity. And it broadens the understanding of the relationship between contents of mind and well-being.

Keywords: Mindfulness, Mind-Wandering, experience sampling method, meta-memory

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14 Association among Trait Mindfulness, Leukocyte Telomere Length, and Psychological Symptoms in Singaporean Han Chinese

Authors: Shian-Ling Keng, Onn Siong Yim, Poh San Lai, Soo Chong Chew, Anne Chong, Richard Ebstein

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Research has demonstrated a positive association between mindfulness meditation and physical health. Little work, however, has examined the association between trait mindfulness and leukocyte telomere length (LTL), an emerging marker of cellular aging. The present study aimed to examine whether facets of trait mindfulness are correlated with longer LTL in a Singaporean Han Chinese sample and whether these facets may mediate the association between psychological symptoms and LTL. 158 adults (mean age = 27.24 years) completed measures assessing trait mindfulness and psychological symptoms (i.e., depression and stress) and provided blood samples for analyses of LTL using qPCR. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between facets of trait mindfulness and LTL. Bootstrapping-based mediational analyses were run to examine the role of trait mindfulness as a mediator of the association between psychological symptoms and LTL. Of five facets of trait mindfulness (describe, act with awareness, observe, nonreactivity, and nonjudging), nonreactivity was significantly associated with LTL, after controlling for the effects of age, gender, and education, β = .21, p = .006. Further, there was a trend for overall trait mindfulness, β = .15, p = .06, and nonjudging, β = .13, p = .095, to each predict longer LTL. Nonreactivity significantly mediated the association between depression and LTL, BCa 95% CI [-.004, -.0004], p=.03, as well as the association between stress and LTL, BCa 95% CI [-.004, -.0004], p=.04. The results provide preliminary evidence for a positive association between selected facets of trait mindfulness and slower cellular aging, indexed by LTL. The findings suggest that individuals who are high on equanimity may experience slower aging at the cellular level, presumably through engaging in more effective coping mechanisms and modulation of stress. The findings also highlight the role of nonreactivity as a potential mechanism that underlies the association between LTL and psychological symptoms.

Keywords: Depression, stress, Mindfulness, telomere length

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13 University Students' Perspectives on a Mindfulness-Based App for Weight, Weight Related Behaviors, and Stress: A Qualitative Focus Group Study

Authors: Lynnette Lyzwinski, Liam Caffery, Matthew Bambling, Sisira Edirippulige

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Introduction: A novel method of delivering mindfulness interventions for populations at risk of weight gain and stress-related eating, in particular, college students, is through mHealth. While there have been qualitative studies on mHealth for weight loss, there has not been a study on mHealth for weight loss using mindfulness that has explored student perspectives on a student centred mindfulness app and mindfulness-based text messages for eating and stress. Student perspective data will provide valuable information for creating a specific purpose weight management app and mindfulness-based text messages (for the Mindfulness App study). Methods: A qualitative focus group study was undertaken at St Lucia campus at the University of Queensland in March 2017. Students over the age of 18 were eligible to participate. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. One week following the focus group, students were sent sample mindfulness-based text messages based on their responses. Students provided written feedback via email. Data were analysed using N Vivo software. Results: The key themes in a future mindfulness-based app are a simple design interface, a focus on education/practical tips, and real-life practical exercises. Social media should be avoided. Key themes surrounding barriers include the perceived difficulty of mindfulness and a lack of proper guidance or knowledge. The mindfulness-based text messages were received positively. Key themes were creating messages with practical tips about how to be mindful and how to integrate mindful reflection of both one’s body and environment while on campus. Other themes including creating positive, inspirational messages. There was lack of agreement on the ideal timing for messages. Discussion: This is the first study that explored student perspectives on a mindfulness-app and mindfulness-based text messages for stress and weight management as a pre-trial study for the Mindfulness App trial for stress, lifestyle, and weight in students. It is important to consider maximizing the potential facilitators of use and minimize potential identified barriers when developing and designing a future mHealth mindfulness-based intervention tailored to the student consumer. Conclusion: Future mHealth studies may consider integrating mindfulness-based text messages in their interventions for weight and stress as this is a novel feature that appears to be acceptable for participants. The results of this focus group provide the basis to develop content for a specific purpose student app for weight management.

Keywords: mHealth, weight loss, Mindfulness, college students

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12 The Negative Impact of Mindfulness on Creativity: An Experimental Test

Authors: Marine Agogue, Beatrice Parguel, Emilie Canet

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Defined as receptive attention to and awareness of present events and experience, mindfulness has grown in popularity over the past 30 years to become a trendy buzzword in business media, which regularly reports on its organizational benefits. Mindfulness would enhance or impede creative thinking depending on the type of meditation. Specifically, focused-attention meditation (focusing attention on one object instead of being open to perceive and observe any sensation or thought) would not be or negatively correlated to creativity. This research explores whether mood, in its two dimensions (i.e., hedonic tone, activation level), could mediate this potentially negative effect. The rationale is that focused-attention meditation is likely to improve hedonic tone but, in the meantime, damage activation level, resulting in opposite effects on creativity through the mediation effect of creative self-efficacy, i.e., the belief that one can perform successfully in an ideation setting. To test this conceptual model, a survey was administered to 97 subjects (53% women, mean age: 25 years), randomly assigned to three conditions (a 10-minute focused-attention meditation session vs. a 10-minute psychometric tests session vs. a control condition) and asked to participate in the egg creative task. Creativity was measured in terms of fluency, expansivity, and originality, the other variables using existing scales: hedonic tone (e.g., joyful, happy), activation level (e.g., passive, sluggish), creative self-efficacy (e.g., ‘I felt confident in my ability to do the task effectively’) and self-perceived creativity (e.g., ‘I have lots of original ideas’). The chains of mediation were tested using PROCESS macro (model 6) and controlled for subjects’ gender, age, and self-perceived creativity. Comparing the mindfulness and the control conditions, no difference appeared in terms of creativity, nor any mediation chain by hedonic tone. However, subjects who participated in the meditation session felt less active than those in the control condition, which decreased their creative self-efficacy, and creativity (whatever the indicator considered). Comparing the mindfulness and the psychometric tests conditions, analyses showed that creativity was higher in the psychometric tests condition. As previously, no mediation chain appeared by hedonic tone. However, subjects who participated in the meditation session felt less active than those in the psychometric tests condition, which decreased their creative self-efficacy, and creativity. These findings confirm that focused-attention meditation does not enhance creativity. They demonstrate an emotional underlying mechanism based on activation level and suggest that both positive and active mood states have the potential to enhance creativity through creative self-efficacy. In the end, they should discourage organizations from trying to nudge creativity using mindfulness ad hoc devices.

Keywords: Creativity, Experiment, Mindfulness, creative self-efficacy

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11 Change through Stillness: Mindfulness Meditation as an Intervention for Men with Self-Perceived Problematic Pornography Use

Authors: Luke Sniewski, Pante Farvid, Phil Carter, Rita Csako

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Background and Aims: Self-Perceived Problematic Porn Use (SPPPU) refers to individuals who identify as or perceive themselves to be addicted to porn. These individuals feel they are unable to regulate their porn consumption and experience adverse consequences as a result of their use in everyday life. To the author’s best knowledge, this research represents the first study to intervene with pornography use with mindfulness meditation, and aims to investigate the experiences and challenges of men with SPPPU as they engage in a mindfulness meditation intervention. As meditation is commonly characterized by sitting and observing one’s internal experience with non-reaction and acceptance, the study’s principal hypothesis was that consistent practice of meditation would develop the participant’s capacity to respond to cravings, urges, and unwanted thoughts in less reactive, more productive ways. Method: This 12-mixed method research utilised Single Case Experimental Design (SCED) methodology, with a standard AB design. Each participant was randomly assigned to an initial baseline time period between 2 to 5 weeks before learning the meditation technique and practicing it for the remainder of the 12-week study. The pilot study included 3 participants, while the intervention study included 12. The meditation technique used for the study involved a 15-minute guided breathing exercise in the morning, along with a 15-minute guided concentration meditation in the evening. Results: At the time of submission, only pilot study results were available. Results from the pilot study indicate an improved capacity for self-awareness of the uncomfortable mental and emotional states that drove their participants’ pornography use. Statistically significant reductions were also observed in daily porn use, total weekly time spent viewing porn, as well as lowered Pornography Craving Questionnaire (PCQ) and Problematic Pornography Use Scale (PPUS) scores. Conclusion: Pilot study results suggest that meditation could serve as a complementary tool for health professionals to provide clients in conjunction with therapeutic interventions. Study limitations, directions for future research, and clinical implications to be discussed as well.

Keywords: Meditation, Mindfulness, behavioural change, pornography

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10 Relationship of Workplace Stress and Mental Wellbeing among Health Professionals

Authors: Rabia Mushtaq, Uroosa Javaid

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It has been observed that health professionals are at higher danger of stress in light of the fact that being a specialist is physically and emotionally demanding. The study aimed to investigate the relationship between workplace stress and mental wellbeing among health professionals. Sample of 120 male and female health professionals belonging to two age groups, i.e., early adulthood and middle adulthood, was employed through purposive sampling technique. Job stress scale, mindful attention awareness scale, and Warwick Edinburgh mental wellbeing scales were used for the measurement of study variables. Results of the study indicated that job stress has a significant negative relationship with mental wellbeing among health professionals. The current study opened the door for more exploratory work on mindfulness among health professionals. Yielding outcomes helped in consolidating adapting procedures among workers to improve their mental wellbeing and lessen the job stress.

Keywords: Mindfulness, job stress, health professionals, mental wellbeing

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9 A Study on the Effect of the Mindfulness and Cultivation of Wisdom as an Intervention Strategy for College Student Internet Addiction

Authors: P. C. Li, R. H. Feng, S. J. Chen, Y. J. Yu, Y. L. Chen, X. Y. Fan

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of mindfulness and wisdom comprehensive strategy intervention on addiction to the Internet of college students by engaging fourteen intensive full-day mindfulness-based wisdom retreat curriculum. Wisdom, one of the practice method from the threefold training. Internet addiction, a kind of impulse control disorder, which attract the attentions of society due to its high prevalence and harmfulness in the last decade. Therefore, the study of internet addiction intervention is urgent. Participants with internet addiction were Chinese college students and screened by internet addiction disorder diagnose questionnaire (IAD-DQ). A quasi-experimental pretest and posttest design was used as research design. The finding shows that the mindfulness-based wisdom intervention strategy appeared to be effective in reducing the Internet addiction. Moreover, semi-structure interview method was conducted and outcomes included five themes: the reduction of internet use, the increment of awareness on emotion, self-control, present concentration and better positive lifestyle, indicating that mindfulness could be an effective intervention for this group with internet addiction.

Keywords: Mindfulness, Internet Addiction, wisdom comprehensive intervention, cognitive-behavior therapy

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8 A Study on the Effects of a Mindfulness Training on Managers: The Case of the Malian Company for the Development of Textile

Authors: Aboubacar Garba Konte, Wei Jun, Li Xiaohui

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Nowadays companies are facing increasing pressure. The market environment changes more frequently than ever. Therefore, managers have to develop their agility, their performance and their capacity for innovation. Most companies look for managerial innovations to develop in their employees qualities such as motivation, commitment, creativity, autonomy or even the ability to adapt to change and manage intensive pressure. On a more collective level, companies are looking for teams that are able to organize, communicate and develop a form of collective intelligence based on cooperation and solidarity. Among the many managerial innovations that are currently developing, mindfulness (or mindfulness) is drawing the attention of a growing number of companies (Google, Apple, Sony, ING ...), These companies have implemented programs based on mindfulness. Although the concept of mindfulness and its effects have been the subject of in-depth research in the psychological field, research on mindfulness in the field of management is still in its infancy and it is necessary to evaluate its contribution to organizations. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effects of a mindfulness training among the managers of a Malian textile company (CMDT). We conducted a case study on their experience and their managerial practices. In addition, we discuss the innovative nature of mindfulness in terms of managerial practice The results show significant positive effects on two major skills identified by managers that raise significant difficulties in their daily lives: their ability to supervise a team of employees with all that this implies in terms of interpersonal skills and their ability to organize and prioritize their activities. In addition, the research methodology sheds light on the innovative nature of mindfulness in a favorable organizational environment.

Keywords: Mindfulness, manager, relational skills, managerial innovation, organization and prioritization

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7 The Effectiveness of Mindfulness Education on Emotional, Psychological, and Social Well-Being in 12th Grade Students in Tehran City

Authors: Fariba Dortaj, Akram Dortaj, H. Bashir Nejad

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Investigate the Effectiveness of Mindfulness Education on Emotional, Psychological, and Social Well-being in 12th grade students in Tehran city is the aim of present study. The research method is semi-experimental with pretest-posttest design with control group. The statistical population of the study includes all 12th grade students of the 12th district of Tehran city in the academic year of 2017 to 2018. From the mentioned population, 60 students had earned low scores in three dimensions of Subjective Well-Being Questionnaire of Keyes and Magyar-Moe (2003) by using random sampling method and they were selected and randomly assigned into 2 experimental and control groups. Then experimental groups were received a Mindfulness protocol in 8 sessions during 2 hours. After completion of the sessions, all subjects were re-evaluated. Data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis of covariance. The findings of this study showed that in the emotional well-being aspect with the components of positive emotional affection (P < 0.025, F = 17/80) and negative emotions (P <0.025, F = 5/41), in the psychological well-being of the components Self-esteem (P < 0.008, F = 25.26), life goal (P < 0.008, F = 38.19), environmental domination (P <0.008, F=82.82), relationships with others (P < 0.008, F = 19.12), personal development with (P < 0.008, F = 87.38), and in the social well-being aspect, the correlation coefficients with (P<0.01, F=12/21), admission and acceptability with (P <0.01, F =18.09) and realism with (P <0.01, F = 11.30), there was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups and it can be said that the education of mindfulness affects the improvement of components of psychological, social and emotional well-being in students.

Keywords: Mindfulness, psychological well-being, social well-being, emotional well-being

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6 The Contribution of Buddhist-Based Mindfulness Practices on Ethical Leadership: A Qualitative Study of Organizational Leaders in Thailand

Authors: Kunkanit Sutamchai, Kate E. Rowlands

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Recent public ethical scandals in many organizations around the world have raised concern about organizational ethics, which have, in turn, made ethical behaviors and conducts on the part of leaders become more critical topics in organizational studies. However, current research on the benefits of mindfulness within the workplace contexts has predominantly focused on stress reduction and work performance enhancement, while the aspects of ethical behavior development have been far less investigated in mindfulness research in the organizational and management fields. Only recently has there been an emerging call for organizational researchers and practitioners to study mindfulness concepts and practices from the original Buddhist perspectives given that ethics is regarded as a foundation for Buddhist mindfulness. Yet little, if any, empirical research on the contributions of mindfulness practices to ethical leadership has been done in Eastern Buddhist contexts. Therefore, this study aims to explore the extent to which and how Buddhist-based mindfulness practices can influence organizational leaders’ ethical values and practices. On this basis, Thailand was selected as a context of study due to a predominantly Buddhist society and culture. Qualitative data were gathered through in-depth semi-structured interviews with twenty executive leaders from various private organizations in Thailand, who practice Buddhist-based mindfulness meditation regularly. The findings from this study shed light on the role Buddhist-based mindfulness practices can play in promoting ethical behavior among executive leaders in Thailand. The results also suggest that ethical values and practices influenced by Buddhist-based mindfulness practices are well aligned with the elements appeared in the inter-disciplinary and cross-cultural ethical leadership framework, namely: humane, justice, sustainability and responsibility, and moderation. This study concludes that the integration of ethical dimensions to mindfulness practices may provide promising opportunities for ethical leadership development, particularly in the context of Thailand. This could contribute significantly to the future development of both organizations and society at large. The study also suggests that mindfulness interventions in organizational contexts should place more explicit emphasis on ethics. This may be done by relating the ethical principles underlying Buddhist-based mindfulness to other ethical systems in different contexts and cultures where they can be aligned.

Keywords: training, Buddhism, Mindfulness, Thailand, Ethical Leadership, Leadership Development

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5 Resilience and Mindfulness as Individual Resources Building Communication Skills for Physicians

Authors: Malgorzata Sekulowicz, Krystyna Boron-Krupinska, Paulina Morga, Blazej Cieslik

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Burnout is highly prevalent in health care employees, especially in physicians. It significantly reduces the efficiency of these employees, which can have negative consequences for both physicians and patients. Resilience and mindfulness enhancing positive emotions, leading to sustainable development and personal commitment, can have a significant impact on burnout. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between burnout symptoms and mindfulness and resilience among physicians. The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey study among seventy-four polish physicians. Participants filled out the following psychometric tools: the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS), Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), Areas of Work-Life Survey (AWS), International Personality Item Pool (IPIP), the Resilience Assessment Scale (SPP-25) and the Mini-COPE Inventory. The relationship between burnout and resilience and mindfulness was assessed with path analysis. Analyzing the relationship between MBI-HSS components and mindfulness, a significant negative correlation of the FFMQ score with emotional exhaustion (-0.50, p < 0.05) and depersonalization (-0.43, p < 0.05) and a positive correlation with personal accomplishment (0.50, p < 0.05) was demonstrated. Analyzing resilience, a statistically significant relationship of SPP-25 with all tested components of MBI-HSS was demonstrated: emotional exhaustion (-0.54, p < 0.05), depersonalization (-0.31, p < 0.05) and personal accomplishment (0.35, p < 0.05). In the group of medical doctors, the higher the level of mindfulness and resilience, the lower the risk of burnout. Furthermore, the more frequently used active coping strategies (planning, acceptance), the lower the risk of burnout, while the use of passive, evasive strategies increases the risk of burnout. It may be worth considering implementing mindfulness intervention to effectively manage burnout symptoms in this group.

Keywords: Resilience, Burnout, Mindfulness, physicians, medical doctors

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4 Associations between Mindfulness, Temporal Discounting, Locus of Control, and Reward-Based Eating in a Sample of Overweight and Obese Adults

Authors: Andrea S. Badillo-Perez, Alexis D. Mitchell, Sara M. Levens

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Overeating, and obesity have been associated with addictive behavior, primarily due to behaviors like reward-based eating, the tendency to overeat due to factors such as lack of control, preoccupation over food, and lack of satiation. Temporal discounting (TD), the ability to select future rewards over short term gains, and mindfulness, the process of maintaining present moment awareness, have been suggested to have significant, differential impacts on health-related behaviors. An individual’s health locus of control, the degree to which they feel that they have control over their health is also known to have an impact on health outcomes. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between health locus of control and reward-based eating, as well as the relation between TD and mindfulness in a sample (N = 126) of overweight or obese participants from larger health-focused study. Through the use of questionnaires (including the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), Reward-Based Eating Drive (RED), and Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLOC)), anthropometric measurements, and a computerized TD task, a series of regressions tested the association between subscales of these measures. Results revealed differences in how the mindfulness subscales are associated with TD measures. Specifically the ‘Observing’ (beta =-.203) and ‘Describing’ (beta =.26) subscales were associated with lower TD rates and a longer subjective devaluation time-frame respectively. In contrast, the ‘Acting with Awareness’ subscale was associated with a shorter subjective devaluation timeframe (beta =-.23). These findings suggest that the reflective perspective initiated through the observing and describing components of mindfulness may facilitate delay of gratification, whereas the acting with awareness component of mindfulness, which focuses on the present moment, may make delay of gratification more challenging. Results also indicated that a higher degree of reward-based eating was associated with a higher degree of an external health locus of control based on the power of chance (beta =.10). However, an external locus of control based on the power of others had no significant association with reward-based eating. This finding implies that the belief that health is due to chance is associated with greater reward-based eating behavior, suggesting that interventions that focus on locus of control may be helpful. Overall, findings demonstrate that weight loss interventions may benefit from health locus of control and mindfulness exercises, but caution should be taken as the components of mindfulness appear to have different effects on increasing or decreasing delay of gratification.

Keywords: Obesity, Mindfulness, health locus of control, temporal discounting, reward-based eating

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3 Mindfulness in a Secular Age: Framing and Contextualising the Conversation in the Irish Context

Authors: Thomas P. Carroll

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The phenomenon of mindfulness has become ever more popular in an increasingly pluralist Western society. Mindfulness practice has penetrated secular contexts that would otherwise be closed to religious influence, including state schools, hospitals, and commerce. The contemporary understanding of mindfulness has its origins in Buddhist meditation. However, since Jon Kabat-Zinn’s pioneering work in Mindfulness-Based Interventions, the concept has developed and sometimes mutated into various forms of practice which are disembedded from their original spiritual philosophy. This project will explore the spiritual climate within which mindfulness is currently flourishing through dialogue with three interlocutors. The first interlocutor is the Canadian philosopher Charles Taylor whose seminal work, ‘A Secular Age’, outlines three distinct modes of secularity. Taylor examines how the conditions of belief have changed and how the self seeks meaning in an age where belief in the divine is no longer axiomatic. The next interlocutor is Czech theologian and psychotherapist Tomáš Halík who offers a unique perspective of a Catholic who belongs to a section of society outnumbered by secular counterparts, with a theological hermeneutic best described as 'Den Fremden verstehen- understanding the stranger'. Finally, Irish theologian Michael Paul Gallagher offers a theological perspective on how the Christian faith can be translated into dialogue with Irish secular culture, as well as addressing the crisis of imagination and culture rather than the crisis of faith in Ireland. These interlocutors will illustrate that there are sometimes striking differences in how to interpret the religious signs of the times. However, these approaches also reveal significant similarities in how they address and explore the meaning of religious belief and experience today. In this way, themes will emerge that will help to frame the conversation about mindfulness in the West. These themes will include; the failure of the secularization thesis to pass, the growth of a diverse marketplace of religions and beliefs and the growth of a demographic who identify as spiritual but not religious. Such research is paramount in enabling a richer dialogue between Christian faith and mindfulness in a fragmented, postmodern Western context.

Keywords: Secularism, Culture, Spirituality, Mindfulness

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