Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Milling Related Abstracts

12 Tool Wear Monitoring of High Speed Milling Based on Vibratory Signal Processing

Authors: Kious Mecheri, Hadjadj Abdechafik, Ameur Aissa


The objective of this study is to develop a process of treatment of the vibratory signals generated during a horizontal high speed milling process without applying any coolant in order to establish a monitoring system able to improve the machining performance. Thus, many tests were carried out on the horizontal high speed centre (PCI Météor 10), in given cutting conditions, by using a milling cutter with only one insert and measured its frontal wear from its new state that is considered as a reference state until a worn state that is considered as unsuitable for the tool to be used. The results obtained show that the first harmonic follow well the evolution of frontal wear, on another hand a wavelet transform is used for signal processing and is found to be useful for observing the evolution of the wavelet approximations through the cutting tool life. The power and the Root Mean Square (RMS) values of the wavelet transformed signal gave the best results and can be used for tool wear estimation. All this features can constitute the suitable indicators for an effective detection of tool wear and then used for the input parameters of an online monitoring system. Although we noted the remarkable influence of the machining cycle on the quality of measurements by the introduction of a bias on the signal, this phenomenon appears in particular in horizontal milling and in the majority of studies is ignored.

Keywords: Signal Processing, Vibration, monitoring, Milling, flank wear

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11 The Consequences of Vibrations in Machining

Authors: Belaidi Idir, Boughedaoui Rachid, Ouali Mohamed


The formatting by removal of material remains an indispensable means for obtaining different forms of pieces. The objective of this work is to study the influence of parameters of the vibratory regime of the system PTM 'Piece-Tool-Machine, in the case of the machining of the thin pieces on the surface finish. As a first step, an analytical study of essential dynamic models 2D slice will be presented. The stability lobes will be thus obtained. In a second step, a characterization of PTM system will be realized. This system will be instrumented with accelerometric sensors but also a laser vibrometer so as to have the information closer to the cutting area. Dynamometers three components will be used for the analysis of cutting forces. Surface states will be measured and the condition of the cutting edge will be visualized thanks to a binocular microscope coupled to a data acquisition system. This information will allow quantifying the influence of chatter on the dimensional quality of the parts. From lobes stabilities previously determined experimental validation allow for the development a method for detecting of the phenomenon of chatter and so an approach will be proposed.

Keywords: Dynamic, Milling, chatter, lobe stability

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10 Geometric Model to Study the Mechanism of Machining and Predict the Damage Occurring During Milling of Unidirectional CFRP

Authors: J. Ramkumar, Faisal Islam


The applications of composite materials in aerospace, sporting and automotive industries need high quality machined surfaces and dimensional accuracy. Some studies have been done to understand the fiber failure mechanisms encountered during milling machining of CFRP composites but none are capable of explaining the exact nature of the orientation-based fiber failure mechanisms encountered in the milling machining process. The objective of this work is to gain a better understanding of the orientation-based fiber failure mechanisms occurring on the slot edges during CFRP milling machining processes. The occurrence of damage is predicted by a schematic explanation based on the mechanisms of material removal which in turn depends upon fiber cutting angles. A geometric model based on fiber cutting angle and fiber orientation angle is proposed that defines the critical and safe zone during machining and predicts the occurrence of delamination. Milling machining experiments were performed on composite samples of varying fiber orientations to verify the proposed theory. Mean fiber pulled out length was measured from the microscopic images of the damaged area to quantify the amount of damage produced. By observing the damage occurring for different fiber orientation angles and fiber cutting angles for up-milling and down-milling edges and correlating it with the material removal mechanisms as described earlier, it can be concluded that the damage/delamination mainly depends on the portion of the fiber cutting angles that lies within the critical cutting angle zone.

Keywords: Milling, delamination, unidirectional composites, machining damage, carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs)

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9 Analytical Modelling of Surface Roughness during Compacted Graphite Iron Milling Using Ceramic Inserts

Authors: S. Karabulut, A. Güllü, A. Güldas, R. Gürbüz


This study investigates the effects of the lead angle and chip thickness variation on surface roughness during the machining of compacted graphite iron using ceramic cutting tools under dry cutting conditions. Analytical models were developed for predicting the surface roughness values of the specimens after the face milling process. Experimental data was collected and imported to the artificial neural network model. A multilayer perceptron model was used with the back propagation algorithm employing the input parameters of lead angle, cutting speed and feed rate in connection with chip thickness. Furthermore, analysis of variance was employed to determine the effects of the cutting parameters on surface roughness. Artificial neural network and regression analysis were used to predict surface roughness. The values thus predicted were compared with the collected experimental data, and the corresponding percentage error was computed. Analysis results revealed that the lead angle is the dominant factor affecting surface roughness. Experimental results indicated an improvement in the surface roughness value with decreasing lead angle value from 88° to 45°.

Keywords: Analysis, Modeling, Regression, Milling, ANN, surface roughness, CGI

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8 Determining the Width and Depths of Cut in Milling on the Basis of a Multi-Dexel Model

Authors: Alexander Verl, Jens Friedrich, Matthias A. Gebele, Armin Lechler


Chatter vibrations and process instabilities are the most important factors limiting the productivity of the milling process. Chatter can leads to damage of the tool, the part or the machine tool. Therefore, the estimation and prediction of the process stability is very important. The process stability depends on the spindle speed, the depth of cut and the width of cut. In milling, the process conditions are defined in the NC-program. While the spindle speed is directly coded in the NC-program, the depth and width of cut are unknown. This paper presents a new simulation based approach for the prediction of the depth and width of cut of a milling process. The prediction is based on a material removal simulation with an analytically represented tool shape and a multi-dexel approach for the work piece. The new calculation method allows the direct estimation of the depth and width of cut, which are the influencing parameters of the process stability, instead of the removed volume as existing approaches do. The knowledge can be used to predict the stability of new, unknown parts. Moreover with an additional vibration sensor, the stability lobe diagram of a milling process can be estimated and improved based on the estimated depth and width of cut.

Keywords: Milling, dexel, process stability, material removal

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7 Active Deformable Micro-Cutters with Nano-Abrasives

Authors: E. Maravelakis, M. Pappa, C. Efstathiou, G. Livanos, P. Xidas, D. Vakondios, M. Zervakis, A. Antoniadis


The choice of cutting tools in manufacturing processes is an essential parameter on which the required manufacturing time, the consumed energy and the cost effort all depend. If the number of tool changing times could be minimized or even eliminated by using a single convex tool providing multiple profiles, then a significant benefit of time and energy saving, as well as tool cost, would be achieved. A typical machine contains a variety of tools in order to deal with different curvatures and material removal rates. In order to minimize the required cutting tool changes, Actively Deformable micro-Cutters (ADmC) will be developed. The design of the Actively Deformable micro-Cutters will be based on the same cutting technique and mounting method as that in typical cutters.

Keywords: Manufacturing, Milling, Turning, cutting tool, deformable cutters

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6 CNC Milling-Drilling Machine Cutting Tool Holder

Authors: Hasan Al Dabbas


In this paper, it is addressed that the mechanical machinery captures a major share of innovation in drilling and milling chucks technology. Users demand higher speeds in milling because they are cutting more aluminum and are relying on higher speeds to eliminate secondary finishing operations. To meet that demand, milling-machine builders have enhanced their machine’s rigidity. Moreover, faster cutting has caught up with boring mills. Cooling these machine’s internal components is a challenge at high speeds. Another trend predicted that it is more use of controlled axes to let the machines do many more operations on 5 sides without having to move or re-fix the work. Advances of technology in mechanical engineering have helped to make high-speed machining equipment. To accompany these changes in milling and drilling machines chucks, the demand of easiest software is increased. An open architecture controller is being sought that would allow flexibility and information exchange.

Keywords: Machines, Tools, Drilling, Milling, chucks, cutting edges

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5 Milling Simulations with a 3-DOF Flexible Planar Robot

Authors: Hoai Nam Huynh, Edouard Rivière-Lorphèvre, Olivier Verlinden


Manufacturing technologies are becoming continuously more diversified over the years. The increasing use of robots for various applications such as assembling, painting, welding has also affected the field of machining. Machining robots can deal with larger workspaces than conventional machine-tools at a lower cost and thus represent a very promising alternative for machining applications. Furthermore, their inherent structure ensures them a great flexibility of motion to reach any location on the workpiece with the desired orientation. Nevertheless, machining robots suffer from a lack of stiffness at their joints restricting their use to applications involving low cutting forces especially finishing operations. Vibratory instabilities may also happen while machining and deteriorate the precision leading to scrap parts. Some researchers are therefore concerned with the identification of optimal parameters in robotic machining. This paper continues the development of a virtual robotic machining simulator in order to find optimized cutting parameters in terms of depth of cut or feed per tooth for example. The simulation environment combines an in-house milling routine (DyStaMill) achieving the computation of cutting forces and material removal with an in-house multibody library (EasyDyn) which is used to build a dynamic model of a 3-DOF planar robot with flexible links. The position of the robot end-effector submitted to milling forces is controlled through an inverse kinematics scheme while controlling the position of its joints separately. Each joint is actuated through a servomotor for which the transfer function has been computed in order to tune the corresponding controller. The output results feature the evolution of the cutting forces when the robot structure is deformable or not and the tracking errors of the end-effector. Illustrations of the resulting machined surfaces are also presented. The consideration of the links flexibility has highlighted an increase of the cutting forces magnitude. This proof of concept will aim to enrich the database of results in robotic machining for potential improvements in production.

Keywords: Simulation, Control, Robotic, Milling, multibody

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4 Analysis of the Cutting Force with Ultrasonic Assisted Manufacturing of Steel (S235JR)

Authors: Franz Haas, Philipp Zopf


Manufacturing of very hard and refractory materials like ceramics, glass or carbide poses particular challenges on tools and machines. The company Sauer GmbH developed especially for this application area ultrasonic tool holders working in a frequency range from 15 to 60 kHz and superimpose the common tool movement in the vertical axis. This technique causes a structural weakening in the contact area and facilitates the machining. The possibility of the force reduction for these special materials especially in drilling of carbide with diamond tools up to 30 percent made the authors try to expand the application range of this method. To make the results evaluable, the authors decide to start with existing processes in which the positive influence of the ultrasonic assistance is proven to understand the mechanism. The comparison of a grinding process the Institute use to machine materials mentioned in the beginning and steel could not be more different. In the first case, the authors use tools with geometrically undefined edges. In the second case, the edges are geometrically defined. To get valid results of the tests, the authors decide to investigate two manufacturing methods, drilling and milling. The main target of the investigation is to reduce the cutting force measured with a force measurement platform underneath the workpiece. Concerning to the direction of the ultrasonic assistance, the authors expect lower cutting forces and longer endurance of the tool in the drilling process. To verify the frequencies and the amplitudes an FFT-analysis is performed. It shows the increasing damping depending on the infeed rate of the tool. The reducing of amplitude of the cutting force comes along.

Keywords: Machining, Ultrasonic, Drilling, Milling

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3 The Effect of Tool Path Strategy on Surface and Dimension in High Speed Milling

Authors: A. Razavykia, A. Esmaeilzadeh, S. Iranmanesh


Many orthopedic implants like proximal humerus cases require lower surface roughness and almost immediate/short lead time surgery. Thus, rapid response from the manufacturer is very crucial. Tool path strategy of milling process has a direct influence on the surface roughness and lead time of medical implant. High-speed milling as promised process would improve the machined surface quality, but conventional or super-abrasive grinding still required which imposes some drawbacks such as additional costs and time. Currently, many CAD/CAM software offers some different tool path strategies to milling free form surfaces. Nevertheless, the users must identify how to choose the strategies according to cutting tool geometry, geometry complexity, and their effects on the machined surface. This study investigates the effect of different tool path strategies for milling a proximal humerus head during finishing operation on stainless steel 316L. Experiments have been performed using MAHO MH700 S vertical milling machine and four machining strategies, namely, spiral outward, spiral inward, and radial as well as zig-zag. In all cases, the obtained surfaces were analyzed in terms of roughness and dimension accuracy compared with those obtained by simulation. The findings provide evidence that surface roughness, dimensional accuracy, and machining time have been affected by the considered tool path strategy.

Keywords: Milling, CAD/CAM software, orthopedic implants, tool path strategy

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2 Effects of Sintering Temperature on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured Ni-17Cr Alloy

Authors: B. J. Babalola, M. B. Shongwe


Spark Plasma Sintering technique is a novel processing method that produces limited grain growth and highly dense variety of materials; alloys, superalloys, and carbides just to mention a few. However, initial particle size and spark plasma sintering parameters are factors which influence the grain growth and mechanical properties of sintered materials. Ni-Cr alloys are regarded as the most promising alloys for aerospace turbine blades, owing to the fact that they meet the basic requirements of desirable mechanical strength at high temperatures and good resistance to oxidation. The conventional method of producing this alloy often results in excessive grain growth and porosity levels that are detrimental to its mechanical properties. The effect of sintering temperature was evaluated on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the nanostructured Ni-17Cr alloy. Nickel and chromium powder were milled using high energy ball milling independently for 30 hours, milling speed of 400 revs/min and ball to powder ratio (BPR) of 10:1. The milled powders were mixed in the composition of Nickel having 83 wt % and chromium, 17 wt %. This was sintered at varied temperatures from 800°C, 900°C, 1000°C, 1100°C and 1200°C. The structural characteristics such as porosity, grain size, fracture surface and hardness were analyzed by scan electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, Archimedes densitometry, micro-hardness tester. The corresponding results indicated an increase in the densification and hardness property of the alloy as the temperature increases. The residual porosity of the alloy reduces with respect to the sintering temperature and in contrast, the grain size was enhanced. The study of the mechanical properties, including hardness, densification shows that optimum properties were obtained for the sintering temperature of 1100°C. The advantages of high sinterability of Ni-17Cr alloy using milled powders and microstructural details were discussed.

Keywords: Nanostructured Materials, Milling, Densification, grain growth, sintering temperature

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1 A Tool Tuning Approximation Method: Exploration of the System Dynamics and Its Impact on Milling Stability When Amending Tool Stickout

Authors: Robert A. Alphinas, Nikolai Bertelsen, Klaus B. Orskov


The shortest possible tool stickout has been the traditional go-to approach with expectations of increased stability and productivity. However, experimental studies at Danish Advanced Manufacturing Research Center (DAMRC) have proven that for some tool stickout lengths, there exist local productivity optimums when utilizing the Stability Lobe Diagrams for chatter avoidance. This contradicts with traditional logic and the best practices taught to machinists. This paper explores the vibrational characteristics and behaviour of a milling system over the tool stickout length. The experimental investigation has been conducted by tap testing multiple endmills where the tool stickout length has been varied. For each length, the modal parameters have been recorded and mapped to visualize behavioural tendencies. Furthermore, the paper explores the correlation between the modal parameters and the Stability Lobe Diagram to outline the influence and importance of each parameter in a multi-mode system. The insights are conceptualized into a tool tuning approximation solution. It builds on an almost linear change in the natural frequencies when amending tool stickout, which results in changed positions of the Chatter-free Stability Lobes. Furthermore, if the natural frequency of two modes become too close, it will onset of the dynamic absorber effect phenomenon. This phenomenon increases the critical stable depth of cut, allowing for a more stable milling process. Validation tests on the tool tuning approximation solution have shown varying success of the solution. This outlines the need for further research on the boundary conditions of the solution to understand at which conditions the tool tuning approximation solution is applicable. If the conditions get defined, the conceptualized tool tuning approximation solution outlines an approach for quick and roughly approximating tool stickouts with the potential for increased stiffness and optimized productivity.

Keywords: Milling, Modal Parameters, Stability lobes, tap testing, tool tuning

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