Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Milk Related Abstracts

29 Development of Milky Products Leavend by Kefir Grains with Reduced Lactose and Flavored with Tropical Fruit

Authors: A. L. Balieiro, D. S. Silveira, R. A. Santos, L. S. Freitas, O. L. S. De Alsina, A. S. Lima, C. M. F. Soares

Abstract:

The state of Sergipe has been emerging in milk production, mainly in the dairy basin located in the northeast of the state of the Brazil. However, this area concentrates the production of dairy, developing diverse products with higher aggregated value and scent and regional flavours. With this goal the present wok allows the development of dairy drinks with reduced lactose index, using kefir grains flavored with mangaba pulp. Initially, the removal of milk lactose was evaluated in adsorption columns completed with silica particles obtained by molecular impression technique, using sol ? gel method with the presence and absence of lactose biomolecule, molecular imprinted polymer (PIM) or pure matrix (MP), respectively. Then kefir grains were used for the development of dairy drinks flavored with regional fruits (mangaba). The products were analyzed sensorially, evaluated the probiotic potential and the removal of the lactose. Among the products obtained, the one that present best result in the sensorially was to the drink with removal PIM flavored of mangaba, for which around 60% of the testers indicated that would buy the new product.

Keywords: Milk, Lactose, molecular imprinted polymer, kefir

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28 Antibiotic Resistance of Enterococci Isolated from Raw Cow Milk

Authors: Vladimíra Kňazovická, Margita Čanigová, Jana Račková, Miroslav Kročko, Viera Ducková

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to test the milk samples in terms of enterococci presence and their counts. Tested samples were as follows: raw cow milk, raw cow milk stored at 10°C for 16 hours and milk pasteurised at 72°C for 15 seconds. The typical colonies were isolated randomly and identified by classical biochemical test - EN-COCCUS test (Lachema, CR) and by PCR. Isolated strains were tested in terms of antibiotic resistance by well diffusion method. Examined antibiotics were: vancomycin (30 μg/disc), gentamicin (120 μg/disc), erythromycin (15 μg/disc), teicoplanine (30 μg/disc), ampicillin (10 μg/disc) and tetracycline (30 μg/disc). Average value of enterococci counts in raw milk cistern samples (n=30) was 8.25 ± 1.37 ×103 CFU/cm3. Storage tank milk samples (n=30) showed an increase (P > 0.05) and average value was 9.16 ± 1.49 × 103 CFU/cm3. Occurrence of enterococci in pasteurized milk (n=30) was sporadic and their counts were mostly below 10 CFU/cm3. Overall, 96 enterococci strains were isolated. In samples of raw cow milk and stored raw cow milk, Enterococcus faecalis was a dominant species (58.1% and 71.7%, respectively), followed by E. faecium (16.3% and 0%, respectively). Enterococcus mundtii, E. casseliflavus, E. durans and E. gallinarum were isolated, too. Resistances to ampicillin, erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline and vancomycin were found in 7.29%, 3.13%, 4.00%, 13.54% and 10.42% of isolated enterococci strains, respectively. Resistance to teicoplanine was not found in any isolated strain. All Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) belonged to E. faecalis. Obtained results confirmed that raw milk is a potential risk of enterococci resistant to antibiotics transmission into the food chain.

Keywords: Biosystems Engineering, Milk, Antibiotic Resistance, enterococci

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27 Use of Green Coconut Pulp as Cream, Milk, Stabilizer and Emulsifier Replacer in Germinated Brown Rice Ice Cream

Authors: Naruemon Prapasuwannakul, Supitcha Boonchai, Nawapat Pengpengpit

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine physicochemical and sensory properties of germinated brown rice ice cream as affected by replacement of cream, milk, stabilizer, and emulsifier with green coconut pulp. Five different formulations of ice cream were performed. Regular formulation of ice cream consisted of GBR juice, milk cream, milk powder, stabilizer, emulsifier, sucrose and salt. Replacing of cream, milk, stabilizer, and emulsifier with coconut pulp resulted in an increase in viscosity and overrun, but a decrease in hardness, melting rate, lightness (l*) and redness (a*). However, there was no significant difference among all formulations on any sensory attributes. The results also showed that the ice cream with replacement of coconut pulp contained less fat and protein than those of the regular ice cream. The findings suggested that green coconut pulp can be used as alternative ingredient to replace fat, milk stabilizer and emulsifier even in a high carbohydrate ice cream formulation.

Keywords: Milk, ice cream, germinated brown rice, coconut pulp, cream

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26 Chemometric Determination of the Geographical Origin of Milk Samples in Malaysia

Authors: Shima Behkami, Nor Shahirul Umirah Idris, Sharifuddin Md. Zain, Kah Hin Low, Mehrdad Gholami, Nima A. Behkami, Ahmad Firdaus Kamaruddin

Abstract:

In this work, Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) and Ultrasound Milko Tester were used to study milk samples obtained from various geographical locations in Malaysia. ICP-MS was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in milk, water and soil samples obtained from seven dairy farms at different geographical locations in peninsular Malaysia. IRMS was used to analyze the milk samples for isotopic ratios of δ13C, 15N and 18O. Nutritional parameters in the milk samples were determined using an ultrasound milko tester. Data obtained from these measurements were evaluated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Analysis (HA) as a preliminary step in determining geographical origin of these milk samples. It is observed that the isotopic ratios and a number of the nutritional parameters are responsible for the discrimination of the samples. It was also observed that it is possible to determine the geographical origin of these milk samples solely by the isotopic ratios of δ13C, 15N and 18O. The accuracy of the geographical discrimination is demonstrated when several milk samples from a milk factory taken from one of the regions under study were appropriately assigned to the correct PCA cluster.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Principal Component Analysis, Milk, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy ICP-MS, isotope ratio mass spectroscopy IRMS, hierarchical analysis, geographical origin

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25 Exploring the Feasibility of Introducing Particular Polyphenols into Cow Milk Naturally through Animal Feeding

Authors: Steve H. Y. Lee, Jeremy P. E. Spencer

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to explore the feasibility of enriching polyphenols in cow milk via addition of flavanone-rich citrus pulp to existing animal feed. 8 Holstein lactating cows were enrolled onto the 4 week feeding study. 4 cows were fed the standard farm diet (control group), with another 4 (treatment group) which are fed a standard farm diet mixed with citrus pulp diet. Milk was collected twice a day, 3 times a week. The resulting milk yield and its macronutrient composition as well as lactose content were measured. The milk phenolic compounds were analysed using electrochemical detection (ECD).

Keywords: Milk, Animal Feeding, polyphenol, lactating cows

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24 Analysis of Commercial Cow and Camel Milk by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Authors: Lucia Pappalardo, Sara Abdul Majid Azzam

Abstract:

Camel milk is widely consumed by people living in arid areas of the world, where it is also known for its potential therapeutic and medical properties. Indeed it has been used as a treatment for several diseases such as tuberculosis, dropsy, asthma, jaundice and leishmaniasis in India, Sudan and some parts of Russia. A wealth of references is available in literature for the composition of milk from different diary animals such as cows, goats and sheep. Camel milk instead has not been extensively studied, despite its nutritional value. In this study commercial cow and camel milk samples, bought from the local market, were analyzed by 1D 1H-NMR and multivariate statistics in order to identify the different composition of the low-molecular-weight compounds in the milk mixtures. The samples were analyzed in their native conditions without any pre-treatment. Our preliminary study shows that the two different types of milk samples differ in the content of metabolites such as orotate, fats and more.

Keywords: Milk, cow, camel, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

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23 Production of Banana Milk Powder Using Spray and Freeze Dryer

Authors: Siti Noor Suzila Maqsood-Ul-Haque, Ummi Kalthum Ibrahim, Norekanadirah Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

Banana are rich in vitamins, potassium and carbohydrate.The objective for this research work is to produce banana milk powder that can help children that suffers from constipation. Two types of the most common dryers used for this purpose are the spray and freeze dryer. The effects of the type of dryers, pump feed speed in the spray dryer and the ratio proportion of the banana milk powder were investigated in the study. The result indicate that increasing proportion ratio of the banana milk powder produce lower yield of the powder.From the result it is also concluded that speed 2 is more suitable in the production of the banana milk powder since the value of the moisture content is lower.

Keywords: Milk, Dissolution, freeze dryer, moisture content, banana, spray dryer

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22 Mueller Matrix Polarimetry for Analysis Scattering Biological Fluid Media

Authors: S. Cherif, A. Manallah, A. Medjahed, M. Bouafia

Abstract:

A light wave is characterized by 4 characteristics: its amplitude, its frequency, its phase and the direction of polarization of its luminous vector (the electric field). It is in this last characteristic that we will be interested. The polarization of the light was introduced in order to describe the vectorial behavior of the light; it describes the way in which the electric field evolves in a point of space. Our work consists in studying diffusing mediums. Different types of biological fluids were selected to study the evolution of each with increasing scattering power of the medium, and in the same time to make a comparison between them. When crossing these mediums, the light undergoes modifications and/or deterioration of its initial state of polarization. This phenomenon is related to the properties of the medium, the idea is to compare the characteristics of the entering and outgoing light from the studied medium by a white light. The advantage of this model is that it is experimentally accessible workable intensity measurements with CCD sensors and allows operation in 2D. The latter information is used to discriminate some physical properties of the studied areas. We chose four types of milk to study the evolution of each with increasing scattering power of the medium.

Keywords: Milk, light polarization, Mueller matrix, Mueller images, diffusing medium

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21 Assessment of Procurement-Demand of Milk Plant Using Quality Control Tools: A Case Study

Authors: Jagdeep Singh, Prem Singh

Abstract:

Milk is considered as an essential and complete food. The present study was conducted at Milk Plant Mohali especially in reference to the procurement section where the cash inflow was maximum, with the objective to achieve higher productivity and reduce wastage of milk. In milk plant it was observed that during the month of Jan-2014 to March-2014 the average procurement of milk was Rs. 4, 19, 361 liter per month and cost of procurement of milk is Rs 35/- per liter. The total cost of procurement thereby equal to Rs. 1crore 46 lakh per month, but there was mismatch in procurement-production of milk, which leads to an average loss of Rs. 12, 94, 405 per month. To solve the procurement-production problem Quality Control Tools like brainstorming, Flow Chart, Cause effect diagram and Pareto analysis are applied wherever applicable. With the successful implementation of Quality Control tools an average saving of Rs. 4, 59, 445 per month is done.

Keywords: Milk, procurement-demand, quality control tools

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20 The Possibility of Increase UFA in Milk by Adding of Canola Seed in Holstein Dairy Cow Diets

Authors: A. Aghazadeh, K. Nazeradl, H. Mansoori Yarahmadi

Abstract:

This study was done to evaluate the effects of feeding canola seed for enrichment of UFA and milk performance of early lactation dairy cows. Twelve multi parous Holstein cows (635.3±18 kg BW and 36±9 DIM) were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1- Control (CON) without canola seed, 2- 7.5% raw canola seed (CUT), and 3- 7.5% Heat-treated canola seed (CHT) of the total ration. Diets contained same crude protein, but varied in net energy. Diets were composed by basis of corn silage and alfalfa. Cows were milked twice daily for 4 wk. The inclusion of canola seed did not alter DM intake, weight gain, or body condition score of cows. Milk fat from CHT cows had greater proportions of UFA and MUFA (P < 0.05). Feeding CUT increased PUFA without significant difference. Milk fat from CHT had a greater proportion of C18 UFA and tended to have a higher proportion of other UFA. FCM milk yields, milk fat and protein percentages and total yield of these components were similar between treatments. Milk urea nitrogen was lower in cows fed CON and CHT. Feeding canola seed to lactating dairy cows resulted in milk fat with higher proportions of healthful fatty acids without adverse affecting milk yield or milk composition.

Keywords: Milk, dairy cow, fatty acid, canola seed

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19 The Occurrence of Sporeformers in Processed Milk from Household Refrigerators and The Effect of Heat Treatment on Bacillus Spores Activation

Authors: Oluwatosin A. Ijabadeniyi, Sarisha Devnath

Abstract:

In recent years milk contamination has become a major problem in households; due to the likely occurrence of bacteria, even after the milk has been processed. One such genus of bacteria causing unwanted growth is Bacillus. This research project looks at the presence of spore formers in processed milk from household refrigerators and the effect of pasteurization and high temperature on Bacillus spores activation. 24 samples each of UHT milk and pasteurised milk from 24 households were sampled for the presence of spore formers. While anaerobic spore formers were not found in any of the samples, the average aerobic spore formers in UHT milk and pasteurized milk however were 5.77 cfu/ml and 5.88 cfu/ml respectively. After sequencing, it was detected that the mixed culture contained Bacillus cereus, for both pasteurised and UHT milk samples. For the activation study, raw milk samples were collected and subjected to four different temperatures; 65˚C, 72˚C, 80˚C, 100˚C respectively. Samples were stored for 7 days at 5˚C and 10˚C and analysed daily. The average aerobic spore formers in raw milk for samples stored at 5˚C range between 4.67-6.00 cfu/ml while it ranges between 4.84-6.00 cfu/ml at 10˚C, signifying that the high temperatures could have resulted in germination of dominant spores. Statistical analysis conducted on these results indicated a significant difference between the numbers of colonies present at the different treatment temperatures the bacterium was exposed to. This work showed that household milk may constitute public health risk furthermore; pasteurization and higher temperatures may not be effective to remove aerobic spore formers because of Bacillus spores activation.

Keywords: Milk, bacillus, activation, sporeformers, spores

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18 Ability of Gastric Enzyme Extract of Adult Camel to Clot Bovine Milk

Authors: Boudjenah-Haroun Saliha, Isselnane Souad, Nouani Abdelwahab, Baaissa Babelhadj, Mati Abderrahmane

Abstract:

Algeria is experiencing significant development of the dairy sector, where consumption of milk and milk products increased by 2.7 million tons in 2008 to 4,400,000 tons in 2013, and cheese production has reached 1640 tons in the year 2014 with average consumption of 0.7 kg/person/year. Although rennet is still the most used coagulating enzyme in cheese, its production has been growing worldwide shortage. This shortage is primarily due to a growing increase in the production and consumption of cheese, and the inability to increase in parallel the production of rennet. This shortage has caused very large fluctuations in its price). To overcome these obstacles, much research has been undertaken to find effective and competitive substitutes used industrially. For this, the selection of a local production of rennet substitute is desirable. It would allow a permanent supply with limited dependence on imports and price fluctuations. Investigations conducted by our research team showed that extracts coagulants from the stomachs of older camels are characterized by a coagulating power than those from younger camels. The objective of this work is to study the possibility of substituting commercial rennet coagulant by gastric enzymes from adult camels for coagulation bovine milk. Excerpts from the raw camel coagulants obtained are characterized through their teneures proteins and clotting and proteolytic activities. Milk clotting conditions by the action of these extracts were optimized. Milk clotting time all treated with enzyme preparations and under different conditions was calculated. Bovine rennet has been used for comparison. The results show that crude extracts from gastric adult camel can be good substituting bovine rennet.

Keywords: Coagulation, Milk, cheese, Algeria, camel, gastric extracts

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17 The Food and Nutritional Effects of Smallholders’ Participation in Milk Value Chain in Ethiopia

Authors: Geday Elias, Montaigne Etienne, Padilla Martine, Tollossa Degefa

Abstract:

Smallholder farmers’ participation in agricultural value chain identified as a pathway to get out of poverty trap in Ethiopia. The smallholder dairy activities have a huge potential in poverty reduction through enhancing income, achieving food and nutritional security in the country. However, much less is known about the effects of smallholder’s participation in milk value chain on household food security and nutrition. This paper therefore, aims at evaluating the effects of smallholders’ participation in milk value chain on household food security taking in to account the four pillars of food security measurements (availability, access, utilization and stability). Using a semi-structured interview, a cross sectional farm household data collected from a randomly selected sample of 333 households (170 in Amhara and 163 in Oromia regions).Binary logit and propensity score matching( PSM) models are employed to examine the mechanisms through which smallholder’s participation in the milk value chain affects household food security where crop production, per capita calorie intakes, diet diversity score, and food insecurity access scale are used to measure food availability, access, utilization and stability respectively. Our findings reveal from 333 households, only 34.5% of smallholder farmers are participated in the milk value chain. Limited access to inputs and services, limited access to inputs markets and high transaction costs are key constraints for smallholders’ limited access to the milk value chain. To estimate the true average participation effects of milk value chain for participated households, the outcome variables (food security) of farm households who participated in milk value chain are compared with the outcome variables if the farm households had not participated. The PSM analysis reveals smallholder’s participation in milk value chain has a significant positive effect on household income, food security and nutrition. Smallholder farmers who are participated in milk chain are better by 15 quintals crops production and 73 percent of per capita calorie intakes in food availability and access respectively than smallholder farmers who are not participated in the market. Similarly, the participated households are better in dietary quality by 112 percents than non-participated households. Finally, smallholders’ who are participated in milk value chain are better in reducing household vulnerability to food insecurity by an average of 130 percent than non participated households. The results also shows income earned from milk value chain participation contributed to reduce capital’s constraints of the participated households’ by higher farm income and total household income by 5164 ETB and 14265 ETB respectively. This study therefore, confirms the potential role of smallholders’ participation in food value chain to get out of poverty trap through improving rural household income, food security and nutrition. Therefore, identified the determinants of smallholder participation in milk value chain and the participation effects on food security in the study areas are worth considering as a positive knock for policymakers and development agents to tackle the poverty trap in the study area in particular and in the country in general.

Keywords: Participation, Milk, Value Chain, effects, smallholders, food security and nutrition

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16 High Acid-Stable α-Amylase Production by Milk in Liquid Culture

Authors: Hiroshi Morita, Shohei Matsuo, Saki Mikai

Abstract:

Objectives: Shochu is a popular Japanese distilled spirits. In the production of shochu, the filamentous fungus Aspergillus kawachii has traditionally been used. A. kawachii produces two types of starch hydrolytic enzymes, α-amylase (enzymatic liquefaction) and glucoamylase (enzymatic saccharification). Liquid culture system is a relatively easy microorganism to ferment with relatively low cost of production compared for solid culture. In liquid culture system, acid-unstable α-amylase (α-A) was produced abundantly, but, acid-stable α-amylase (Aα-A) was not produced. Since there is high enzyme productivity, most in shochu brewing have been adopted by a solid culture method. In this study, therefore, we investigated production of Aα-A in liquid culture system. Materials and methods: Microorganism Aspergillus kawachii NBRC 4308 was used. The mold was cultured at 30 °C for 7~14 d to allow formation of conidiospores on slant agar medium. Liquid Culture System: A. kawachii was cultured in a 100 ml of following altered SLS medium: 1.0 g of rice flour, 0.1 g of K2HPO4, 0.1 g of KCl, 0.6 g of tryptone, 0.05 g of MgSO4・7H2O, 0.001 g of FeSO4・7H2O, 0.0003 g of ZnSO4・7H2O, 0.021 g of CaCl2, 0.33 of citric acid (pH 3.0). The pH of the medium was adjusted to the designated value with 10 % HCl solution. The cultivation was shaking at 30 °C and 200 rpm for 72 h. It was filtered to obtain a crude enzyme solution. Aα-A assay: The crude enzyme solution was analyzed. An acid-stable α-amylase activity was carried out using an α-amylase assay kit (Kikkoman Corporation, Noda, Japan). It was conducted after adding 9 ml of 100 mM acetate buffer (pH 3.0) to 1 ml of the culture product supernatant and acid treatment at 37°C for 1 h. One unit of a-amylase activity was defined as the amount of enzyme that yielded 1 mmol of 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl 6-azide-6-deoxy-b-maltopentaoside (CNP) per minute. Results and Conclusion: We experimented with co-culture of A. kawachii and lactobacillus in order to get control of pH in altered SLS medium. However, high production of acid-stable α-amylase was not obtained. We experimented with yoghurt or milk made an addition to liquid culture. The result indicated that high production of acid-stable α-amylase (964 U/g-substrate) was obtained when milk made an addition to liquid culture. Phosphate concentration in the liquid medium was a major cause of increased acid-stable α-amylase activity. In liquid culture, acid-stable α-amylase activity was enhanced by milk, but Fats and oils in the milk were oxidized. In addition, Tryptone is not approved as a food additive in Japan. Thus, alter SLS medium added to skim milk excepting for the fats and oils in the milk instead of tryptone. The result indicated that high production of acid-stable α-amylase was obtained with the same effect as milk.

Keywords: Milk, acid-stable α-amylase, liquid culture, shochu

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15 Bacterial Profiling and Development of Molecular Diagnostic Assays for Detection of Bacterial Pathogens Associated with Bovine mastitis

Authors: Tahir Yaqub, Muhammad Imran, Aqeela Ashraf, Muhammad Tayyab, Yung Fu Chang

Abstract:

For the identification of bovine mastitic pathogen, an economical, rapid and sensitive molecular diagnostic assay is developed by PCR multiplexing of gene and pathogenic species specific DNA sequences. The multiplex PCR assay is developed for detecting nine important bacterial pathogens causing mastitis Worldwide. The bacterial species selected for this study are Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysagalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus chromogenes Mycoplasma bovis and Staphylococcus epidermidis. A single reaction assay was developed and validated by 27 reference strains and further tested on 276 bacterial strains obtained from culturing mastitic milk. The multiplex PCR assay developed here is further evaluated by applying directly on genomic DNA isolated from 200 mastitic milk samples. It is compared with bacterial culturing method and proved to be more sensitive, rapid, economical and can specifically identify 9 bacterial pathogens in a single reaction. It has detected the pathogens in few culture negative mastitic samples. Recognition of disease is the foundation of disease control and prevention. This assay can be very helpful for maintaining the udder health and milk monitoring.

Keywords: Bacteria, Milk, Mastitis, multiplex PCR

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14 Assessment of Milk Quality in Vehari: Evaluation of Public Health Concerns

Authors: Iftikhar Ahmad, ZAKIR ALI, Muhammad Farhan Saeed, Muhammad Nadeem, Waheed Aslam Khan

Abstract:

Milk is an important and fundamental nutrition source of human diet. In Pakistan, the milk used by the consumer is of low quality and is often contaminated due to the lack of quality controls. Mycotoxins produced from molds which contaminate the agriculture commodities of animal feed. Mycotoxins are poisons which affect the animals when they consume contaminated feeds. Aflatoxin AFM1 is naturally occurring form of mycotoxins in milk which is carcinogenic. To assess public awareness regarding milk Aflatoxin contamination, a population-based survey using a questionnaire was carried out from general public and from farmers of both rural and urban areas. It was revealed from the data that people of rural area were more satisfied about quality of available milk but the awareness level about milk contamination was found lower in both areas. Total 297 samples of milk were collected from rural (n=156) and urban (n=141) areas of district Vehari during June-July 2015. Milk samples were collected from three different point sources; farmer, milkman and milkshop. These point sources had three types of dairy milk including cow milk, buffalo milk and mixed milk. After performing ELISA test 18 samples with positive ELISA results were maintain per source for further analysis for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Higher percentages of samples were found exceeding the permissible limit for urban area. In rural area about 15% samples and from urban area about 35% samples were exceeded the permissible limit of AFM1 with 0.05µg/kg set by European Union. From urban areas about 55% of buffalo, 33% of cows and 17% of mixed milk samples were exceeded the permissible AFM1 level as compared with 17%, 11% and 17% for milk samples from rural areas respectively. Samples from urban areas 33%, 44% and 28% were exceeded the permissible AFM1 level for farmer, milkman and of milk shop respectively as compared with 28% and 17% of farmer and milkman’s samples from rural areas respectively. The presence of AFM1 in milk samples demands the implementation of strict regulations and also urges the need for continuous monitoring of milk and milk products in order to minimize the health hazards. Regulations regarding aflatoxins contamination and adulteration should be strictly imposed to prevent health problems related to milk quality. Permissible limits for aflatoxin should be enforced strongly in Pakistan so that economic loss due to aflatoxin contamination can be reduced.

Keywords: HPLC, Milk, Vehari, aflatoxins AFM1

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13 Cereal Bioproducts Conversion to Higher Value Feed by Using Pediococcus Strains Isolated from Spontaneous Fermented Cereal, and Its Influence on Milk Production of Dairy Cattle

Authors: Elena Bartkiene, Vita Krungleviciute, Rasa Zelvyte, Ingrida Monkeviciene, Jone Kantautaite, Rolandas Stankevicius, Modestas Ruzauskas

Abstract:

The environmental impact of agricultural bioproducts from the processing of food crops is an increasing concern worldwide. Currently, cereal bran has been used as a low-value ingredient for both human consumption and animal feed. The most popular bioprocessing technologies for cereal bran nutritional and technological functionality increasing are enzymatic processing and fermentation, and the most popular starters in fermented feed production are lactic acid bacteria (LAB) including pediococci. However, the ruminant digestive system is unique, there are billions of microorganisms which help the cow to digest and utilize nutrients in the feed. To achieve efficient feed utilization and high milk yield, the microorganisms must have optimal conditions, and the disbalance of this system is highly undesirable. Pediococcus strains Pediococcus acidilactici BaltBio01 and Pediococcus pentosaceus BaltBio02 from spontaneous fermented rye were isolated (by rep – PCR method), identified, and characterized by their growth (by Thermo Bioscreen C automatic turbidometer), acidification rate (2 hours in 2.5 pH), gas production (Durham method), and carbohydrate metabolism (by API 50 CH test ). Antimicrobial activities of isolated pediococcus against variety of pathogenic and opportunistic bacterial strains previously isolated from diseased cattle, and their resistance to antibiotics were evaluated (EFSA-FEEDAP method). The isolated pediococcus strains were cultivated in barley/wheat bran (90 / 10, m / m) substrate, and developed supplements, with high content of valuable pediococcus, were used for Lithuanian black and white dairy cows feeding. In addition, the influence of supplements on milk production and composition was determined. Milk composition was evaluated by the LactoScope FTIR” FT1.0. 2001 (Delta Instruments, Holland). P. acidilactici BaltBio01 and P. pentosaceus BaltBio02 demonstrated versatile carbohydrate metabolism, grown at 30°C and 37°C temperatures, and acidic tolerance. Isolated pediococcus strains showed to be non resistant to antibiotics, and having antimicrobial activity against undesirable microorganisms. By barley/wheat bran utilisation using fermentation with selected pediococcus strains, it is possible to produce safer (reduced Enterobacteriaceae, total aerobic bacteria, yeast and mold count) feed stock with high content of pediococcus. Significantly higher milk yield (after 33 days) by using pediococcus supplements mix for dairy cows feeding could be obtained, while similar effect by using separate strains after 66 days of feeding could be achieved. It can be stated that barley/wheat bran could be used for higher value feed production in order to increase milk production. Therefore, further research is needed to identify what is the main mechanism of the positive action.

Keywords: Milk, Dairy Cattle, barley/wheat bran, fermented feed, pediococcus

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12 Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay Based Detection of Aflatoxin M1 and Ochratoxin A in Raw Milk in Punjab, India

Authors: J. S. Bedi, J. P. S. Gill, R. S. Aulakh, Pallavi Moudgil

Abstract:

Mycotoxins in milk are of major public health concern. The present study was envisaged with an aim to monitor the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 and ochratoxin A in raw milk samples collected from individual animals from dairy farms located in Punjab (India). A total of 168 raw milk samples were collected and analysed using competitive ELISA kits. Out of these, 9 (5.4%) samples were found positive for aflatoxin M1 with the mean concentration of 0.006-0.13 ng/ml and 2 (1.2%) samples exceeded the established maximum residue limit of 0.05 ng/ml established by the European Union. For ochratoxin A, 2 (0.1%) samples were found positive with the mean concentration of 0.61-0.83 ng/ml with both the samples below the established maximum residue limit of 2 ng/ml. The results showed that the milk of dairy cattle is safe with respect to ochratoxin A contamination but occurrence of aflatoxin M1 above maximum residue limit suggested that feed contaminated with mycotoxins might have been offered to dairy cattle that can pose serious health risks to consumers.

Keywords: Milk, Health Risks, Ochratoxin A, aflatoxin M1, maximum residue limit

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11 Chemometric Analysis of Raw Milk Quality Originating from Conventional and Organic Dairy Farming in AP Vojvodina, Serbia

Authors: Strahinja Kovačević, Lidija Jevrić, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Milica Karadzic, Denis Kučević

Abstract:

The present study describes the application of chemometric methods in analysis of milk samples which were collected in a conventional dairy farm and an organic dairy farm in AP Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia. The chemometric analysis included the application of univariate regression modeling and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method. The ANOVA was used in order to determine the differences in fatty acids content in the milk samples from conventional and organic farm. The results of the ANOVA testing indicate that there is a highly statistically significant difference between the content of fatty acid (saturated fatty acid vs. unsaturated fatty acids) in different dairy farming. Besides, the linear univariate models have been obtained as a result of modeling the linear relationships between the milk fat content and saturated fatty acids content, and the linear relationships between the milk fat content and unsaturated fatty acids content. The models obtained on the basis of the milk samples which originate from the organic farming are statistically better than the models based on the milk samples from conventional farming.

Keywords: Quality Control, Organic Farming, Milk, hemometrics

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10 Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Kefir, Kefir Yogurt and Chickpea Yogurt

Authors: Gözde Konuray, Nuray Güzeler, Elif Ari, Çağla Özbek

Abstract:

The consumption of functional foods is very common. For this reason, many products which are probiotic, prebiotic, energy reduced and fat reduced are developed. In this research, physicochemical and microbiological properties of functional kefir, kefir yogurt and chickpea yogurt were examined. For this purpose, pH values, titration acidities, viscosity values, water holding capacities, serum separation values, acetaldehyde contents, tyrosine contents, the count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria count and mold-yeast counts were determined. As a result of performed analysis, the differences between titration acidities, serum separation values, water holding capacities, acetaldehyde and tyrosine contents of samples were statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences on pH values, viscosities, and microbiological properties of samples (p > 0.05). Consequently industrial production of functional kefir yogurt and chickpea yogurt may be advised.

Keywords: Milk, kefir, chickpea yogurt, kefir yogurt

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9 Time-Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance as a Potential Analytical Tool to Assess Thermisation in Ewe's Milk

Authors: Alessandra Pardu, Elena Curti, Marco Caredda, Alessio Dedola, Margherita Addis, Massimo Pes, Antonio Pirisi, Tonina Roggio, Sergio Uzzau, Roberto Anedda

Abstract:

Some of the artisanal cheeses products of European Countries certificated as PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) are made from raw milk. To recognise potential frauds (e.g. pasteurisation or thermisation of milk aimed at raw milk cheese production), the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay is currently applied only for pasteurisation, although it is known to have notable limitations for the validation of ALP enzymatic state in nonbovine milk. It is known that frauds considerably impact on customers and certificating institutions, sometimes resulting in a damage of the product image and potential economic losses for cheesemaking producers. Robust, validated, and univocal analytical methods are therefore needed to allow Food Control and Security Organisms, to recognise a potential fraud. In an attempt to develop a new reliable method to overcome this issue, Time-Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (TD-NMR) spectroscopy has been applied in the described work. Daily fresh milk was analysed raw (680.00 µL in each 10-mm NMR glass tube) at least in triplicate. Thermally treated samples were also produced, by putting each NMR tube of fresh raw milk in water pre-heated at temperatures from 68°C up to 72°C and for up to 3 min, with continuous agitation, and quench-cooled to 25°C in a water and ice solution. Raw and thermally treated samples were analysed in terms of 1H T2 transverse relaxation times with a CPMG sequence (Recycle Delay: 6 s, interpulse spacing: 0.05 ms, 8000 data points) and quasi-continuous distributions of T2 relaxation times were obtained by CONTIN analysis. In line with previous data collected by high field NMR techniques, a decrease in the spin-spin relaxation constant T2 of the predominant 1H population was detected in heat-treated milk as compared to raw milk. The decrease of T2 parameter is consistent with changes in chemical exchange and diffusive phenomena, likely associated to changes in milk protein (i.e. whey proteins and casein) arrangement promoted by heat treatment. Furthermore, experimental data suggest that molecular alterations are strictly dependent on the specific heat treatment conditions (temperature/time). Such molecular variations in milk, which are likely transferred to cheese during cheesemaking, highlight the possibility to extend the TD-NMR technique directly on cheese to develop a method for assessing a fraud related to the use of a milk thermal treatment in PDO raw milk cheese. Results suggest that TDNMR assays might pave a new way to the detailed characterisation of heat treatments of milk.

Keywords: Milk, cheese fraud, pasteurisation, TD-NMR

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8 Effect of Ultrasonic Assisted High Pressure Soaking of Soybean on Soymilk Properties

Authors: Rahul Kumar, Pavuluri Srinivasa Rao

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This study investigates the effect of ultrasound-assisted high pressure (HP) treatment on the soaking characteristic of soybeans and extracted soy milk quality. The soybean (variety) was subjected to sonication (US) at ambient temperature for 15 and 30 min followed by HP treatment in the range of 200-400 MPa for dwell times 5-10 min. The bean samples were also compared with HPP samples (200-400 MPa; 5-10 mins), overnight soaked samples(12-15 h) and thermal treated samples (100°C/30 min) followed by overnight soaking for 12-15 h soaking. Rapid soaking within 40 min was achieved by the combined US-HPP treatment, and it reduced the soaking time by about 25 times in comparison to overnight soaking or thermal treatment followed by soaking. Reducing the soaking time of soybeans is expected to suppress the development of undesirable beany flavor of soy milk developed during normal soaking milk extraction. The optimum moisture uptake by the sonicated-pressure treated soybeans was 60-62% (w.b) similar to that obtained after overnight soaking for 12-15 h or thermal treatment followed by overnight soaking. pH of soy milk was not much affected by the different US-HPP treatments and overnight soaking which centered around the range of 6.6-6.7 much like the normal cow milk. For milk extracted from thermally treated soy samples, pH reduced to 6.2. Total soluble solids were found to be maximum for the normal overnight soaked soy samples, and it was in the range of 10.3-10.6. For the HPP treated soy milk, the TSS reduced to 7.4 while sonication further reduced it to 6.2. TSS was found to be getting reduced with increasing time of ultrasonication. Further reduction in TSS to 2.3 was observed in soy milk produced from thermally treated samples following overnight soaking. Our results conclude that thermally treated beans' milk is less stable and more acidic, soaking is very rapid compared to overnight soaking hence milk productivity can be enhanced with less development of undesirable beany flavor.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Milk, soybean, high pressure, high pressure processing, soaking, beany flavor, wet basis

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7 The Effect of Four-Week Resistance Exercise along with Milk Consumption on NT-proBNP and Plasma Troponin I

Authors: Rostam Abdi, Ahmad Abdi, Zahra Vahedi Langrodi

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The aim of this study is to investigate four-week resistance exercise and milk supplement on NT-proBNP and plasma troponin I of male students. Concerning the methodology of the study, 21 senior high school students of Ardebil city were selected. The selected subjects were randomly shared in three groups of control, exercise- water and exercise- milk. The exercise program includes resistance exercise for a big muscle group. The subjects of control group rested during the study and did not participate in any training. The subjects of exercise- water experimental group immediately received 400 cc water after exercise and exercise- milk group immediately received 400 cc low fat milk. Control-water groups consumed the same amount of water. 48 hours before and after the last exercise session, the blood sample of the subjects were taken for measuring the variables. NT-proBNP and Troponin I concentrations were measured by ELISA. For data analysis, one-way variance analysis test, correlated t-test and Bonferroni post hoc test were used. The significant difference of p ≤ 0.05 was accepted. Resistance training along with milk consumption leads to increase of plasma NT-proBNP, however; this increase has not reached the significant level. Furthermore, meaningful increase was observed in plasma NT–proBNP in exercise group between pretest and posttest values. Furthermore, no meaningful difference was observed between groups in terms of Troponin I after milk consumption. It seems that endurance exercises lead to change in the structure of heart muscle and is along with an increase of NT-proBNP. Furthermore, there is the possibility that milk consumption can lead to release of heart troponin I. The mechanism through which protein supplements have been put on heart troponin I is unknown and requires more research.

Keywords: Milk, NT-proBNP, resistance exercise, troponin I

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6 Effects of Live Yeast Supplementation to Reduce Oxidative Stress and Increase Lactation Performance of Dairy Cattle during the Summer Season

Authors: Ahmad Nawid Mirzad, Akira Goto, Takuto Endo, Hitoshi Ano, Hiromu Katamoto, Takenori Yamauchi

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of live yeast supplementation on oxidative stress biomarker and antioxidant vitamin levels as well as lactation performance in Holstein Friesian cows during the summer season in Fukuoka prefecture. Sixteen lactating cows weighing 707.50 ± 13.09 kg (Mean ± SE) were used and randomly assigned to either supplemented (n = 8) or control (n = 8) group. The cows in supplemented group were administered with live yeast product at 10 g/d per cow from middle of July to middle of September for eight weeks. In treatment group, serum levels of derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) were lower at week six. In addition, serum levels of glucose and retinol were higher at week eight and those of α-tocopherol were higher at week 2 in treatment group. During study period daily average milk yield decreased in both groups. Daily average milk yield 63 days after the onset of supplementation in treatment and control groups were 23.5 and 22.2 kg, respectively. The reduction rate of milk yield in treatment group tended to be lower (17.6 vs. 20.0%). These results suggest that live yeast supplementation may reduce oxidative stress and improve energy metabolism in lactating dairy cows during the summer season.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, Milk, cow, live yeast, summer season

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5 The Use of Microbiological Methods to Reduce Aflatoxin M1 in Cheese

Authors: Carlos Oliveira, Bruna Goncalves, Jennifer Henck, Romulo Uliana, Eliana Kamimura, Carlos Corassin

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Studies have shown evidence of human exposure to aflatoxin M1 due to the consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products (mainly cheeses). This poses a great risk to public health, since milk and milk products are frequently consumed by a portion of the population considered immunosuppressed, children and the elderly. Knowledge of the negative impacts of aflatoxins on health and economics has led to investigations of strategies to prevent their formation in food, as well as to eliminate, inactivate or reduce the bioavailability of these toxins in contaminated products This study evaluated the effect of microbiological methods using lactic acid bacteria on aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) reduction in Minas Frescal cheese (typical Brazilian product, being among the most consumed cheeses in Brazil) spiked with 1 µg/L AFM1. Inactivated lactic acid bacteria (0,5%, v/v de L. rhamnosus e L. lactis) were added during the cheese production process. Nine cheeses were produced, divided into three treatments: negative controls (without AFM1 or lactic acid bacteria), positive controls (AFM1 only), and lactic acid bacteria + AFM1. Samples of cheese were collected on days 2, 10, 20 and 30 after the date of production and submitted to composition analyses and determination of AFM1 by high-performance liquid chromatography. The reductions of AFM1 in cheese by lactic acid bacteria at the end of the trial indicate a potential application of inactivated lactic acid bacteria in reducing the bioavailability of AFM1 in Minas frescal cheese without physical-chemical and microbiological modifications during the 30-day experimental period. The authors would like to thank São Paulo Research Foundation – FAPESP (grants #2017/20081-6 and #2017/19683-1).

Keywords: Milk, decontamination, aflatoxin, minas frescal cheese

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4 Place and Importance of Goats in the Milk Sector in Algeria

Authors: Tennah Safia, Azzag Naouelle, Derdour Salima, Hafsi Fella, Laouadi Mourad, Laamari Abdalouahab, Ghalmi Farida, Kafidi Nacerredine

Abstract:

Currently, goat farming is widely practiced among the rural population of Algeria. Although milk yield of goats is low (110 liters per goat and per year on average), this milk partly ensures the feeding of small children and provides raw milk, curd, and fermented milk to the whole family. In addition, given its investment cost, which is ten times lower than that of a cow, this level of production is still of interest. This interest is reinforced by the qualities of goat's milk, highly sought after for its nutritional value superior to that of cow's milk. In the same way, its aptitude for the transformation, in particular in quality cheeses, is very sought after. The objective of this study is to give the situation of goat milk production in rural areas of Algeria and to establish a classification of goat breeds according to their production potential. For this, a survey was carried out with goat farmers in Algerian steppe. Three indigenous breeds were encountered in this study: the breed Arabia, Mozabite, and Mekatia; Arabia being the most dominant. The Mekatia breed and the Mozabite breed appear to have higher production and milking abilities than other local breeds. They are therefore indicated to play the role of local dairy breeds par excellence. The other breed that could be improved milk performance is the Arabia breed. There, however, the milk performance of this breed is low. However, in order to increase milk production, uncontrolled crosses with imported breeds (mainly Saanen and Alpine) were carried out. The third population that can be included in the category for dairy production is the dairy breed group of imported origin. There are farms in Algeria composed of Alpine and Saanen breeds born locally. Improved milk performance of local goats, Crusader population, and dairy breeds of imported origin could be done by selection. For this, it is necessary to set up a milk control to detect the best animals. This control could be carried out among interested farmers in each large goat breeding area. In conclusion, sustained efforts must be made to enable the sustainable development of the goat sector in Algeria. It will, therefore, be necessary to deepen the reflection on a national strategy to valorize goat's milk, taking into account the specificities of the environment, the genetic biodiversity, and the eating habits of the Algerian consumer.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Goat, Milk, Algeria

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3 Biological Institute Actions for Bovine Mastitis Monitoring in Low Income Dairy Farms, Brazil: Preliminary Data

Authors: Vanessa Castro, Liria H. Okuda, Daniela P. Chiebao, Adriana H. C. N. Romaldini, Harumi Hojo, Marina Grandi, Joao Paulo A. Silva, Alessandra F. C. Nassar

Abstract:

The Biological Institute of Sao Paulo, in partnership with a private company, develops an Animal Health Family Farming Program (Prosaf) to enable communication among smallholder farmers and scientists, on-farm consulting and lectures, solving health questions that will benefit agricultural productivity. In Vale do Paraiba region, a dairy region of Sao Paulo State, southern Brazil, many of these types of farms are found with several milk quality problems. Most of these farms are profit-based business; however, with non-technified cattle rearing systems and uncertain veterinary assistance. Feedback from Prosaf showed that the biggest complaints from farmers were low milk production, sick animals and, mainly, loss of selling price due to a high somatic cell count (SCC) and a total bacterial count (TBC). The aims of this study were to improve milk quality, animal hygiene and herd health status by adjustments into general management practices and introducing techniques of sanitary control and milk monitoring in five dairy farms from Sao Jose do Barreiro municipality, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, to increase their profits. A total of 119 milk samples from 56 animals positive for California Mastitis Test (CMT) were collected. The positive CMT indicates subclinical mastitis, therefore laboratorial exams were performed in the milk (microbiological, biochemical and antibiogram test) detect the presence of Staphylococcus aureus (41.8%), Bacillus sp. (11.8%), Streptococcus sp. (2.1%), nonfermenting, motile and oxidase-negative Gram-negative Bacilli (2.1%) and Enterobacter (2.1%). Antibiograms revealed high resistance to gentamicin and streptomycin, probably due to indiscriminate use of antibiotics without veterinarian prescription. We suggested the improvement of hygiene management in the complete milking and cooling tanks system. Using the results of the laboratory tests, animals were properly treated, and the effects observed were better CMT outcomes, lower SCCs, and TBCs leading to an increase in milk pricing. This study will have a positive impact on the family farmers from Sao Paulo State dairy region by improving their market milk competitiveness.

Keywords: Food Quality, Profitability, Family farming, Milk, antibiogram

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2 Effect of Relaxation Techniques on Immunological Properties of Breast Milk

Authors: Ahmed Ali Torad

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Background: Breast feeding maintains the maternal fetal immunological link, favours the transmission of immune-competence from the mother to her infant and is considered an important contributory factor to the neo natal immune defense system. Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of relaxation techniques on immunological properties of breast milk. Subjects and Methods: Thirty breast feeding mothers with a single, mature infant without any complications participated in the study. Subjects will be recruited from outpatient clinic of obstetric department of El Kasr El-Aini university hospital in Cairo. Mothers were randomly divided into two equal groups using coin toss method: Group (A) (relaxation training group) (experimental group): It will be composed of 15 women who received relaxation training program in addition to breast feeding and nutritional advices and Group (B) (control group): It will be composed of 15 women who received breast feeding and nutritional advices only. Results: The results showed that mean mother’s age was 28.4 ± 3.68 and 28.07 ± 4.09 for group A and B respectively, there were statistically significant differences between pre and post values regarding cortisol level, IgA level, leucocyte count and infant’s weight and height and there is only statistically significant differences between both groups regarding post values of all immunological variables (cortisol – IgA – leucocyte count). Conclusion: We could conclude that there is a statistically significant effect of relaxation techniques on immunological properties of breast milk.

Keywords: Breast, Immunology, Milk, relaxation, Lactation

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1 Effect of Food Supplies Holstein Calves Supplemented with Bacillus Subtilis PB6 in Morbidity and Mortality

Authors: Banca Patricia Pena Revuelta, Ramiro Gonzalez Avalos, Juan Leonardo Rocha Valdez, Jose Gonzalez Avalos, Karla Rodriguez Hernandez

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Probiotics are a promising alternative to improve productivity and animals' health. In addition, they can be part of the composition of different types of products, including foods (functional foods), medicines, and dietary supplements. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the feeding of Holstein calves supplemented with bacillus subtilis PB6 in morbidity and mortality. 60 newborn animals were used, randomly included in 1 of 3 treatments. The treatments were as follows: T1 = control, T2 = 10 g / calf / day. The first takes within 20 min after birth, T3 = 10 g / calf/day. The first takes between 12 and 24 h after birth. In all the treatments, 432 L of pasteurized whole milk divided into two doses/day 07:00 and 15:00, respectively, were given for 60 days. The addition of bacillus subtilis PB6 was carried out in the milk tub at the time of feeding them. The first colostrum intake (2 L • intake) was given within 2 h after birth, after which they were given a second 6 h after the first one. The diseases registered to monitor the morbidity and mortality of the calves were: diarrhea and pneumonia. The registry was carried out from birth to 60 days of life. The parameter evaluated was food consumption. The variable statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance, and comparison of means was performed using the Tukey test. The value of P < 0.05 was used to consider the statistical difference. The results of the present study in relation to the consumption of food show no statistical difference P < 0.05 between treatments (14,762, 11,698, and 12,403 kg of food average, respectively). Calves group to which they were not provided Bacillus subtilis PB6 obtained higher feed intake. The addition of Bacillus subtilis PB6 in feeding calves does not increase feed intake.

Keywords: Development, Milk, Feeding, probiotic

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