Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Middle East Related Abstracts

17 Mirror of Princes as a Literary Genre in Classic Arabic Literature

Authors: Samir Kittaniy

Abstract:

The “Mirrors of Princes” is considered one of the most important literary types in Arabic and Islamic heritage. The term can be found in various types of “Adab”. The paper deals with the phrase: “Mirrors of princes” itself, showing its nature and the extent of its spread among researchers. Thus, the article relates to one of the main cultural pillars of the literary heritage. Creative individuals within the framework of this type of “Adab” have viewed the rulers as the ultimate goal they try to reach in their classification efforts, with the aim of educating, entertaining and amusing. Most literary classifications were submitted as a gift to the rulers, in an attempt to get closer to them. Pragmatic moral and political advices were among the most prominent issues to gain the approval of rulers.

Keywords: Literature, Islam, Middle East, Arabic, mirrors of princes

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16 Sri Lanka-Middle East Labour Migration Corridor: Trends, Patterns and Structural Changes

Authors: Dinesha Siriwardhane, Indralal De Silva, Sampath Amaratunge

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Objective of this study is to explore the recent trends, patterns and the structural changes in the labour migration from Sri Lanka to Middle East countries and to discuss the possible impacts of those changes on the remittance flow. Study uses secondary data published by Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment and Central Bank. Thematic analysis of the secondary data revealed that the migration for labour has increased rapidly during past decades. Parallel with that the gender and the skill composition of the migration flow has been changing. Similarly, the destinations for male migration have changed over the period. These show positive implications on the international remittance receipts to the country.

Keywords: Migration, Social Sciences, Middle East, Sri Lanka

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15 Shoring System Selection for Deep Excavation

Authors: Faouzi Ahtchi-Ali, Marcus Vitiello

Abstract:

A study was conducted in the east region of the Middle East to assess the constructability of a shoring system for a 12-meter deep excavation. Several shoring systems were considered in this study including secant concrete piling, contiguous concrete piling, and sheet-piling. The excavation was carried out in a very dense sand with the groundwater level located at 3 meters below ground surface. The study included conducting a pilot test for each shoring system listed above. The secant concrete piling included overlapping concrete piles to a depth of 16 meters. Drilling method with full steel casing was utilized to install the concrete piles. The verticality of the piles was a concern for the overlap. The contiguous concrete piling required the installation of micro-piles to seal the gap between the concrete piles. This method revealed that the gap between the piles was not fully sealed as observed by the groundwater penetration to the excavation. The sheet-piling method required pre-drilling due to the high blow count of the penetrated layer of saturated sand. This study concluded that the sheet-piling method with pre-drilling was the most cost effective and recommended a method for the shoring system.

Keywords: Middle East, Excavation, shoring system, Drilling method

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14 As a Secure Bridge Country about Oil and Gas Sources Transfer after Arab Spring: Turkey

Authors: Fatih Ercin Guney, Hami Karagol

Abstract:

Day by day, humanity's energy needs increase, to facilitate access to energy sources by energy importing countries is of great importance in terms of issues both in terms of economic security and political security. The geographical location of the oil exporting countries in the Middle East (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar) today, it is observed that evaluated by emerging Arab Spring(from Tunisia to Egypt) and freedom battles(in Syria) with security issues arise sourced from terrorist activities(ISIS). Progresses related with limited natural resources, energy and it's transportation issues which worries the developing countries, the energy in the region is considered to how to transfer safely. North Region of the Black Sea , the beginning of the conflict in the regional nature formed between Russia and Ukraine (2010), followed by the relevant regions of the power transmission line (From Russia to Europe) the discovery is considered to be the east's hand began to strengthen in terms of both the economical and political sides. With the growing need for safe access to the west of the new energy transmission lines are followed by Turkey, re-interest is considered to be shifted to the Mediterranean and the Middle East by West. Also, Russia, Iran and China (three axis of east) are generally performing as carry out parallel policies about energy , economical side and security in both United Nations Security Council (Two of Five Permanent Members are Russia and China) and Shanghai Cooperation Organization. In addition, Eastern Mediterranean Region Tension are rapidly increasing about research new oil and natural gas sources by Israel, Egypt, Cyprus, Lebanon. This paper provides, new energy corridor(s) are needed to transfer sources (Oil&Natural Gas) by Europe from East to West. So The West needs either safe bridge country to transfer natural sources to Europe in region or is needed to discovery new natural sources in extraterritorial waters of Eastern Mediterranean Region. But in two opportunities are evaluated with secure transfer corridors form region to Europe in safely. Even if the natural sources can be discovered, they are considered to transfer in safe manner. This paper involved, Turkey’s importance as a leader country in region over both of political and safe energy transfer sides as bridge country between south and north of Turkey why natural sources shall be transferred over Turkey, Even if diplomatic issues-For Example; Cyprus membership in European Union, Turkey membership candidate duration, Israel-Cyprus- Egypt-Lebanon researches about new natural sources in Mediterranean - occurred. But politic balance in Middle-East is changing quickly because of lack of democratic governments in region. So it is evaluated that the alliance of natural sources researches may not be long-time relations due to share sources after discoveries. After evaluating over causes and reasons, aim to reach finding foresight about future of region for energy transfer periods in secure manner.

Keywords: Middle East, Turkey, Natural Gas, Oil

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13 Alternative Futures for the Middle East

Authors: Dorsa Bakhshandehgeyazdi

Abstract:

This paper examines elective future of security in the Middle East trying to find a way that could take the district from a shaky past to a more secure future. Taking a gander at five situations about the eventual future of world legislative issues, in particular, globalization, fragmentation, conflict of civilizations, majority rule peace and the development of a security group, the paper contends that albeit every situation has its qualities (and in addition shortcomings), it is the situation that predicts the foundation of a security group that joins a more express thought for forming a more secure future for the Middle East.

Keywords: Middle East, Globalization, Fragmentation, Conflict of civilizations, Majority rule peace, Development of a security group

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12 Long-Run Relationship among Tehran Stock Exchange and the GCC Countries Financial Markets, Before and After 2007/2008 Financial Crisis

Authors: Mohammad Hossein Ranjbar, Mahdi Bagheri, B. Shivaraj

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This study attempts to investigate the relationship between stock market of Iran and GCC countries stock exchanges. Eight markets were included: the stock market of Iran, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Dubai, Abu Dhabi and Oman. Daily country market indices were collected from January 2005 to December 2010. The potential time-varying behaviors of long-run stock market relationship among selected markets are tested applying correlation test, Augmented Dick Fuller test (ADF), Bilateral and Multilateral Cointegration (Johansen), and the Granger Causality test. The findings suggest that stock market of Iran is negatively correlated with most of the selected markets in the whole duration. But contemporaneous correlations among the eight selected markets are increased positively in period of financial crises. Bilateral Cointegration between selected markets suggests that there is no integration between Tehran stock exchange and other selected markets. Among other markets, except the stock market of Dubai and Abu Dhabi as a one pair, are not cointegrated in whole, but in duration of financial crises integration between selected markets are increased. Finally, investigation of the casual relationship among eight financial markets suggests there are unidirectional and bidirectional causal relationship among some of stock market indices.

Keywords: Middle East, Financial Crises, granger causality test, stock market integration, ARDL test

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11 Heritage, Cultural Events and Promises for Better Future: Media Strategies for Attracting Tourism during the Arab Spring Uprisings

Authors: Eli Avraham

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The Arab Spring was widely covered in the global media and the number of Western tourists traveling to the area began to fall. The goal of this study was to analyze which media strategies marketers in Middle Eastern countries chose to employ in their attempts to repair the negative image of the area in the wake of the Arab Spring. Several studies were published concerning image-restoration strategies of destinations during crises around the globe; however, these strategies were not part of an overarching theory, conceptual framework or model from the fields of crisis communication and image repair. The conceptual framework used in the current study was the ‘multi-step model for altering place image’, which offers three types of strategies: source, message and audience. Three research questions were used: 1.What public relations crisis techniques and advertising campaign components were used? 2. What media policies and relationships with the international media were adopted by Arab officials? 3. Which marketing initiatives (such as cultural and sports events) were promoted? This study is based on qualitative content analysis of four types of data: 1) advertising components (slogans, visuals and text); (2) press interviews with Middle Eastern officials and marketers; (3) official media policy adopted by government decision-maker (e.g. boycotting or arresting newspeople); and (4) marketing initiatives (e.g. organizing heritage festivals and cultural events). The data was located in three channels from December 2010, when the events started, to September 31, 2013: (1) Internet and video-sharing websites: YouTube and Middle Eastern countries' national tourism board websites; (2) News reports from two international media outlets, The New York Times and Ha’aretz; these are considered quality newspapers that focus on foreign news and tend to criticize institutions; (3) Global tourism news websites: eTurbo news and ‘Cities and countries branding’. Using the ‘multi-step model for altering place image,’ the analysis reveals that Middle Eastern marketers and officials used three kinds of strategies to repair their countries' negative image: 1. Source (cooperation and media relations; complying, threatening and blocking the media; and finding alternatives to the traditional media) 2. Message (ignoring, limiting, narrowing or reducing the scale of the crisis; acknowledging the negative effect of an event’s coverage and assuring a better future; promotion of multiple facets, exhibitions and softening the ‘hard’ image; hosting spotlight sporting and cultural events; spinning liabilities into assets; geographic dissociation from the Middle East region; ridicule the existing stereotype) and 3. Audience (changing the target audience by addressing others; emphasizing similarities and relevance to specific target audience). It appears that dealing with their image problems will continue to be a challenge for officials and marketers of Middle Eastern countries until the region stabilizes and its regional conflicts are resolved.

Keywords: Middle East, Tourism Marketing, arab spring, Cultural Events, image repair

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10 Rethinking Political Secularism in Iranian Context: Intellectual Struggle in Post-Reformist Period

Authors: Alphan Telek

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Political secularism is different from philosophical secularism in terms of its inclusionary, peaceful, liberal and democratic aspects. Secularism as a political principle not only takes the separation of state and religion as a basis but also it aims to exclude any kind of ethnic, religious, racial, gender domination at the state level. Thus, although political secularism does not see any problem with the visibility and implementation of religious views and symbols in the public sphere, it stands against the fusion of political power and religious views or more generally any kind of identity. Iranian context especially the post-reformist period, which starts in 2005, shows religious and/or reformist intellectuals try to put forward the political secularism and make it attractable to the large masses. Three prominent figures of reformist intellectualism Abdolkarim Soroush, Mohsen Kadivar and Akbar Ganji form the basic vocabulary of political secularism in the post-reformist period of Iran. Their intellectual and political struggle against the Islamic regime’s anti-democratic policies and actions do carry significance not only for Iranian democracy but also for all Muslim people around the world that demand a more equal, free, and just society. The political and intellectual discourses of Iranian intellectuals indicate that political secularism is a requirement of democratic state and society. In this paper, it is discussed the relationship between political secularism, state, society, and Islam. Thus, it will be argued that secularism as a political principle is increasingly held by Iranian intellectuals to show the relation between secularism and democracy.

Keywords: Democracy, Middle East, political secularism, Iranian intellectuals

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9 Introduction to Political Psychoanalysis of a Group in the Middle East

Authors: Seyedfateh Moradi, Abas Ali Rahbar

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The present study focuses on investigating group psychoanalysis in the Middle East. The study uses a descriptive-analytic method and library resources have been used to collect the data. Additionally, the researcher’s observations of people’s everyday behavior have played an important role in the production and analysis of the study. Group psychoanalysis in the Middle East can be conducted through people’s daily behaviors, proverbs, poetry, mythology, etc., and some of the general characteristics of people in the Middle East include: xenophobia, revivalism, fatalism, nostalgic, wills and so on. Members of the group have often failed to achieve Libido wills and it is very important in unifying and reproduction violence. Therefore, if libidinal wills are irrationally fixed, it will be important in forming fundamentalist and racist groups, a situation that is dominant among many groups in the Middle East. Adversities, from early childhood and afterwards, in the subjects have always been influential in the political behavior of group members, and it manifests itself as counter-projections. Consequently, it affects the foreign policy of the governments. On the other hand, two kinds of subjects are identifiable in the Middle East, one; classical subject that is related to nostalgia and mythology and, two; modern subjects which is self-alienated. As a result, both subjects are seeking identity and self-expression in public in relation to forming groups. Therefore, collective unconscious in the Middle East shows itself as extreme boundaries and leads to forming groups characterized with violence. Psychoanalysis shows important aspects to identify many developments in the Middle East; totally analysis of Freud, Carl Jung and Reich about groups can be applied in the present Middle East.

Keywords: Middle East, Political, Psychoanalysis, Group

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8 The Effective Operations Competitive Advantages of Mobile Phone Service Providers across Countries: The Case of Middle East Region

Authors: Yazan Khalid Abed-Allah Migdadi

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The aim of this study is identifying the effective operations competitive advantages of mobile phone service providers across countries. All Arab countries in the Middle East region were surveyed except Syria, and 27 out of 31 service providers were surveyed. Data collected from corporations’ annual reports, websites and other professional institutions published sources. Multiple linear regression analysis test was used to identify the relationship between operations competitive advantages and market share. The effective operations competitive advantages were; diversity of offers and service accessibility

Keywords: Middle East, competitive advantage, mobile telecommunication operations, service provider

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7 Challenges to Collaborative Learning in Architectural Education in the Middle East

Authors: Lizmol Mathew, Divya Thomas, Shiney Rajan

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Educational paradigm all over the globe is undergoing significant reform today. Because of this, so-called flipped classroom model is becoming increasingly popular in higher education. Flipped classroom has proved to be more effective than traditional lecture based model as flipped classroom model promotes active learning by encouraging students to work on in collaborative tasks and peer-led learning during the class-time. However, success of flipped classrooms relies on students’ ability and their attitudes towards collaboration and group work. This paper examines: 1) Students’ attitudes towards collaborative learning; 2) Main challenges to successful collaboration from students’ experience and 3) Students’ perception of criteria for successful team work. 4) Recommendations for enhancing collaborative learning. This study’s methodology involves quantitative analysis of surveys collected from students enrolled in undergraduate Architecture program at Qatar University. Analysis indicates that in general students enrolled in the program do not have positive perceptions or experiences associated with group work. Positive and negative factors that influence collaborative learning in higher education have been identified. Recommendations for improving collaborative work experience have been proposed.

Keywords: Higher Education, Female, Middle East, Architecture, Collaborative Learning, Student Experience, Qatar, group work

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6 Great Powers’ Proxy Wars in Middle East and Difficulty in Transition from Cold War to Cold Peace

Authors: Arash Sharghi, Irina Dotu

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The developments in the Middle East region have activated the involvement of a numerous diverse state and non-state actors in the regional affairs. The goals, positions, ideologies, different, and even contrast policy behaviors had procured the spreading and continuity of crisis. Non-state actors varying from Islamic organizations to takfiri-terrorist movements on one hand and regional and trans- regional actors, from another side, seek to reach their interests in the power struggle. Here, a research worthy question comes on the agenda: taking into consideration actors’ contradictory interests and constraints what are the regional peace and stability perspectives? Therein, different actors’ aims definition, their actions and behaviors, which affect instability, can be regarded as independent variables; whereas, on the contrary, Middle East peace and stability perspective analysis is a dependent variable. Though, this regional peace and war theory based research admits the significant influence of trans-regional actors, it asserts the roots of violence to derive from region itself. Consequently, hot war and conflict prevention and hot peace assurance in the Middle East region cannot be attained only by demands and approaches of trans-regional actors. Moreover, capacity of trans-regional actors is sufficient only for a cold war or cold peace to be reached in the region. Furthermore, within the framework of current conflict (struggle) between regional actors it seems to be difficult and even impossible to turn the cold war into a cold peace in the region.

Keywords: Middle East, Cold War, non-state actors, cold peace, hot war, regional and Great powers, war theory

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5 Factors Affecting Sustainable Water Management in Water-Challenged Societies: Case Study of Doha Qatar

Authors: L. Mathew, D. Thomas

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Qatar is a desert country with scarce fresh water resources, low rainfall and very high evaporation rate. It meets the majority of its water requirement through desalination process which is very expensive. Pressures are expected to mount on account of high population growth rate and demands posed by being the venue for 2022 FIFA World cup. This study contributes towards advancing the knowledge of the factors affecting sustainable water consumption in water-challenged societies by examining the case of Doha, Qatar. Survey research methods have been predominantly used for this research. Surveys were conducted using self-administered questionnaires. Focused group interviews and personal interviews with Qatar’s residents were also used to obtain deeper insights. Salient socio-cultural factors that drive the water consumption behavior of the public and which in turn affect sustainable water management practices are determined. Suggestions for reducing water consumption as well as fiscal and punitive measures to curb overuse and misuse of water are also identified.

Keywords: Middle East, Water management, Sustainability, water consumption, Qatar

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4 Mediation of the Middle Eastern Crises and Economic Growth: An Application of Times Series Analysis

Authors: Gokhan Erkal, Gulsen Aydin, Muge Yuce, Lokman Sahin

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This study aims to analyze the impacts of involving in mediation of conflicts in the Middle East from the perspective of the economic growth of the mediators. The Middle East is a highly volatile region of the world with rampant crises whose affects spill beyond its borders. Therefore, management and resolution of the conflicts in the region are of great significance. Mediation is an instrument used for abating violence and settling dispute. The recourse to mediation has grown to an important degree in recent years. However, for mediators, it is a daunting task to involve in the mediation of the deadlocks in the Middle East. This study tries to shed light on the positive correlation between economic growth of the mediator and the successful outcome of the mediation process to provide motivation for mediators. To this end, first, it briefly introduces the conflicts ongoing in the region and their negative impacts. Second, the methodology, time series analysis, and the data to be used, International Crisis Behavior Project Data, are presented. Third, the empirical test is carried out and the findings are evaluated. The conclusion highlights the benefits of successful mediation for the economic growth of the mediators of Middle Eastern crises.

Keywords: Middle East, Mediation, international crises, times series analysis

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3 Case Study on Gender Equality in the United Arab Emirates through the Lens of Sport

Authors: Nioofar Margarite Rouhani

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Using a case study methodology, this study explores the lived experiences of elite women footballers (soccer) team in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the challenges and enablers women in this country encountered in their journey to competing at an international level. Through a series of face-to-face interviews with members of the first all-Emirati (people with UAE passport) women’s football team, members of the team’s coaching staff and key policymakers, the study sought to explore the social and cultural conditions that enabled the emergence of this team. A key aim of the study was to analyze the cultural shifts that have seemingly facilitated changes to gender relations in the UAE and to highlight possibilities for future gender equality work. The study explores the significance of sport in UAE society and its role in disrupting traditional gender boundaries. To do this, the study identifies and analyses contemporary social (religion, class, and culture) conditions that facilitate, and/or restrict, women’s sports participation in the public sphere of sport. Drawing on a feminist poststructural framework the study sought to analyse the discursive enactment of (disruptive) gender identity positions, using lenses such as ‘discourse’ and ‘power’. With a particular focus on elite women’s sport, the study sought to build knowledge around the advance of female participation in what has long been considered as a masculine domain. Here, the study sought to explore the lived experience of social change through a series of face-to-face interviews with members of the first all-Emirati- women’s football team and key support personnel. To maintain representational integrity, the principles of narrative methodology were employed for their ability to privilege the voices of participants while integrating contextual forces that comprised the stories they told about their experiences and the key people who participated in them. This approach supported a key aim of the study, being to analyse the cultural shifts that have supported changes in gender performance in the UAE and to highlight possibilities for future gender disruption. While the results of the study convey a growing sense of opportunity for aspiring sportswomen in the UAE, they also reveal that the participant pathways were full of contestation and restriction. What we learn from the stories of the first Emirate women’s football team is that where the will is strong enough, there can be a way. While it is reasonable to assume that such pathways will become easier in the future, as the participation of women in such sporting arenas becomes less exceptional, there are factors that are likely to enable and disable such journeys. Prominent here is the presence of a ‘powerful’ guardian and mentor who can offer sustained support, and influence. In a society where males continue to have disproportionate access to social and domestic power, such support can be extremely influential. Guardians and mentors can play a crucial role in garnering the support of dominant male figures, or helping to find ways to work around it.

Keywords: Sport, Middle East, Women, Gender equality

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2 Performance Investigation of Integrated Photovoltaic/Thermal Collectors and Adsorption Cooling System for a Building under the Climate Conditions of Middle East

Authors: Ibrahim I. El-Sharkawy, Ahmed A. Hassan, Shinichi Ookawara, Ahmed E. Elwardany

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In this paper, a theoretical investigation of the performance of an integrated system comprising a photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors and a silica gel/water-based adsorption cooling system is presented under different climates in the Middle East. The system electrical and thermal energies have been generated using PV/T whilst the cooling power is produced using the adsorption system. The electric power generated is utilized in the building need, and the excess can be delivered to the grid or stored in batteries. Furthermore, the system can provide cooling, electric power, and domestic hot water in the summer. In winter, the system can provide electricity and space heating or domestic hot water supply depending on the user requirement as the chiller will work in heat pump mode. Solar data is already available for different cities in the Middle East, such as Alexandria in Egypt, Jeddah in Saudi Arabia, and Dubai in the United Arab Emirates, which are the cities under investigation in the current study. System performance parameters such as cooling and heating capacities, daily average cooling and heating capacities, cycle COP, and solar COP have been reported.

Keywords: Middle East, adsorption cooling system, photovoltaic/thermal collectors, silica gel/water pair

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1 Female Entrepreneurship in Egypt: Barriers and Challenges in the Aftermath of the Arab Spring

Authors: Kate Ebere Maduforo

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Examining the constraints faced by female entrepreneurs is an important subject which most literature on female entrepreneurship is centered on. However, the majority of the existing literature has focused on studying female entrepreneurs in developed societies. Recently, a sense of urgency that has emerged in trying to understand the challenges and motivations of female entrepreneurs in developing countries. The arousal of such interest has been attributed to women entrepreneurs in developing countries being identified as catalysts of economic development at a national level and champions of poverty eradication at the domestic level. This paper, therefore, examines the peculiar constraints faced by women-owned businesses in the mist of political chaos and instability. In this case, the issues experienced by female entrepreneurs in Egypt during the aftermath of the Arab Spring is the focus. Using the logit and probit regression models, data from the World Bank Middle East North Africa Enterprise Survey (MENA ES) are analyzed. The results identified that female entrepreneurs still lack business funding through financial institutions, but get significant funding assistance from family, friends, and money lenders. In addition, women-owned businesses promote and hire mostly women. Female entrepreneurs showed a preference for an impartial judicial system as a contributor to business growth.

Keywords: Development, Middle East, developing countries, female entrepreneurship

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