Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Microwave Related Abstracts

39 Global-Scale Evaluation of Two Satellite-Based Passive Microwave Soil Moisture Data Sets (SMOS and AMSR-E) with Respect to Modelled Estimates

Authors: A. Alyaaria, J. P. Wignerona, A. Ducharneb, Y. Kerrc, P. de Rosnayd, R. de Jeue, A. Govinda, A. Al Bitarc, C. Albergeld, J. Sabaterd, C. Moisya, P. Richaumec, A. Mialonc


Global Level-3 surface soil moisture (SSM) maps from the passive microwave soil moisture and Ocean Salinity satellite (SMOSL3) have been released. To further improve the Level-3 retrieval algorithm, evaluation of the accuracy of the spatio-temporal variability of the SMOS Level 3 products (referred to here as SMOSL3) is necessary. In this study, a comparative analysis of SMOSL3 with a SSM product derived from the observations of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) computed by implementing the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM) algorithm, referred to here as AMSRM, is presented. The comparison of both products (SMSL3 and AMSRM) were made against SSM products produced by a numerical weather prediction system (SM-DAS-2) at ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) for the 03/2010-09/2011 period at global scale. The latter product was considered here a 'reference' product for the inter-comparison of the SMOSL3 and AMSRM products. Three statistical criteria were used for the evaluation, the correlation coefficient (R), the root-mean-squared difference (RMSD), and the bias. Global maps of these criteria were computed, taking into account vegetation information in terms of biome types and Leaf Area Index (LAI). We found that both the SMOSL3 and AMSRM products captured well the spatio-temporal variability of the SM-DAS-2 SSM products in most of the biomes. In general, the AMSRM products overestimated (i.e., wet bias) while the SMOSL3 products underestimated (i.e., dry bias) SSM in comparison to the SM-DAS-2 SSM products. In term of correlation values, the SMOSL3 products were found to better capture the SSM temporal dynamics in highly vegetated biomes ('Tropical humid', 'Temperate Humid', etc.) while best results for AMSRM were obtained over arid and semi-arid biomes ('Desert temperate', 'Desert tropical', etc.). When removing the seasonal cycles in the SSM time variations to compute anomaly values, better correlation with the SM-DAS-2 SSM anomalies were obtained with SMOSL3 than with AMSRM, in most of the biomes with the exception of desert regions. Eventually, we showed that the accuracy of the remotely sensed SSM products is strongly related to LAI. Both the SMOSL3 and AMSRM (slightly better) SSM products correlate well with the SM-DAS2 products over regions with sparse vegetation for values of LAI < 1 (these regions represent almost 50% of the pixels considered in this global study). In regions where LAI>1, SMOSL3 outperformed AMSRM with respect to SM-DAS-2: SMOSL3 had almost consistent performances up to LAI = 6, whereas AMSRM performance deteriorated rapidly with increasing values of LAI.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Microwave, soil moisture, AMSR-E, SMOS

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38 Microwave-Assisted Eradication of Wool

Authors: M. Salama, K. Haggag, H. El-Sayed


An environmentally and ecologically acceptable method for eradication of wool fabrics based on microwave irradiation (MWI) was described. The process would be a suitable alternative for mothproofing of wool using toxic degradative chemical or biological methods. The effect of microwave irradiation and exposure time on the extent of eradication of wool fabrics from moth larvae was monitored. The inherent properties of the MW-irradiated wool fabrics; viz. tensile properties, alkali solubility, and yellowing index, were not adversely altered.

Keywords: Resistance, Microwave, Wool, Fabric, moth, eradication

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37 GC and GCxGC-MS Composition of Volatile Compounds from Cuminum cyminum and Carum carvi by Using Techniques Assisted by Microwaves

Authors: F. Benkaci-Ali, R. Mekaoui, G. Eppe, G. Scholl


The new methods as accelerated steam distillation assisted by microwave (ASDAM) is a combination of microwave heating and steam distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure at very short extraction time. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage. (ASDAM) has been compared with (ASDAM) with cryogrinding of seeds (CG) and a conventional technique, hydrodistillation assisted by microwave (HDAM), hydro-distillation (HD) for the extraction of essential oil from aromatic herb as caraway and cumin seeds. The essential oils extracted by (ASDAM) for 1 min were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) no similar to those obtained by ASDAM-CG (1 min) and HD (for 3 h). The accelerated microwave extraction with cryogrinding inhibits numerous enzymatic reactions as hydrolysis of oils. Microwave radiations constitute the adequate mean for the extraction operations from the yields and high content in major component majority point view, and allow to minimise considerably the energy consumption, but especially heating time too, which is one of essential parameters of artifacts formation. The ASDAM and ASDAM-CG are green techniques and yields an essential oil with higher amounts of more valuable oxygenated compounds comparable to the biosynthesis compounds, and allows substantial savings of costs, in terms of time, energy and plant material.

Keywords: Microwave, steam distillation, caraway, cumin, cryogrinding, GC-MS, GCxGC-MS

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36 Transesterification of Jojoba Oil Wax Using Microwave Technique

Authors: Labiba I. Hussein, Maher Z. Elsabee, Eid A. Ismail, Hala F. Naguib, Hilda A. Aziz, Moataz Elsawy


Jojoba oil-wax is extracted from the seeds of the jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis Link Schneider), a perennial shrub that grows in semi-desert areas in Egypt and in some parts of the world. The main uses of jojoba oil wax are in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry, but new uses could arise related to the search of new energetic crops. This paper summarizes a process to convert the jojoba oil wax to biodiesel by transesterification with ethanol and a series of aliphatic alcohols using a more economic and energy saving method in a domestic microwave. The effect of time and power of the microwave on the extent of the transesterification using ethanol and other aliphatic alcohols has been studied. The separation of the alkyl esters from the fatty alcohols rich fraction has been done in a single crystallization step at low temperature (−18°C) from low boiling point petroleum ether. Gas chromatography has been used to follow up the transesterification process. All products have been characterized by spectral analysis.

Keywords: Microwave, transesterification, jojoba oil, gas chromatography jojoba esters, jojoba alcohol

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35 Microwave Sanitization of Polyester Fabrics

Authors: M. Salama, K. Haggag, H. El-Sayed


Polyester fabrics were sanitized by exposing them to vaporized water under the influence of conventional heating or microwave irradiation. Hydrogen peroxide was added the humid sanitizing environment as a disinfectant. The said sanitization process was found to be effective towards two types of bacteria, namely Escherichia coli ATCC 2666 (G –ve) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 (G +ve). The effect of the sanitization process on some of the inherent properties of polyester fabrics was monitored.

Keywords: Microwave, Bacteria, Fabric, polyester, sanitization

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34 Green Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nano Particles Using Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Extract and Its Application for Solar Cell

Authors: Mitali Saha, Prasanta Sutradhar


With an increasing awareness of green and clean energy, zinc oxide based solar cells were found to be suitable candidates for cost-effective and environmentally friendly energy conversion devices. In this work, we have reported the green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) by thermal method and under microwave irradiation using the aqueous extract of tomatoes as non-toxic and ecofriendly reducing material. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were characterised by UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), infra-red spectroscopy (IR), particle size analyser (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X- ray diffraction study (XRD). A series of ZnO nanocomposites with titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2) and graphene oxide (GO) were prepared for photovoltaic application. Structural and morphological studies of these nanocomposites were carried out using UV-vis, SEM, XRD, and AFM. The current-voltage measurements of the nanocomposites demonstrated enhanced power conversion efficiency of 6.18% in case of ZnO/GO/TiO2 nanocomposite.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, Microwave, Green Synthesis, ZnO, I-V characteristics

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33 Effects of Microwave Heating Rate on the Color, Total Anthocyanin Content and Total Phenolics of Elderberry Juice during Come-up-Time

Authors: Balunkeswar Nayak, Hanjun Cao, Xinruo Zhang


Elderberry could protect human health from oxidative stress, and reduce aging and certain cardiovascular diseases due to the presence of bioactive phytochemicals with high antioxidant capacity. However, these bioactive phytochemicals, such as anthocyanins and other phenolic acids, are susceptible to degradation during processing of elderberries to juice, jam, and powder due to intensity and duration of thermal exposure. The effects of microwave heating rate during come-up-times, using a domestic 2450 MHz microwave, on the color, total anthocyanin content and total phenolics on elderberry juice was studied. With a variation of come-up-time from 30 sec to 15 min at different power levels (10–50 % of total wattage), the temperature of elderberry juice vary from 40.6 °C to 91.5 °C. However, the color parameters (L, A, and B), total anthocyanin content (using pH differential method) and total phenolics did not vary significantly when compared to the control samples.

Keywords: Microwave, Color, elderberry, thermal exposure

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32 Solvent extraction of molybdenum (VI) with two organophosphorus reagents TBP and D2EHPA under microwave irradiations

Authors: Hussein Khalaf, Ahmed Boucherit, Eduardo Paredes, José Luis Todolí


Solvent extraction studies of molybdenum (VI) with two organophosphorus reagents namely TBP and D2EHPA have been carried out from aqueous acidic solutions of HCl, H2SO4 and H3PO4 under microwave irradiations. The extraction efficiencies of the investigated extractants in the extraction of molybdenum (Vl) were compared. Extraction yield was found unchanged when microwave power varied in the range 20-100 Watts from H2SO4 or H3PO4 but it decreases in the range 20-60 Watts and increases in the range 60-100 Watts when TBP is used for extraction of molybdenum (VI) from 1 M HCl solutions. Extraction yield of molybdenum (VI) was found higher with TBP for HCl molarities greater than 1 M than with D2EHPA for H3PO4 molarities lower than 1 M. Extraction yield increases with HCl molarities in the range 0.50 - 1.80 M but it decreases with the increase in H2SO4 and H3PO4 molarities in the range of 0.05 - 1 M and 0.50 - 1 M, respectively.

Keywords: Solvent, Microwave, Extraction, Molybdenum

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31 The Adsorption of Zinc Metal in Waste Water Using ZnCl2 Activated Pomegranate Peel

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul, S. N. Turkmen, E. M. Derun


Activated carbon is an amorphous carbon chain which has extremely extended surface area. High surface area of activated carbon is due to the porous structure. Activated carbon, using a variety of materials such as coal and cellulosic materials; can be obtained by both physical and chemical methods. The prepared activated carbon can be used for decolorize, deodorize and also can be used for removal of organic and non-organic pollution. In this study, pomegranate peel was subjected to 800W microwave power for 1 to 4 minutes. Also fresh pomegranate peel was used for the reference material. Then ZnCl2 was used for the chemical activation purpose. After the activation process, activated pomegranate peels were used for the adsorption of Zn metal (40 ppm) in the waste water. As a result of the adsorption experiments, removal of heavy metals ranged from 89% to 85%.

Keywords: Microwave, Adsorption, activated carbon, chemical activation, pomegranate peel

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30 Production of Hydrophilic PVC Surfaces with Microwave Treatment for its Separation from Mixed Plastics by Froth Floatation

Authors: Srinivasa Reddy Mallampati, Chi-Hyeon Lee, Byeong-Kyu Lee, Nguyen Thanh Truc


Organic polymeric materials (plastics) are widely used in our daily life and various industrial fields. The separation of waste plastics is important for its feedstock and mechanical recycling. One of the major problems in incineration for thermal recycling or heat melting for material recycling is the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) contained in waste plastics. This is due to the production of hydrogen chloride, chlorine gas, dioxins, and furans originated from PVC. Therefore, the separation of PVC from waste plastics is necessary before recycling. The separation of heavy polymers (PVC 1.42, PMMA 1.12, PC 1.22 and PET 1.27 g/cm3 ) from light ones (PE and PP 0.99 g/cm3) can be achieved on the basis of their density. However it is difficult to separate PVC from other heavy polymers basis of density. There are no simple and inexpensive techniques to separate PVC from others. If hydrophobic the PVC surface is selectively changed into hydrophilic, where other polymers still have hydrophobic surface, flotation process can separate PVC from others. In the present study, the selective surface hydrophilization of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by microwave treatment after alkaline/acid washing and with activated carbon was studied as the pre-treatment of its separation by the following froth flotation. In presence of activated carbon as absorbent, the microwave treatment could selectively increase the hydrophilicity of the PVC surface (i.e. PVC contact angle decreased about 19o) among other plastics mixture. At this stage, 100% PVC separation from other plastics could be achieved by the combination of the pre- microwave treatment with activated carbon and the following froth floatation. The hydrophilization of PVC by surface analysis would be due to the hydrophilic groups produced by microwave treatment with activated carbon. The effect of optimum condition and detailed mechanism onto separation efficiency in the froth floatation was also investigated.

Keywords: Microwave, Contact angle, Waste Plastics, additive, PVC, Hydrophilic, froth floatation

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29 Green Chemical Processing in the Teaching Laboratory: A Convenient Solvent Free Microwave Extraction of Natural Products

Authors: Mohamed Amine Ferhat, Mohamed Nadjib Bouhatem, Farid Chemat


One of the principal aims of sustainable and green processing development remains the dissemination and teaching of green chemistry to both developed and developing nations. This paper describes one attempt to show that “north-south” collaborations yield innovative sustainable and green technologies which give major benefits for both nations. In this paper we present early results from a solvent free microwave extraction (SFME) of essential oils using fresh orange peel, a byproduct in the production of orange juice. SFME is performed at atmospheric pressure without added any solvent or water. SFME increases essential oil yield and eliminate wastewater treatment. The procedure is appropriate for the teaching laboratory, and allows the students to learn extraction, chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis skills, and are expose to dramatic visual example of rapid, sustainable and green extraction of essential oil, and are introduced to commercially successful sustainable and green chemical processing with microwave energy.

Keywords: Microwave, Extraction, Green Processing, Essential Oil

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28 Solvent Free Microwave Extraction of Essential Oils: A Clean Chemical Processing in the Teaching and Research Laboratory

Authors: M. A. Ferhat, M. N. Boukhatem, F. Chemat


Microwave Clevenger or microwave accelerated distillation (MAD) is a combination of microwave heating and distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure without added any solvent or water. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage. MAD extraction of orange essential oil was studied using fresh orange peel from Valencia late cultivar oranges as the raw material. MAD has been compared with a conventional technique, which used a Clevenger apparatus with hydro-distillation (HD). MAD and HD were compared in term of extraction time, yields, chemical composition and quality of the essential oil, efficiency and costs of the process. Extraction of essential oils from orange peels with MAD was better in terms of energy saving, extraction time (30 min versus 3 h), oxygenated fraction (11.7% versus 7.9%), product yield (0.42% versus 0.39%) and product quality. Orange peels treated by MAD and HD were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Micrographs provide evidence of more rapid opening of essential oil glands treated by MAD, in contrast to conventional hydro-distillation.

Keywords: Microwave, Essential Oil, clevenger, extraction; hydro-distillation, orange peel

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27 Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Algerian Citrus fruits Using Microwaves and Hydrodistillation

Authors: Boukhatem Mohamed Nadjib, Chemat Farid, Ferhat Mohamed Amine


Solvent-free-microwave-extraction (SFME) is a combination of microwave heating and distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure without added any solvent or water. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage. SFME extraction of orange essential oil was studied using fresh orange peel from Valencia late cultivar oranges as the raw material. SFME has been compared with a conventional technique, which used a Clevenger apparatus with hydro-distillation (HD). SFME and HD were compared in term of extraction time, yields, chemical composition and quality of the essential oil, efficiency and costs of the process. Extraction of essential oils from orange peels with SFME was better in terms of energy saving, extraction time (30 min versus 3 h), oxygenated fraction (11.7% versus 7.9%), product yield (0.42% versus 0.39%) and product quality. Orange peels treated by SFME and HD were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Micrographs provide evidence of more rapid opening of essential oil glands treated by SFME, in contrast to conventional hydro-distillation.

Keywords: Microwave, Essential Oil, hydro-distillation, orange peel, solvent free microwave, extraction SFME

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26 Microwave Assisted Thermal Cracking of Castor Oil Zeolite ZSM-5 as Catalyst for Biofuel Production

Authors: Ghazi Faisal Najmuldeen, Ali Abdul Rahman–Al Ezzi, Tharmathas A/L Alagappan


The aim of this investigation was to produce biofuel from castor oil through microwave assisted thermal cracking with zeolite ZSM-5 as catalyst. The obtained results showed that microwave assisted thermal cracking of castor oil with Zeolite ZSM-5 as catalyst generates products consisting of alcohol, methyl esters and fatty acids. The products obtained from this experimental procedure by the cracking of castor oil are components of biodiesel. Samples of cracked castor oil containing 1, 3 and 5wt % catalyst was analyzed, however, only the sample containing the 5wt % catalyst showed significant presence of condensate. FTIR and GCMS studies show that the condensate obtained is an unsaturated fatty acid, is 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid, suitable for biofuel use. 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid is an unsaturated fatty acid with a molecular weight of 280.445 g/mol. Characterization of the sample demonstrates that functional group for the products from the three samples display a similar peak in the FTIR graph analysis at 1700 cm-1 and 3600 cm-1. The result obtained from GCMS shows that there are 16 peaks obtained from the sample. The compound with the highest peak area is 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid with a retention time of 9.941 and 24.65 peak areas. All these compounds are organic material and can be characterized as biofuel and biodiesel.

Keywords: biofuel, Microwave, Biodiesel, castor oil, thermal cracking

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25 Time Domain Dielectric Relaxation Microwave Spectroscopy

Authors: A. C. Kumbharkhane


Time domain dielectric relaxation microwave spectroscopy (TDRMS) is a term used to describe a technique of observing the time dependant response of a sample after application of time dependant electromagnetic field. A TDRMS probes the interaction of a macroscopic sample with a time dependent electrical field. The resulting complex permittivity spectrum, characterizes amplitude (voltage) and time scale of the charge-density fluctuations within the sample. These fluctuations may arise from the reorientation of the permanent dipole moments of individual molecules or from the rotation of dipolar moieties in flexible molecules, like polymers. The time scale of these fluctuations depends on the sample and its relative relaxation mechanism. Relaxation times range from some picoseconds in low viscosity liquids to hours in glasses, Therefore the TDRS technique covers an extensive dynamical process. The corresponding frequencies range from 10-4 Hz to 1012 Hz. This inherent ability to monitor the cooperative motion of molecular ensemble distinguishes dielectric relaxation from methods like NMR or Raman spectroscopy, which yield information on the motions of individual molecules. Recently, we have developed and established the TDR technique in laboratory that provides information regarding dielectric permittivity in the frequency range 10 MHz to 30 GHz. The TDR method involves the generation of step pulse with rise time of 20 pico-seconds in a coaxial line system and monitoring the change in pulse shape after reflection from the sample placed at the end of the coaxial line. There is a great interest to study the dielectric relaxation behaviour in liquid systems to understand the role of hydrogen bond in liquid system. The intermolecular interaction through hydrogen bonds in molecular liquids results in peculiar dynamical properties. The dynamics of hydrogen-bonded liquids have been studied. The theoretical model to explain the experimental results will be discussed.

Keywords: Microwave, relaxation time, time domain reflectometry (TDR), dielectric measurement

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24 Sulfamethoxazole Degradation by Conventional Fenton and Microwave-Assisted Fenton Reaction

Authors: Derradji Chebli, Abdallah Bouguettoucha, Zoubir Manaa, Amrane Abdeltif


Pharmaceutical products, such as sulfamethoxazole (SMX) are rejected in the environment at trace level by human and animals (ng/L to mg/L), in their original form or as byproducts. Antibiotics are toxic contaminants for the aquatic environment, owing to their adverse effects on the aquatic life and humans. Even at low concentrations, they can negatively impact biological water treatment leading to the proliferation of antibiotics-resistant pathogens. It is therefore of major importance to develop efficient methods to limit their presence in the aquatic environment. In this aim, advanced oxidation processes (AOP) appear relevant compared to other methods, since they are based on the production of highly reactive free radicals, and especially ●OH. The objective of this work was to evaluate the degradation of SMX by microwave-assisted Fenton reaction (MW/Fe/H2O2). Hydrogen peroxide and ferrous ions concentrations, as well as the microwave power were optimized. The results showed that the SMX degradation by MW/Fe/H2O2 followed a pseudo-first order kinetic. The treatment of 20 mg/L initial SMX by the Fenton reaction in the presence of microwave showed the positive impact of this latter owing to the higher degradation yields observed in a reduced reaction time if compared to the conventional Fenton reaction, less than 5 min for a total degradation. In addition, increasing microwave power increased the degradation kinetics. Irrespective of the application of microwave, the optimal pH for the Fenton reaction remained 3. Examination of the impact of the ionic strength showed that carbonate and sulfate anions increased the rate of SMX degradation.

Keywords: Antibiotic, Microwave, degradation, elimination, fenton, polluant

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23 Sulfamethaxozole (SMX) Removal by Microwave-Assisted Heterogenous Fenton Reaction Involving Synthetic Clay (LDHS)

Authors: Abdallah Bouguettoucha, Zoubir Manaa, Chebli Derradji, S. Nacef, A. Amrane


Antibiotics are major pollutants of wastewater not only due to their stability in biological systems, but also due to their impact on public health. Their degradation by means of hydroxyl radicals generated through the application of microwave in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and two solid catalysts, iron-based synthetic clay (LDHs) and goethite (FeOOH) have been examined. A drastic reduction of the degradation yield was observed above pH 4, and hence the optimal conditions were found to be a pH of 3, 0.1 g/L of clay, a somewhat low amount of H2O2 (1.74 mmol/L) and a microwave intensity of 850 W. It should be observed that to maintain an almost constant temperature, a cooling with cold water was always applied between two microwaves running; and hence the ratio between microwave heating time and cooling time was 1. The obtained SMX degradation was 98.8 ± 0.2% after 30 minutes of microwave treatment. It should be observed that in the absence of the solid catalyst, LDHs, no SMX degradation was observed. From this, the use of microwave in the presence of a solid source of iron (LDHs) appears to be an efficient solution for the treatment of wastewater containing SMX.

Keywords: Microwave, Antibiotics, Oxidation, degradation, fenton, heterogenous fenton

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22 Comparison of Pbs/Zns Quantum Dots Synthesis Methods

Authors: Mahbobeh Bozhmehrani, Afshin Farah Bakhsh


Nanoparticles with PbS core of 12 nm and shell of approximately 3 nm were synthesized at PbS:ZnS ratios of 1.01:0.1 using Merca Ptopropionic Acid as stabilizing agent. PbS/ZnS nanoparticles present a dramatically increase of Photoluminescence intensity, confirming the confinement of the PbS core by increasing the Quantum Yield from 0.63 to 0.92 by the addition of the ZnS shell. In this case, the synthesis by microwave method allows obtaining nanoparticles with enhanced optical characteristics than those of nanoparticles synthesized by colloidal method.

Keywords: Quantum Dots, Microwave, Pbs/Zns, colloidal method

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21 Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of RuO2-TiO2 Electrodes with Improved Chlorine and Oxygen Evolutions

Authors: Tran Le Luu, Jeyong Yoon


RuO2-TiO2 electrode now becomes popular in the chlor-alkali industry because of high electrocatalytic and stability with chlorine and oxygen evolutions. Using alternative green method for preparation RuO2-TiO2 electrode is necessary to reduce the cost, time. In addition, it is needed to increase the electrocatalyst performance, stability, and environmental compatibility. In this study, the Ti/RuO2-TiO2 electrodes were synthesized using sol-gel method under microwave irradiation and investigated for the anodic chlorine and oxygen evolutions. This method produced small size and uniform distribution of RuO2-TiO2 nanoparticles with mean diameter of 8-10 nm on the big crack size surface which contributes for the increasing of the outer active surface area. The chlorine, oxygen evolution efficiency and stability comparisons show considerably higher for microwave-assisted coated electrodes than for those obtained by the conventional heating method. The microwave-assisted sol-gel route has been identified as a novel and powerful method for quick synthesis of RuO2–TiO2 electrodes with excellent chlorine and oxygen evolution performances.

Keywords: Microwave, Chlorine, Oxygen Evolution, sol-gel, electro-catalyst, RuO2

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20 Investigation of Dry-Blanching and Freezing Methods of Fruits

Authors: Epameinondas Xanthakis, Erik Kaunisto, Alain Le-Bail, Lilia Ahrné


Fruits and vegetables are characterized as perishable food matrices due to their short shelf life as several deterioration mechanisms are being involved. Prior to the common preservation methods like freezing or canning, fruits and vegetables are being blanched in order to inactivate deteriorative enzymes. Both conventional blanching pretreatments and conventional freezing methods hide drawbacks behind their beneficial impacts on the preservation of those matrices. Conventional blanching methods may require longer processing times, leaching of minerals and nutrients due to the contact with the warm water which in turn leads to effluent production with large BOD. An important issue of freezing technologies is the size of the formed ice crystals which is also critical for the final quality of the frozen food as it can cause irreversible damage to the cellular structure and subsequently to degrade the texture and the colour of the product. Herein, the developed microwave blanching methodology and the results regarding quality aspects and enzyme inactivation will be presented. Moreover, heat transfer phenomena, mass balance, temperature distribution, and enzyme inactivation (such as Pectin Methyl Esterase and Ascorbic Acid Oxidase) of our microwave blanching approach will be evaluated based on measurements and computer modelling. The present work is part of the COLDμWAVE project which aims to the development of an innovative environmentally sustainable process for blanching and freezing of fruits and vegetables with improved textural and nutritional quality. In this context, COLDµWAVE will develop tailored equipment for MW blanching of vegetables that has very high energy efficiency and no water consumption. Furthermore, the next steps of this project regarding the development of innovative pathways in MW assisted freezing to improve the quality of frozen vegetables, by exploring in depth previous results acquired by the authors, will be presented. The application of MW assisted freezing process on fruits and vegetables it is expected to lead to improved quality characteristics compared to the conventional freezing. Acknowledgments: COLDμWAVE has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grand agreement No 660067.

Keywords: Microwave, freezing, Fruits, blanching, microwave blanching

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19 Comparison of Oven and Microwave Drying on Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Red Delicious and Golden Delicious Apples

Authors: Gulcin Yildiz, Gokcen Izli


Drying (dehydration) is the process of removing water from food in order to preserve the food. Drying is one of the oldest methods known for the preservation of agricultural products such as fruits and vegetables. Drying of agricultural products enhances their storage life, minimizes losses during storage, and save shipping and transportation costs. Apples are considered excellent candidates for drying. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of microwave and oven processing on the quality of selected apple products. Red delicious and golden delicious apples were washed, peeled, and sliced. Drying experiments were performed in an oven at 50, 75 and 100 °C and in a microwave at 140 W and 210 W. Quality attributes such as color, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of dried samples with different methods were compared with the fresh sample. A Minolta CR-300 Chroma Meter was used to examine color changes in the apples. Total phenolic content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The free radical scavenging activity of the extract was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). It was found that the phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of dried samples under all drying conditions were decreased compared to the fresh samples. The phenolic contents of microwave dried samples at 140 W and 210 W for both red and golden delicious apples were higher than those of the oven drying at 50, 75 and 100 °C. Similarly, the antioxidant activities of microwave dried samples at 140 W and 210 W were higher than those of the oven drying at 50, 75 and 100 °C for both types of apples. All color parameters (L*, a*, b*) were changed significantly depending on the drying methods and temperatures. The closest color values to the fresh sample were found for the microwave dried samples at 140 W. Microwave drying was proven to be more effective than oven drying.

Keywords: Microwave, Color, Antioxidant Capacity, total phenolic content, golden delicious, red delicious

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18 Food Waste Management in the Restaurant Industry

Authors: Andy Shaw, Vijayakumar Karunamoothei, Stephen Wylie, Al Shamma'A Ahmed


The main aim of this research is to investigate, analyse and provide solutions for the reduction of food waste in the restaurant industry. The amount of food waste that is sent to landfill by UK restaurants and food chains is considerably high, and also acts as an additional cost to the restaurants, as well as being a significant environmental issue. Food waste, for the most part, is disposed in landfill, but due to rising costs associated with waste disposal, it increases public concerns about the environmental issue. This makes conversion of food waste to energy an economic solution. The relevant properties, such as water content and calorific value, will vary considerably, depending on the particular type of food. This work, therefore, includes the collection and analysis of real data from restaurants on weekly basis. It will also investigate how the waste destined for landfill can be instead reused to produce fuels such as syngas or ethanol, or alternatively as fertilizer. The potential for syngas production will be tested using a microwave plasma reactor.

Keywords: fertilizer, Microwave, syngas, plasma reactor

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17 Optimizing Microwave Assisted Extraction of Anti-Diabetic Plant Tinospora cordifolia Used in Ayush System for Estimation of Berberine Using Taguchi L-9 Orthogonal Design

Authors: Munish Garg, Saurabh Satija


Present work reports an efficient extraction method using microwaves based solvent–sample duo-heating mechanism, for the extraction of an important anti-diabetic plant Tinospora cordifolia from AYUSH system for estimation of berberine content. The process is based on simultaneous heating of sample matrix and extracting solvent under microwave energy. Methanol was used as the extracting solvent, which has excellent berberine solubilizing power and warms up under microwave attributable to its great dispersal factor. Extraction conditions like time of irradition, microwave power, solute-solvent ratio and temperature were optimized using Taguchi design and berberine was quantified using high performance thin layer chromatography. The ranked optimized parameters were microwave power (rank 1), irradiation time (rank 2) and temperature (rank 3). This kind of extraction mechanism under dual heating provided choice of extraction parameters for better precision and higher yield with significant reduction in extraction time under optimum extraction conditions. This developed extraction protocol will lead to extract higher amounts of berberine which is a major anti-diabetic moiety in Tinospora cordifolia which can lead to development of cheaper formulations of the plant Tinospora cordifolia and can help in rapid prevention of diabetes in the world.

Keywords: Optimization, Microwave, Taguchi, berberine

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16 Impact of Microwave and Air Velocity on Drying Kinetics and Rehydration of Potato Slices

Authors: Caiyun Liu, A. Hernandez-Manas, N. Grimi, E. Vorobiev


Drying is one of the most used methods for food preservation, which extend shelf life of food and makes their transportation, storage and packaging easier and more economic. The commonly dried method is hot air drying. However, its disadvantages are low energy efficiency and long drying times. Because of the high temperature during the hot air drying, the undesirable changes in pigments, vitamins and flavoring agents occur which result in degradation of the quality parameters of the product. Drying process can also cause shrinkage, case hardening, dark color, browning, loss of nutrients and others. Recently, new processes were developed in order to avoid these problems. For example, the application of pulsed electric field provokes cell membrane permeabilisation, which increases the drying kinetics and moisture diffusion coefficient. Microwave drying technology has also several advantages over conventional hot air drying, such as higher drying rates and thermal efficiency, shorter drying time, significantly improved product quality and nutritional value. Rehydration kinetics of dried product is a very important characteristic of dried products. Current research has indicated that the rehydration ratio and the coefficient of rehydration are dependent on the processing conditions of drying. The present study compares the efficiency of two processes (1: room temperature air drying, 2: microwave/air drying) in terms of drying rate, product quality and rehydration ratio. In this work, potato slices (≈2.2g) with a thickness of 2 mm and diameter of 33mm were placed in the microwave chamber and dried. Drying kinetics and drying rates of different methods were determined. The process parameters included inlet air velocity (1 m/s, 1.5 m/s, 2 m/s) and microwave power (50 W, 100 W, 200 W and 250 W) were studied. The evolution of temperature during microwave drying was measured. The drying power had a strong effect on drying rate, and the microwave-air drying resulted in 93% decrease in the drying time when the air velocity was 2 m/s and the power of microwave was 250 W. Based on Lewis model, drying rate constants (kDR) were determined. It was observed an increase from kDR=0.0002 s-1 to kDR=0.0032 s-1 of air velocity of 2 m/s and microwave/air (at 2m/s and 250W) respectively. The effective moisture diffusivity was calculated by using Fick's law. The results show an increase of effective moisture diffusivity from 7.52×10-11 to 2.64×10-9 m2.s-1 for air velocity of 2 m/s and microwave/air (at 2m/s and 250W) respectively. The temperature of the potato slices increased for higher microwaves power, but decreased for higher air velocity. The rehydration ratio, defined as the weight of the the sample after rehydration per the weight of dried sample, was determined at different water temperatures (25℃, 50℃, 75℃). The rehydration ratio increased with the water temperature and reached its maximum at the following conditions: 200 W for the microwave power, 2 m/s for the air velocity and 75°C for the water temperature. The present study shows the interest of microwave drying for the food preservation.

Keywords: Microwave, Drying, potato, rehydration

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15 Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Dioscorea Deltoidea Callus Extract and Evaluation of Its Antimicrobial Activity

Authors: Mujeeb Mohd, Aqil Mohd, A. K. Najmi, Akhtar MMohd, Vasim Mohd


Dioscorea deltoidea belongs to the Dioscoreaceae family, is usually found in the north-western Himalayas and some other parts of the world up to an altitude of 1000–3000 m. D. deltoidea commonly known as yam and is an extensively used medicinal plant in the indigenous system of medicine. It has been reported to contain dioscine a steroidal glycoside in higher concentration. In the present investigation, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been synthesized by a simple, efficient, environmentally benevolent and economic microwave-assisted method. Callus culture of D. deltoidea was developed and maintained on Murashige and skooge basal medium supplemented with different combination and concentration of plant growth regulators. Aqueous extract of callus culture was used as the reducing and stabilizing agent. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The presence of a characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption band at 430 nm in UV–Vis reveals the reduction of silver metal ions into silver nanoparticles. Whereas FTIR analysis was performed to probe the possible functional group involved in the synthesis of AgNPs. Further extract and AgNPs were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against different pathogenic microorganisms.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Antimicrobial, Microwave, Silver, Dioscorea deltoidea

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14 Steam Reforming of Acetic Acid over Microwave-Synthesized Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 Supported Ni Catalysts

Authors: Thirasak Rirksomboon, Panumard Kaewmora, Vissanu Meeyoo


Due to the globally growing demands of petroleum fuel and fossil fuels, the scarcity or even depletion of fossil fuel sources could be inevitable. Alternatively, the utilization of renewable sources, such as biomass, has become attractive to the community. Biomass can be converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. In water phase of bio-oil, acetic acid which is one of its main components can be converted to hydrogen with high selectivity over effective catalysts in steam reforming process. Steam reforming of acetic acid as model compound has been intensively investigated for hydrogen production using various metal oxide supported nickel catalysts and yet they seem to be rapidly deactivated depending on the support utilized. A catalyst support such as Ce1-xZrxO2 mixed oxide was proposed for alleviating this problem with the anticipation of enhancing hydrogen yield. However, catalyst preparation methods play a significant role in catalytic activity and performance of the catalysts. In this work, Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 mixed oxide solid solution support was prepared by urea hydrolysis using microwave as heat source. After that nickel metal was incorporated at 15 wt% by incipient wetness impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by several techniques including BET, XRD, H2-TPR, XRF, SEM, and TEM as well as tested for the steam reforming of acetic acid at various operating conditions. Preliminary results showed that a hydrogen yield of ca. 32% with a relatively high acetic conversion was attained at 650°C.

Keywords: Microwave, Steam reforming, Nickel, zirconia, ceria, acetic acid

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13 Preparation of 3D Graphene with Microwave-Hydrothermal Assistance for Ultrahigh Performance of Capacitive Deionization

Authors: Wahid Dianbudiyanto, Shou Heng Liu


Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a prospective desalination technology, which can be operated at low voltage, low temperature and potentially consume low energy for brackish water desalination. To obtain the optimal electrosorption, an electrode should possess high electrical conductivity, large surface area, good wettability, highly mesoporous structure which provide efficient pathways for ion distribution. In this work, a 3D structure graphene was fabricated using hydrothermal method which is assisted with microwave treatments to form 3D rGO (3DG-Mw-Hyd). The prepared samples have excellent specific capacitance (189.2 F / g) and ultrahigh electrosorption capacity (30 mg/g) for the desalination of 500 mg / l NaCl. These results are superior to the electrode which is fabricated only using the hydrothermal method without microwave assistance (3DG-Hyd) and traditional reflux method. Physical characterizations such as SEM, TEM, and XRD have been used to study the property difference of the materials. The preliminary results show that 3DG-Mw-Hyd is one of the promising electrodes for CDI in the practical applications.

Keywords: Graphene, Microwave, Hydrothermal, capacitive deionization, electrosorption

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12 Cr³⁺/SiO₄⁴⁻ Codoped Hydroxyapatite Nanorods: Fabrication and Microstructure Analysis

Authors: Ammar Z. Alshemary, Zafer Evis


In this study, nanorods of Cr³⁺/SiO₄⁴⁻ codoped hydroxyapatite (Cr³⁺/SiO₄⁴⁻-HA) were synthesized successfully and rapidly through microwave irradiation technique, using (Ca(NO₃)₂•4H₂O), ((NH₄)₂HPO₄), (SiC₈H₂₀O₄) and (Cr(NO₃)₃.9H₂O) as source materials for Ca²⁺, PO₄³⁻, SiO₄⁴⁻ and Cr³⁺ ions, respectively. The impact of dopants on the phase formation and microstructure of the powders were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrum analysis (FT-IR) and Field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) techniques. XRD analysis showed that with an incorporation of Cr³⁺/SiO₄⁴⁻ ions into HA structure resulted in peak broadening and reduced peak height due to the amorphous nature and reduced crystallinity of the resulting HA powder. FTIR spectroscopy revealed the existence of the different vibrational modes matching to phosphates and hydroxyl groups. The FESEM analysis showed a change in the crystal shape from spherical to rod shaped particles upon Cr³⁺ doping into the crystal structure. Acknowledgments: This study was supported by Karabük University (Project no. KBÜBAP-17-YD-144). The authors would like to thank for support.

Keywords: Characterization, Microstructure, Microwave, Nano-Hydroxyapatite, dopants

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11 Produced Gas Conversion of Microwave Carbon Receptor Reforming

Authors: Young Nam Chun, Mun Sup Lim


Carbon dioxide and methane, the major components of biomass pyrolysis/gasification gas and biogas, top the list of substances that cause climate change, but they are also among the most important renewable energy sources in modern society. The purpose of this study is to convert carbon dioxide and methane into high-quality energy using char and commercial activated carbon obtained from biomass pyrolysis as a microwave receptor. The methane reforming process produces hydrogen and carbon. This carbon is deposited in the pores of the microwave receptor and lowers catalytic activity, thereby reducing the methane conversion rate. The deposited carbon was removed by carbon gasification due to the supply of carbon dioxide, which solved the problem of microwave receptor inactivity. In particular, the conversion rate remained stable at over 90% when the ratio of carbon dioxide to methane was 1:1. When the reforming results of carbon dioxide and methane were compared after fabricating nickel and iron catalysts using commercial activated carbon as a carrier, the conversion rate was higher in the iron catalyst than in the nickel catalyst and when no catalyst was used. 

Keywords: Microwave, Greenhouse gas, Catalyst, gas reforming, microwave receptor

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10 Synthesis and Characterization of CaZrTi2O7 from Tartrate Precursor Employing Microwave Heating Technique

Authors: B. M. Patil, S. R. Dharwadkar


Zirconolite (CaZrTi2O7) is one of the three major phases in the synthetic ceramic 'SYNROC' which is used for immobilization of high-level nuclear waste and also acts as photocatalytic and photophysical properties. In the present work the nanocrystalline CaZrTi2O7 was synthesized from Calcium Zirconyl Titanate tartrate precursor (CZTT) employing two different heating techniques such as Conventional heating (Muffle furnace) and Microwave heating (Microwave Oven). Thermal decomposition of the CZTT precursors in air yielded nanocrystalline CaZrTi2O7 powder as the end product. The products obtained by annealing the CZTT precursor using both heating method were characterized using simultaneous TG-DTA, FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM, NTA and thermodilatometric study. The physical characteristics such as crystallinity, morphology and particle size of the product obtained by heating the CZTT precursor at the different temperatures in a Muffle furnace and Microwave oven were found to be significantly different. The microwave heating technique considerably lowered the synthesis temperature of CaZrTi2O7. The influence of microwave heating was more pronounced as compared to Muffle furnace heating. The details of the synthesis of CaZrTi2O7 from CZTT precursor are discussed.

Keywords: Microwave, CZTT, CaZrTi2O7, SYNROC, zirconolite

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