Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

microwave irradiation Related Abstracts

4 Environmentally Benign Synthesis of 2-Pyrazolines and Cyclohexenones Incorporating Naphthalene Moiety and Their Antimicrobial Evaluation

Authors: Al-Bogami Abdullah Saad


We reported the environmental benign synthesis of chalcones, 2-pyrazolines and cyclohexanones under microwave irradiation. Chalcones were obtained by the condensation of each of 2-hydroxyacetophenone derivatives with α-naphthaldehyde under microwave irradiation. The condensation reactions of each of synthesized chalcones with phenyl hydrazine under microwave irradiation in the presence of dry acetic acid as a cyclizing agent gave 2-pyrazolines. Also, the new cyclohexenone derivatives, valuable intermediates to synthesize fused heterocycles, have been prepared by the cyclocondensation of each of hydroxychalcones with ethyl acetoacetate. The structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated by Infrared (IR) spectrometry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Mass Spectrometry(MS) and elmental analysis. The results indicate that unlike classical heating, microwave irradiation results in higher yields with shorter and cleaner reactions. The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida Albicans and Aspergillus niger. We clarified the effects of different substituents in the tested compounds on the obtaind antibacterial activities and antifungal activities.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, pyrazoline, microwave irradiation, α-Naphthaldehyde, cyclohexenone

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3 Microwave Assisted Solvent-free Catalytic Transesterification of Glycerol to Glycerol Carbonate

Authors: Wai Keng Teng, Mohamed Kheireddine Aroua, Gek Cheng Ngoh, Rozita Yusoff


As a by-product of the biodiesel industries, glycerol has been vastly generated which surpasses the market demand. It is imperative to develop an efficient glycerol valorization processes in minimizing the net energy requirement and intensifying the biodiesel production. In this study, base-catalyzed transesterification of glycerol with dimethyl carbonate using microwave irradiation as heating method to produce glycerol carbonate was conducted by varing grades of glycerol i.e. 70%, 86% and 99% purity that obtained from biodiesel plant. Metal oxide catalysts were used with varying operating parameters including reaction time, DMC/glycerol molar ratio, catalyst weight %, temperature and stirring speed. From the study on the effect of different operating parameters; it was found that the type of catalyst used has the most significant effect on the transesterification reaction. Admist the metal oxide catalysts examined, CaO gave the best performance. This study indicates the feasibility of producing glycerol carbonate using different grade of glycerol in both conventional thermal activation and microwave irradiation with CaO as catalyst. Microwave assisted transesterification (MAT) of glycerol into glycerol carbonate has demostrated itself as an energy efficient route by achieving 94.3% yield of GC at 65°C, 5 minutes reaction time, 1 wt% CaO and DMC/glycerol molar ratio of 2. The advantages of MAT transesterification route has made the direct utilization of bioglycerol from biodiesel production without the need of purification. This has marked a more economical and less-energy intensive glycerol carbonate synthesis route.

Keywords: glycerol, microwave irradiation, base-catalyzed transesterification, glycerol carbonate

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2 Synthesis of Polyvinyl Alcohol Encapsulated Ag Nanoparticle Film by Microwave Irradiation for Reduction of P-Nitrophenol

Authors: S. Sengupta, Supriya, J. K. Basu


Silver nanoparticles have caught a lot of attention because of its unique physical and chemical properties. Silver nanoparticles embedded in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/Ag) free-standing film have been prepared by microwave irradiation in few minutes. PVA performed as a reducing agent, stabilizing agents as well as support for silver nanoparticles. UV-Vis spectrometry, scanning transmission electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques affirmed the reduction of silver ion to silver nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. Effect of irradiation time, the concentration of PVA and concentration of silver precursor on the synthesis of silver nanoparticle has been studied. Particles size of silver nanoparticles decreases with increase in irradiation time. Concentration of silver nanoparticles increases with increase in concentration of silver precursor. Good dispersion of silver nanoparticles in the film has been confirmed by TEM analysis. Particle size of silver nanoparticle has been found to be in the range of 2-10nm. Catalytic property of prepared silver nanoparticles as a heterogeneous catalyst has been studied in the reduction of p-Nitrophenol (a water pollutant) with >98% conversion. From the experimental results, it can be concluded that PVA encapsulated Ag nanoparticles film as a catalyst shows better efficiency and reusability in the reduction of p-Nitrophenol.

Keywords: Silver Nanoparticles, biopolymer, microwave irradiation, water pollutant

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1 Synthesis of Brominated Pyrazoline Derived from Chalcone and Its Antimicrobial Activity

Authors: Annisa I. Reza, Jasril Karim


Despite the availability of antimicrobial agents in the market, the urge to study and find other chemical compounds with the better potential of replacing them still tempting the scientists. This experiment is in the aim to explore a novel brominated pyrazoline ring which was made from intermediate chalcone as a candidate to answer the challenge. Using green chemistry approach by microwave irradiation from domestic oven, both known chalcone and 5-(2-bromophenyl)-3-(naphthalen-1-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole were successfully synthesized. Pyrazoline’s structure was confirmed based on UV, IR, ¹H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR and MS and together with its intermediate were examined against some microorganisms (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans) under agar diffusion method. The results collected during experiment revealed that both tested compounds showed weak activity on B.subtilis which was proven by a zone of inhibitions, while there was no zone of inhibitions observed in E. coli and C. albicans. This is suggested because of the bulky structure around pyrazoline could not provide the main ring to interact with microbial’s cell wall. The study shows that the proposed compound had the low capability as a promising antimicrobial agent, yet it still enriches the information about pyrazoline ring.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, pyrazoline, chalcone, microwave irradiation

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