Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Microwave Imaging Related Abstracts

6 An Insight into Early Stage Detection of Malignant Tumor by Microwave Imaging

Authors: Xu Jiadong, Muhammad Hassan Khalil


Detection of malignant tumor inside the breast of women is a challenging field for the researchers. MWI (Microwave imaging) for breast cancer diagnosis has been of interest for last two decades, newly it suggested for finding cancerous tissues of women breast. A simple and basic idea of the mathematical modeling is used throughout this paper for imaging of malignant tumor. In this paper, the authors explained inverse scattering method in the microwave imaging and also present some simulation results.

Keywords: Tumor, Tomography, Microwave Imaging, breast cancer detection

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5 Microwave Tomography: The Analytical Treatment for Detecting Malignant Tumor Inside Human Body

Authors: Xu Jiadong, Muhammad Hassan Khalil


Early detection through screening is the best tool short of a perfect treatment against the malignant tumor inside the breast of a woman. By detecting cancer in its early stages, it can be recognized and treated before it has the opportunity to spread and change into potentially dangerous. Microwave tomography is a new imaging method based on contrast in dielectric properties of materials. The mathematical theory of microwave tomography involves solving an inverse problem for Maxwell’s equations. In this paper, we present designed antenna for breast cancer detection, which will use in microwave tomography configuration.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Inverse Scattering, Microwave Imaging, malignant tumor detection

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4 Durable Phantom Production Identical to Breast Tissue for Use in Breast Cancer Detection Research Studies

Authors: Hayrettin Eroglu, Adem Kara


Recently there has been significant attention given to imaging of the biological tissues via microwave imaging techniques. In this study, a phantom for the test and calibration of Microwave imaging used in detecting unhealthy breast structure or tumors was produced by using sol gel method. The liquid and gel phantoms being used nowadays are not durable due to evaporation and their organic ingredients, hence a new design was proposed. This phantom was fabricated from materials that were widely available (water, salt, gelatin, and glycerol) and was easy to make. This phantom was aimed to be better from the ones already proposed in the literature in terms of its durability and stability. S Parameters of phantom was measured with 1-18 GHz Probe Kit and permittivity was calculated via Debye method in “85070” commercial software. One, three, and five-week measurements were taken for this phantom. Finally, it was verified that measurement results were very close to the real biological tissue measurement results.

Keywords: Cancer, Microwave Imaging, phantom, breast tissue

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3 Microwave Imaging by Application of Information Theory Criteria in MUSIC Algorithm

Authors: Majid Pourahmadi


The performance of time-reversal MUSIC algorithm will be dramatically degrades in presence of strong noise and multiple scattering (i.e. when scatterers are close to each other). This is due to error in determining the number of scatterers. The present paper provides a new approach to alleviate such a problem using an information theoretic criterion referred as minimum description length (MDL). The merits of the novel approach are confirmed by the numerical examples. The results indicate the time-reversal MUSIC yields accurate estimate of the target locations with considerable noise and multiple scattering in the received signals.

Keywords: Microwave Imaging, time reversal, MUSIC algorithm, minimum description length (MDL)

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2 Inverse Scattering of Two-Dimensional Objects Using an Enhancement Method

Authors: A.R. Eskandari, M.R. Eskandari


A 2D complete identification algorithm for dielectric and multiple objects immersed in air is presented. The employed technique consists of initially retrieving the shape and position of the scattering object using a linear sampling method and then determining the electric permittivity and conductivity of the scatterer using adjoint sensitivity analysis. This inversion algorithm results in high computational speed and efficiency, and it can be generalized for any scatterer structure. Also, this method is robust with respect to noise. The numerical results clearly show that this hybrid approach provides accurate reconstructions of various objects.

Keywords: Inverse Scattering, Microwave Imaging, two-dimensional objects, Linear Sampling Method (LSM)

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1 Inverse Problem Method for Microwave Intrabody Medical Imaging

Authors: J. Chamorro-Servent, S. Tassani, J. Romeu, O. Camara, M. A. Gonzalez-Ballester, L. J. Roca


Electromagnetic and microwave imaging (MWI) have been used in medical imaging in the last years, being the most common applications of breast cancer and stroke detection or monitoring. In those applications, the subject or zone to observe is surrounded by a number of antennas, and the Nyquist criterium can be satisfied. Additionally, the space between the antennas (transmitting and receiving the electromagnetic fields) and the zone to study can be prepared in a homogeneous scenario. However, this may differ in other cases as could be intracardiac catheters, stomach monitoring devices, pelvic organ systems, liver ablation monitoring devices, or uterine fibroids’ ablation systems. In this work, we analyzed different MWI algorithms to find the most suitable method for dealing with an intrabody scenario. Due to the space limitations usually confronted on those applications, the device would have a cylindrical configuration of a maximum of eight transmitters and eight receiver antennas. This together with the positioning of the supposed device inside a body tract impose additional constraints in order to choose a reconstruction method; for instance, it inhabitants the use of well-known algorithms such as filtered backpropagation for diffraction tomography (due to the unusual configuration with probes enclosed by the imaging region). Finally, the difficulty of simulating a realistic non-homogeneous background inside the body (due to the incomplete knowledge of the dielectric properties of other tissues between the antennas’ position and the zone to observe), also prevents the use of Born and Rytov algorithms due to their limitations with a heterogeneous background. Instead, we decided to use a time-reversed algorithm (mostly used in geophysics) due to its characteristics of ignoring heterogeneities in the background medium, and of focusing its generated field onto the scatters. Therefore, a 2D time-reversed finite difference time domain was developed based on the time-reversed approach for microwave breast cancer detection. Simultaneously an in-silico testbed was also developed to compare ground-truth dielectric properties with corresponding microwave imaging reconstruction. Forward and inverse problems were computed varying: the frequency used related to a small zone to observe (7, 7.5 and 8 GHz); a small polyp diameter (5, 7 and 10 mm); two polyp positions with respect to the closest antenna (aligned or disaligned); and the (transmitters-to-receivers) antenna combination used for the reconstruction (1-1, 8-1, 8-8 or 8-3). Results indicate that when using the existent time-reversed method for breast cancer here for the different combinations of transmitters and receivers, we found false positives due to the high degrees of freedom and unusual configuration (and the possible violation of Nyquist criterium). Those false positives founded in 8-1 and 8-8 combinations, highly reduced with the 1-1 and 8-3 combination, being the 8-3 configuration de most suitable (three neighboring receivers at each time). The 8-3 configuration creates a region-of-interest reduced problem, decreasing the ill-posedness of the inverse problem. To conclude, the proposed algorithm solves the main limitations of the described intrabody application, successfully detecting the angular position of targets inside the body tract.

Keywords: Medical Imaging, Microwave Imaging, FDTD, time-reversed

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