Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

microtremor Related Abstracts

5 Estimation of Seismic Ground Motion and Shaking Parameters Based on Microtremor Measurements at Palu City, Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

Authors: P. S. Thein, S. Pramumijoyo, K. S. Brotopuspito, J. Kiyono, W. Wilopo, A. Furukawa, A. Setianto


In this study, we estimated the seismic ground motion parameters based on microtremor measurements at Palu City. Several earthquakes have struck along the Palu-Koro Fault during recent years. The USGS epicenter, magnitude Mw 6.3 event that occurred on January 23, 2005 caused several casualties. We conducted a microtremor survey to estimate the strong ground motion distribution during the earthquake. From this survey we produced a map of the peak ground acceleration, velocity, seismic vulnerability index and ground shear strain maps in Palu City. We performed single observations of microtremor at 151 sites in Palu City. We also conducted 8-site microtremors array investigation to gain a representative determination of the soil condition of subsurface structures in Palu City. From the array observations, Palu City corresponds to relatively soil condition with Vs ≤ 300 m/s, the predominant periods due to horizontal vertical ratios (HVSRs) are in the range of 0.4 to 1.8 s and the frequency are in the range of 0.7 to 3.3 Hz. Strong ground motions of the Palu area were predicted based on the empirical stochastic green’s function method. Peak ground acceleration and velocity becomes more than 400 gal and 30 kine in some areas, which causes severe damage for buildings in high probability. Microtremor survey results showed that in hilly areas had low seismic vulnerability index and ground shear strain, whereas in coastal alluvium was composed of material having a high seismic vulnerability and ground shear strain indication.

Keywords: Palu-Koro fault, microtremor, peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, seismic vulnerability index

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4 On the Monitoring of Structures and Soils by Tromograph

Authors: Magarò Floriana, Zinno Raffaele


Since 2009, with the coming into force of the January 14, 2008 Ministerial Decree "New technical standards for construction", and the explanatory ministerial circular N°.617 of February 2, 2009, the question of seismic hazard and the design of seismic-resistant structures in Italy has acquired increasing importance. One of the most discussed aspects in recent Italian and international scientific literature concerns the dynamic interaction between land and structure, and the effects which dynamic coupling may have on individual buildings. In effect, from systems dynamics, it is well known that resonance can have catastrophic effects on a stimulated system, leading to a response that is not compatible with the previsions in the design phase. The method used in this study to estimate the frequency of oscillation of the structure is as follows: the analysis of HVSR (Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio) relations. This allows for evaluation of very simple oscillation frequencies for land and structures. The tool used for data acquisition is an experimental digital tromograph. This is an engineered development of the experimental Languamply RE 4500 tromograph, equipped with an engineered amplification circuit and improved electronically using extremely small electronic components (size of each individual amplifier 16 x 26 mm). This tromograph is a modular system, completely "free" and "open", designed to interface Windows, Linux, OSX and Android with the outside world. It an amplifier designed to carry out microtremor measurements, yet which will also be useful for seismological and seismic measurements in general. The development of single amplifiers of small dimension allows for a very clean signal since being able to position it a few centimetres from the geophone eliminates cable “antenna” phenomena, which is a necessary characteristic in seeking to have signals which are clean at the very low voltages to be measured.

Keywords: Structural Engineering, microtremor, HVSR, tromograph

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3 Specific Earthquake Ground Motion Levels That Would Affect Medium-To-High Rise Buildings

Authors: Rhommel Grutas, Ishmael Narag, Harley Lacbawan


Construction of high-rise buildings is a means to address the increasing population in Metro Manila, Philippines. The existence of the Valley Fault System within the metropolis and other nearby active faults poses threats to a densely populated city. The distant, shallow and large magnitude earthquakes have the potential to generate slow and long-period vibrations that would affect medium-to-high rise buildings. Heavy damage and building collapse are consequences of prolonged shaking of the structure. If the ground and the building have almost the same period, there would be a resonance effect which would cause the prolonged shaking of the building. Microzoning the long-period ground response would aid in the seismic design of medium to high-rise structures. The shear-wave velocity structure of the subsurface is an important parameter in order to evaluate ground response. Borehole drilling is one of the conventional methods of determining shear-wave velocity structure however, it is an expensive approach. As an alternative geophysical exploration, microtremor array measurements can be used to infer the structure of the subsurface. Microtremor array measurement system was used to survey fifty sites around Metro Manila including some municipalities of Rizal and Cavite. Measurements were carried out during the day under good weather conditions. The team was composed of six persons for the deployment and simultaneous recording of the microtremor array sensors. The instruments were laid down on the ground away from sewage systems and leveled using the adjustment legs and bubble level. A total of four sensors were deployed for each site, three at the vertices of an equilateral triangle with one sensor at the centre. The circular arrays were set up with a maximum side length of approximately four kilometers and the shortest side length for the smallest array is approximately at 700 meters. Each recording lasted twenty to sixty minutes. From the recorded data, f-k analysis was applied to obtain phase velocity curves. Inversion technique is applied to construct the shear-wave velocity structure. This project provided a microzonation map of the metropolis and a profile showing the long-period response of the deep sedimentary basin underlying Metro Manila which would be suitable for local administrators in their land use planning and earthquake resistant design of medium to high-rise buildings.

Keywords: Earthquake, Ground Motion, Seismic Microzonation, microtremor

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2 Seismic Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Buildings in Myanmar, Based on Microtremor Measurement

Authors: Khaing Su Su Than, Hibino Yo


Seismic evaluation is needed upon the buildings in Myanmar. Microtremor measurement was conducted in the main cities, Mandalay and Yangon. In order to evaluate the seismic properties of buildings currently under construction, seismic information was gathered for six buildings in Yangon city and four buildings in Mandalay city. The investigated buildings vary from 12m-80 m in height, and mostly public residence structures. The predominant period obtained from frequency results of the investigated buildings were given by horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) for each building. The fundamental period results have been calculated in the form of Fourier amplitude spectra of translation along with the main structure. Based on that, the height (H)-period(T) relationship was observed as T=0.012H-0.017H in the buildings of Yangon and, observed the relationship as T=0.014H-0.019H in the buildings of Mandalay. The results showed that the relationship between height and natural period was slightly under the relationship T=0.02H that is used for Japanese reinforced concrete buildings, which indicated that the results depend on the properties and characteristics of materials used.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete Structures, microtremor, HVSR, height-period relationship, Myanmar earthquake

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1 Liquefaction Potential Assessment Using Screw Driving Testing and Microtremor Data: A Case Study in the Philippines

Authors: Arturo Daag


The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) is enhancing its liquefaction hazard map towards a detailed probabilistic approach using SDS and geophysical data. Target sites for liquefaction assessment are public schools in Metro Manila. Since target sites are in highly urbanized-setting, the objective of the project is to conduct both non-destructive geotechnical studies using Screw Driving Testing (SDFS) combined with geophysical data such as refraction microtremor array (ReMi), 3 component microtremor Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR), and ground penetrating RADAR (GPR). Initial test data was conducted in liquefaction impacted areas from the Mw 6.1 earthquake in Central Luzon last April 22, 2019 Province of Pampanga. Numerous accounts of liquefaction events were documented areas underlain by quaternary alluvium and mostly covered by recent lahar deposits. SDS estimated values showed a good correlation to actual SPT values obtained from available borehole data. Thus, confirming that SDS can be an alternative tool for liquefaction assessment and more efficient in terms of cost and time compared to SPT and CPT. Conducting borehole may limit its access in highly urbanized areas. In order to extend or extrapolate the SPT borehole data, non-destructive geophysical equipment was used. A 3-component microtremor obtains a subsurface velocity model in 1-D seismic shear wave velocity of the upper 30 meters of the profile (Vs30). For the ReMi, 12 geophone array with 6 to 8-meter spacing surveys were conducted. Microtremor data were computed through the Factor of Safety, which is the quotient of Cyclic Resistance Ratio (CRR) and Cyclic Stress Ratio (CSR). Complementary GPR was used to study the subsurface structure and used to inferred subsurface structures and groundwater conditions.

Keywords: Liquefaction, microtremor, ground penetrating radar, screw drive testing

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